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  • Sarada script (writing system)

    Sarada script, writing system used for the Kashmiri language by the educated Hindu minority in Kashmir and the surrounding valleys. It is taught in the Hindu schools there but is not used in printing books. Originating in the 8th century ad, Sarada descended from the Gupta script of North India,

  • Saradamani Mukhopadhyaya (Hindu religious teacher)

    Sarada Devi, Hindu religious teacher who was the wife and spiritual consort of the Indian saint Ramakrishna. At the age of five Saradamani was wed to Ramakrishna in an arranged marriage. (Because Ramakrishna had taken a vow of celibacy, the marriage was never consummated.) When she was 16 years

  • Saradatilaka (Hindu Tantra)

    Hinduism: Shakta Tantras: …which discusses ritual; and the Sharadatilaka (“Beauty Mark of the Goddess Sharada”) of Lakshmanadeshika (11th century), which focuses almost exclusively on magic. The goddess cults eventually centred around Durga, the consort of Shiva, in her fiercer aspect.

  • Sarafina! (musical by Ngema)

    Mbongeni Ngema: …international triumph with the musical Sarafina! (1987). The title character is a black teenager who at first wants to become a superstar. Instead, inspired by a teacher, she becomes a revolutionary in the 1976 student uprisings in Soweto. Ngema and Hugh Masekela wrote the score, which features mbaqanga, the fusion…

  • Saragat, Giuseppe (president of Italy)

    Giuseppe Saragat, statesman and founder of the Socialist Party of Italian Workers (PSLI), who held many ministerial posts from 1944 to 1964, when he became president of the Italian Republic (1964–71). A University of Turin graduate in economics and commerce, Saragat joined the Socialist Party in

  • Saragossa (Spain)

    Zaragoza, city, capital of Zaragoza provincia (province), in central Aragon comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northeastern Spain. It lies on the south bank of the Ebro River (there bridged). Toward the end of the 1st century bc, the Celtiberian town of Salduba at the site was taken by the

  • Saragossa (province, Spain)

    Zaragoza, provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Aragon, northeastern Spain. Together with the provinces of Huesca and Teruel, it formed the old kingdom of Aragon. It extends north and south of the middle course of the Ebro River; it reaches the foot of the

  • Saragossa, Treaty of (Spain-Portugal [1529])

    history of Europe: Discovery of the New World: The Treaties of Tordesillas and Saragossa in 1494 and 1529 defined the limits of westward Spanish exploration and the eastern ventures of Portugal. The two states acting as the vanguard of the expansion of Europe had thus divided the newly discovered sea lanes of the world between them.

  • Sarah (Jewish legend)

    Tobit: …Tobit’s story is that of Sarah, daughter of Tobit’s closest relative, whose seven successive husbands were each killed by a demon on their wedding night. When Tobit and Sarah pray to God for deliverance, God sends the angel Raphael to act as intercessor. Tobit regains his sight, and Sarah marries…

  • Sarah (chimpanzee)

    animal learning: Insight and reasoning: …chimpanzee, a mature female called Sarah, was tested by David Premack and his colleagues on a series of analogical reasoning tasks. Sarah previously had been extensively trained in solving matching-to-sample discriminations, to the point where she could use two plastic tokens, one meaning same, which she would place between any…

  • Sarah (biblical figure)

    Sarah, in the Old Testament, wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac. Sarah was childless until she was 90 years old. God promised Abraham that she would be “a mother of nations” (Genesis 17:16) and that she would conceive and bear a son, but Sarah did not believe. Isaac, born to Sarah and Abraham in

  • Sarah and Son (film by Arzner [1930])

    Dorothy Arzner: Films of the 1930s and ’40s: She began the decade with Sarah and Son (1930), a drama that featured Ruth Chatterton as a young wife who is abandoned by her abusive husband after he sells their young son to a wealthy couple; she goes on to become an opera star and, with the help of an…

  • Sarah Island (island, Tasmania, Australia)

    Macquarie Harbour: This settlement, centring on Sarah (Settlement) Island, lasted until 1833, when the difficulty of supply forced its abandonment. Deserted for more than 40 years, the harbour later saw activity with gold mining in the King valley and timber cutting in the Gordon. Sarah Island and the outlying Isle of…

  • Sarah Lawrence College (college, Bronxville, New York, United States)

    Sarah Lawrence College, Private liberal arts college in Bronxville, N.Y. It was founded as a women’s college in 1926 and named for the wife of its founding donor, William V. Lawrence. It became coeducational in 1968. Contemporary programs emphasize creative and performing arts as components of a

  • Sarah T.—Portrait of a Teenage Alcoholic (television film by Donner [1975])

    Richard Donner: Early work: …began directing made-for-television films, including Sarah T.—Portrait of a Teenage Alcoholic (1975), which starred Linda Blair in the title role.

  • Sarah Thornhill (novel by Grenville)

    Kate Grenville: Sarah Thornhill (2011), a sequel to The Secret River, follows the youngest child of William. Grenville also wrote such nonfiction books as Searching for the Secret River (2006) and One Life: My Mother’s Story (2015).

  • Sarah, Jabal (paleovalley, Saudi Arabia)

    Silurian Period: Effects of Late Ordovician glaciation: …sheet in Saudi Arabia, the Jabal Sarah paleovalley was deeply cut into by glacial outwash streams eroding through Ordovician shales to a depth of 275 metres (900 feet). Ordovician-Silurian paleovalleys in the Middle East show much more topographic relief than their counterparts in Laurentia and Baltica away from the ice…

  • Sarai (historical region, Asia)

    Russia: Tatar rule: …Golden Horde, the khans of Sarai, who tended to reflect the interests of the Volga tribes, were challenged by the tribal princes of the west, whose control of the Danube, Bug, and Dnieper routes and of the access to Crimea gave them considerable political and economic power. As early as…

  • Sarai (biblical figure)

    Sarah, in the Old Testament, wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac. Sarah was childless until she was 90 years old. God promised Abraham that she would be “a mother of nations” (Genesis 17:16) and that she would conceive and bear a son, but Sarah did not believe. Isaac, born to Sarah and Abraham in

  • Sarai Khola (archaeological site, Pakistan)

    India: Neolithic agriculture in the Indus valley and Baluchistan: For example, at Sarai Khola (near the ruins of Taxila in the Pakistan Punjab) the earliest occupation dates from the end of the 4th millennium and clearly represents a tradition quite distinct from that of contemporary Sind or Balochistan, with ground stone axes and plain burnished red-brown pottery.…

  • Saraikela (India)

    Saraikela, town, northern Jharkhand state, northeastern India. It lies on the Kharkai River about 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Jamshedpur. Saraikela was the capital of a former princely state that was founded by Bikram Singh of the Porahat Raj family in the 17th century. It was a sanad (patent, or

  • Saraiki language

    Siraiki language, Indo-Aryan language spoken in Pakistan. The Siraiki-speaking region spreads across the southwestern districts of Punjab province, extending into adjacent regions of the neighbouring provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. There were probably at least 20 million

  • Sarajevo (national capital, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Sarajevo, capital and cultural centre of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies in the narrow valley of the Miljacka River at the foot of Mount Trebevi?. The city retains a strong Muslim character, having many mosques, wooden houses with ornate interiors, and the ancient Turkish marketplace (the

  • Sarajevo 1984 Olympic Winter Games

    Sarajevo 1984 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Sarajevo, Yugos., that took place Feb. 8–19, 1984. The Sarajevo Games were the 14th occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. The awarding of the 14th Winter Olympics to Sarajevo (now in Bosnia and Herzegovina) caught many by surprise,

  • Sarakenoi (people)

    Saracen, in the Middle Ages, any person—Arab, Turk, or other—who professed the religion of Islām. Earlier in the Roman world, there had been references to Saracens (Greek: Sarakenoi) by late classical authors in the first three centuries ad, the term being then applied to an Arab tribe living in

  • Sarakhsī, as- (Islamic author)

    Islamic arts: The Umayyad and ?Abbāsid dynasties: classical Islamic music: …did others such as al-Sarakhsī, his contemporary Thābit ibn Qurrah, and Avicenna’s pupil Ibn Zaylā. The last important theorist to emerge during the ?Abbāsid period was ?afī al-Dīn, who codified the elements of the modal practice as it was then known into a highly sophisticated system. His achievement became…

  • Sarakka (Scandinavian deity)

    Madderakka: …by three of her daughters—Sarakka, the cleaving woman; Uksakka, the door woman; and Juksakka, the bow woman—who watch over the development of the child from conception through early childhood. Madderakka was believed to receive the soul of a child from Veralden-radien, the world ruler deity, and to give it a…

  • Sarakole (people)

    Soninke, a people located in Senegal near Bakel on the Sénégal River and in neighbouring areas of West Africa. They speak a Mande language of the Niger-Congo family. Some Senegalese Soninke have migrated to Dakar, but the population in the Bakel area remain farmers whose chief crop is millet. The

  • Saralegui, Cristina (Cuban American media personality and entrepreneur)

    Cristina Saralegui, Cuban American media personality, entrepreneur, and host and executive producer of El Show de Cristina (“The Cristina Show”; 1989–2010), a popular Spanish-language television talk show. Saralegui was born to a family with a long and successful history in the publishing business.

  • Saram-?i Ade?l (work by Yi Muny?l)

    Yi Muny?l: In Saram-?i Ade?l (1979; Son of Man), he explored numerous Western and East Asian theologies in the course of tracing a young man’s determined quest for transcendence. Ch?lm?n nal ?i ch’osang (1981; A Portrait of My Youth), a trilogy of novellas, recorded a young man’s Herculean efforts to overcome…

  • Saramaccan (language)

    Saramaccan, creole language spoken by the Saramaccan and Matawai peoples of Suriname (formerly Dutch Guiana) in northeastern South America. It shows much greater evidence of African influence and less Dutch influence than does Sranan, another creole of Suriname. Saramaccan probably developed its

  • Saramago, José (Portuguese author)

    José Saramago, Portuguese novelist and man of letters who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1998. The son of rural labourers, Saramago grew up in great poverty in Lisbon. After holding a series of jobs as mechanic and metalworker, Saramago began working in a Lisbon publishing firm and

  • Saramati, Mount (mountain, India-Myanmar)

    Nagaland: Relief and drainage: …12,552 feet (3,826 metres) at Mount Saramati. The region is deeply dissected by rivers: the Doyang and Dikhu in the north, the Barak in the southwest, and the tributaries of the Chindwin River (in Myanmar) in the southeast.

  • Saramo (people)

    Zaramo, a people who reside in the area surrounding Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania, and comprise the major ethnic component in the city. The Zaramo are considered to be part of the cluster of Swahili peoples on the coast of East Africa who have incorporated elements from many diverse ethnic backgrounds

  • Saran (Kazakhstan)

    Sorang, city, northern Qaraghandy oblysy (region), east-central Kazakhstan. It lies just southwest of Qaraghandy city, the regional capital. Sorang is a major centre of coal mining in the Qaraghandy coal basin. It was established in 1946 near the Saran coal deposit and became a city in 1954. The

  • Saran (chemical compound)

    Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), a synthetic resin produced by the polymerization of vinylidene chloride. It is used principally in clear, flexible, and impermeable plastic food wrap. Vinylidene chloride (CH2=CCl2), a clear, colourless, toxic liquid, is obtained from trichloroethane (CH2=CHCl3)

  • Saranac Lake (New York, United States)

    Saranac Lake, village and year-round resort, astride the Essex-Franklin county line, northeastern New York, U.S. It is situated on small Flower Lake near the Saranac and St. Regis chain of lakes, in the Adirondack Mountains. Saranac Lake lies 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Lake Placid. It originated

  • Saranac Lakes (lakes, New York, United States)

    Saranac Lakes, three lakes, northeastern New York, U.S. Located in the Adirondack Mountains region, they are Upper, Middle, and Lower Saranac Lakes. Their elevation is 1,540 feet (469 metres) above sea level. The village of Saranac Lake is a summer and winter sports resort. Tourism and wood-based

  • sarandeio (dance)

    Latin American dance: The Southern Cone: …swaying soft step called a zarandeo (sarandeio in Portuguese), which is considered a flirting gesture. In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, 22 documented gaucho dances are re-created by more than 1,000 performance groups within gaucho community centres (centros de tradicoes gaúchas). In Argentina the gaucho dances include…

  • Sarandīb (island of Sri Lanka)

    Serendib, name for the island of Sri Lanka (Ceylon). The name, Arabic in origin, was recorded in use at least as early as ad 361 and for a time gained considerable currency in the West. It is best known to speakers of English through the word serendipity, invented in the 18th century by the English

  • Sarandon, Susan (American actress)

    Susan Sarandon, American film actress who transcended the early roles of her career, in which she often played characters who were highly sensual but little else, to become a performer of considerable versatility and emotional depth. In 1996 she won an Academy Award for her unglamorous yet engaging

  • sarangi (musical instrument)

    Sarangi, short-necked fiddle used throughout South Asia, particularly for folk and classical Hindustani music. Measuring about 76 cm (30 inches) long, the instrument has a roughly rectangular slightly waisted body and broad fretless neck generally carved from a single piece of wood. It has three

  • Sarangpur (India)

    Sarangpur, town, northwestern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies on the Malwa Plateau, just east of the Kali Sindh River. Sarangpur is located on an ancient site. It has a number of Jain and Hindu ruins, including a 12th-century Jain statue. The town rose to importance in the 13th century

  • Saransk (Russia)

    Saransk, city and capital of Mordoviya, in western Russia. It lies along the upper Insar River and on the western flank of the Volga River uplands. The city was founded in 1641 as a stronghold on the Saransk defensive line. It is an important route centre, with railways to Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod,

  • Sarapeum (ancient temples, Egypt)

    Serapeum, either of two temples of ancient Egypt, dedicated to the worship of the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis (Sarapis). The original elaborate temple of that name was located on the west bank of the Nile near ?aqqārah and originated as a monument to the deceased Apis bulls, sacred animals of the

  • Sarapieion (ancient temples, Egypt)

    Serapeum, either of two temples of ancient Egypt, dedicated to the worship of the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis (Sarapis). The original elaborate temple of that name was located on the west bank of the Nile near ?aqqārah and originated as a monument to the deceased Apis bulls, sacred animals of the

  • Sarapion, Saint (Egyptian monk)

    Saint Sarapion, ; feast day March 21; Coptic church March 7), Egyptian monk, theologian, and bishop of Thmuis, Lower Egypt, in the Nile River delta. Sarapion was a champion with St. Athanasius of Alexandria of orthodox doctrine in the 4th-century theological controversy over Arianism. A key figure

  • Sarapis (Greco-Egyptian deity)

    Serapis, Greco-Egyptian deity of the Sun first encountered at Memphis, where his cult was celebrated in association with that of the sacred Egyptian bull Apis (who was called Osorapis when deceased). He was thus originally a god of the underworld but was reintroduced as a new deity with many

  • Sarapul (Russia)

    Sarapul, city and centre of Sarapul rayon (sector) of Udmurtiya, in western Russia. It is a port on the Kama River. Founded in the 16th century as a Russian stronghold on the trade route to Siberia, it was attacked by Pugachov rebels in 1774; it was chartered in 1780. Sarapul’s industries produce

  • Saraqus?ah (Spain)

    Zaragoza, city, capital of Zaragoza provincia (province), in central Aragon comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northeastern Spain. It lies on the south bank of the Ebro River (there bridged). Toward the end of the 1st century bc, the Celtiberian town of Salduba at the site was taken by the

  • Sararanga (plant genus)

    Pandanales: Pandanaceae: (screw pine), Freycinetia, Sararanga, and Martellidendron—are distributed in coastal or marshy areas in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World (Paleotropics). They are abundant in the Malay Archipelago, Melanesia, and Madagascar and have a few species in Hawaii, New Zealand, southern China, and Japan.

  • Sárarany (work by Móricz)

    Zsigmond Móricz: …works include his first novel, Sárarany (1910; “Gold in the Mire”), and A boldog ember (1935; “The Happy Man”), which portray individualist peasant characters against the collective life of a village. Kivilágos kivirradtig (1924; “Until the Small Hours of Morning”) and Rokonok (1930; “Relatives”) deal with the life of the…

  • Sarasate y Navascuéz, Pablo Martin Melitón de (Spanish composer)

    Pablo de Sarasate, celebrated Spanish violin virtuoso and composer. Beginning his violin studies at the age of five, Sarasate gave his first performance at age eight and later studied at the Paris Conservatory. In 1859 he began the concert tours that made him famous throughout the world. His

  • Sarasate, Pablo de (Spanish composer)

    Pablo de Sarasate, celebrated Spanish violin virtuoso and composer. Beginning his violin studies at the age of five, Sarasate gave his first performance at age eight and later studied at the Paris Conservatory. In 1859 he began the concert tours that made him famous throughout the world. His

  • Sarashina nikki (Japanese literature)

    Sarashina nikki, (Japanese: “Sarashina Diary”) a classic of Japanese literature of the Heian period (794–1185), written about 1059 by a woman known as Sugawara Takasue no Musume (“Daughter of Sugawara Takasue”), also called Lady Sarashina. The work was translated into English as As I Crossed a

  • Sarashina, Lady (Japanese writer)

    Sarashina nikki: …by a woman known as Sugawara Takasue no Musume (“Daughter of Sugawara Takasue”), also called Lady Sarashina. The work was translated into English as As I Crossed a Bridge of Dreams.

  • Sarasin, Jean-Fran?ois (French author)

    Jean-Fran?ois Sarasin, French author of elegant verse, best known for the mock epic Dulot vaincu (“Dulot Defeated”), for the epic fragments Rollon conquérant (“Roland in Conquest”) and La Guerre espagnole (“The Spanish War”), and for La Pompe funèbre de Voiture (“Voiture’s Funeral Pomp”). Sarasin

  • Sarasota (Florida, United States)

    Sarasota, city, seat (1921) of Sarasota county, west-central Florida, U.S. It lies along Sarasota Bay (an arm of the Gulf of Mexico), about 60 miles (95 km) south of Tampa. Sarasota, variously spelled Sara Zota, Sarazota, and Sarasote, appeared on maps in the 1700s, but the origin of the place-name

  • Sarasote (Florida, United States)

    Sarasota, city, seat (1921) of Sarasota county, west-central Florida, U.S. It lies along Sarasota Bay (an arm of the Gulf of Mexico), about 60 miles (95 km) south of Tampa. Sarasota, variously spelled Sara Zota, Sarazota, and Sarasote, appeared on maps in the 1700s, but the origin of the place-name

  • Sarasvatī (river, India)

    Sarasvati: …personification of the sacred river Sarasvati and also identified with Vac, the goddess of speech, she is later named the consort, daughter, or granddaughter of the god Brahma. She is regarded as the patroness of art, music, and letters and as the inventor of the Sanskrit language. She is usually…

  • Sarasvatī (valley, India)

    India: Subsistence and technology: … and sites in the desiccated Sarasvati River valley came terra-cotta models of plows, supporting the earlier interpretation of the field pattern.

  • Sarasvati (Hindu deity)

    Sarasvati, Hindu goddess of learning and the arts, especially music. First appearing as the personification of the sacred river Sarasvati and also identified with Vac, the goddess of speech, she is later named the consort, daughter, or granddaughter of the god Brahma. She is regarded as the

  • Sarasvatīchandra (novel by Govardhanram)

    South Asian arts: Gujarati: …novelists, Govardhanram stands out; his Sarasvatīchandra is a classic, the first social novel. In the novel form, too, the influence of Gandhiism is clearly felt, though not in the person of Kanaiyalal Munshi, who was critical of Gandhian ideology but still, in several Purā?a-inspired works, tended to preach much the…

  • Saraswati, Swamigal Chandrasekharendra (Indian religious leader)

    Swamigal Chandrasekharendra Saraswati, Indian religious leader (born May 20, 1894, Viluppuram, Tamil Nadu, India—died Jan. 8, 1994, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu), was a revered Hindu sage and a lifelong advocate of religious tolerance. Saraswati, the son of a Brahmin schoolteacher, originally was n

  • Saratoga (play by Howard)

    Bronson Howard: …had his first success with Saratoga, produced in 1870 by Augustin Daly at a time when dramas of American life written by Americans were practically nonexistent; its success encouraged other native playwrights. The Henrietta (1887), a satire on business, and Shenandoah (1889), which established Charles Frohman as a producer and…

  • Saratoga (county, New York, United States)

    Saratoga, county, eastern New York state, U.S., bounded by the Hudson River to the northeast and east and the Mohawk River to the southeast. Other waterways include Snook Kill and Great Sacandaga, Saratoga, and Galway lakes. The terrain rises from Hudson valley lowlands in the south and east to the

  • Saratoga (New York, United States)

    temperance movement: …have been those founded at Saratoga, New York, in 1808 and in Massachusetts in 1813. The movement spread rapidly under the influence of the churches; by 1833 there were 6,000 local societies in several U.S. states.

  • Saratoga (film by Conway [1937])

    Jack Conway: Heyday of the 1930s: Conway directed Harlow again in Saratoga (1937) with less-happy results; she died before filming was completed, and stand-ins were required in order to finish the production. Her sudden death cast a pall over the racetrack comedy and its notable merits, including fine performances by Clark Gable, Walter Pidgeon, and Lionel…

  • Saratoga Performing Arts Center (arts centre, Saratoga Springs, New York, United States)

    New York: Cultural institutions: The Saratoga Performing Arts Center in Saratoga Springs is the summer home of the Philadelphia Orchestra and the New York City Ballet. Theatrical performances also are held at this modern cultural centre. The Chautauqua Institution, founded in 1874 on Chautauqua Lake in southwestern New York, inspired…

  • Saratoga Race Course (race track, Saratoga Springs, New York, United States)

    Saratoga Springs: The Saratoga Race Course in particular is noted for Thoroughbred racing. The city’s National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame contain mementos of great horses and riders of the past. In 1909, 122 springs were acquired by the state (their use regulated by law) after…

  • Saratoga Springs (New York, United States)

    Saratoga Springs, city, Saratoga county, east-central New York, U.S. It lies in the Hudson River valley, west of the Hudson River, 30 miles (48 km) north of Albany. Possessing numerous natural mineral springs, its site was an ancient Mohawk Indian camping ground with various spellings and meanings,

  • Saratoga Trunk (film by Wood [1945])

    Sam Wood: Wood’s heyday: …worked again with Wood on Saratoga Trunk (1945), an adaptation of the Edna Ferber novel about a half-Creole woman in New Orleans who, seeking revenge against her father’s snobbish family, creates a scandal when she begins dating a gambler. Although criticized for being overly melodramatic, the film was popular with…

  • Saratoga Trunk (novel by Ferber)

    Sam Wood: Wood’s heyday: …adaptation of the Edna Ferber novel about a half-Creole woman in New Orleans who, seeking revenge against her father’s snobbish family, creates a scandal when she begins dating a gambler. Although criticized for being overly melodramatic, the film was popular with moviegoers.

  • Saratoga, Battles of (United States history)

    Battles of Saratoga, in the American Revolution, closely related engagements in the fall of 1777. The Battles of Saratoga are often considered together as a turning point of the war in favour of the Americans. The failure of the American invasion of Canada in 1775–76 had left a large surplus of

  • Saratoga, Convention of (American Revolution [1777])

    Battles of Saratoga: Second Battle of Saratoga: …surrendered his troops under the Convention of Saratoga, which provided for the return of his men to Great Britain on condition that they would not serve again in North America during the war.

  • Saratoga, First Battle of (United States history)

    Battles of Saratoga: First Battle of Saratoga: On September 19 Burgoyne’s army moved south and engaged the Continental forces at the Battle of Freeman’s Farm, the First Battle of Saratoga. Early in the battle, many British officers were killed in the open fields by long-range marksmen concealed in…

  • Saratoga, Second Battle of (United States history)

    Battles of Saratoga: Second Battle of Saratoga: On October 7 Burgoyne decided he could wait no longer and launched an attack without the reinforcements. This engagement was called the Battle of Bemis Heights, also known as the Second Battle of Freeman’s Farm or the Second Battle of Saratoga.…

  • Saratov (oblast, Russia)

    Saratov, oblast (region), western Russia, in the basin of the middle Volga River, which bisects it north–south. Saratov city is the administrative centre. Most of the right- (west-) bank area is occupied by the Volga Upland, which is greatly dissected by river valleys and erosion gullies; the left

  • Saratov (Russia)

    Saratov, city and administrative centre of Saratov oblast (region), western Russia. The city lies along the middle course of the Volga River and was founded in 1590 as a fortress to protect the trade route along the Volga River from nomadic raiders. Its site was twice moved: in 1616 and again to

  • Saraveca language (South American language)

    numerals and numeral systems: Number bases: …present only by speakers of Saraveca, a South American Arawakan language; elsewhere it is combined with the decimal or the vigesimal system, where the base is 20. Similarly, the pure base six scale seems to occur only sparsely in northwest Africa and is otherwise combined with the duodecimal, or base…

  • Sarawa cypress (plant)

    false cypress: The Sarawa cypress (C. pisifera) of Japan, 27 to 36 metres (90 to 120 feet) tall, has been in cultivation for centuries. It has sharp-pointed leaves, small cones, and fragrant white wood used for boxes and doors. Many horticultural varieties have been developed, most of which…

  • Sarawak (state, Malaysia)

    Sarawak, historic region that is now a state of Malaysia. It comprises the northwestern part of the island of Borneo and is bounded by the sultanate of Brunei and Sabah (Malaysia) on the north and by Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan) on the east and south. Sarawak has a low-lying and heavily indented

  • Sarawak Museum (museum, Kuching, Malaysia)

    museum: Asia: …the public in 1877; the Sarawak Museum (now in Malaysia) opened in 1891; and the Peshawar Museum, in Pakistan, opened in 1907.

  • Sarayupara (Indian family)

    Kalachuri dynasty: Sarayupara and Ratanpur: Two other Kalachuri families are known to history: the Kalachuris of Sarayupara and the Kalachuris of Ratanpur. The Sarayupara family ruled a territory along the banks of the Sarayu (modern Ghaghara) River, in the Bahraich and Gonda regions of Uttar Pradesh. The…

  • Sarazen, Gene (American golfer)

    Gene Sarazen, prominent American professional golfer of the 1920s and ’30s. His double eagle—i.e., his score of three strokes under par—on the par-five 15th hole in the last round of the 1935 Masters Tournament is one of the most famous shots in the history of the game. Born to impoverished Italian

  • Sarazota (Florida, United States)

    Sarasota, city, seat (1921) of Sarasota county, west-central Florida, U.S. It lies along Sarasota Bay (an arm of the Gulf of Mexico), about 60 miles (95 km) south of Tampa. Sarasota, variously spelled Sara Zota, Sarazota, and Sarasote, appeared on maps in the 1700s, but the origin of the place-name

  • SARB (sports organization)

    rugby: South Africa: …a union in 1883; the South African Rugby Football Board was established in 1889. South Africa too has leagues for clubs and a national competition between provincial teams for the Currie Cup, first given in 1891 by Sir Donald Currie.

  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act (United States [2002])

    Enron scandal: …important of those measures, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002), imposed harsh penalties for destroying, altering, or fabricating financial records. The act also prohibited auditing firms from doing any concurrent consulting business for the same clients.

  • sarcasm (literary device)

    language: Paralinguistics: A good deal of sarcasm exploits these contrasts, which are sometimes described under the heading of paralanguage.

  • Sarcasms for piano (work by Prokofiev)

    polytonality: Sergey Prokofiev’s Sarcasms for piano juxtaposes the keys of F? minor in the right hand and B? minor in the left, while Darius Milhaud’s Saudades do Brasil combines a melody in C with an accompaniment in A? major. Such combinations of tonalities may be reviewed as 20th-century…

  • Sarcee (people)

    Sarcee, North American Plains Indians of Athabaskan linguistic stock who lived in the 18th and 19th centuries near the upper Saskatchewan and Athabaska rivers in the present provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, Can. They probably moved southward to this region near the end of the 17th century

  • sarcina (microbiology)

    coccus: …of eight or more cells, sarcinae; and groups of four cells in a square arrangement, tetrads. These characteristic groupings occur as a result of variations in the reproduction process in bacteria. See also Staphylococcus; Streptococcus.

  • sarcinae (microbiology)

    coccus: …of eight or more cells, sarcinae; and groups of four cells in a square arrangement, tetrads. These characteristic groupings occur as a result of variations in the reproduction process in bacteria. See also Staphylococcus; Streptococcus.

  • Sarcobatus vermiculatus (plant)

    Greasewood, (species Sarcobatus vermiculatus), North American weedy shrub of the Sarcobataceae family. Greasewood is a characteristic plant of strongly alkaline and saline soils in the desert plains of western North America. It is a much-branched, somewhat spiny shrub, up to 3 metres (10 feet)

  • Sarcocystis (protozoan)

    Sarcocystis, genus of sporozoan parasites (phylum Protozoa) that are found in the heart and skeletal muscles of mammals (cattle, pigs, sheep, and man), birds, and reptiles. Infected muscle tissue contains white, cystlike masses (sarcocysts) that range from 25 micrometres (0.001 inch) to several

  • Sarcodina (protozoan)

    Sarcodine, any protozoan of the superclass (sometimes class or subphylum) Sarcodina. These organisms have streaming cytoplasm and use temporary cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopodia in locomotion (called amoeboid movement) and feeding. Sarcodines include the genus Amoeba (see amoeba) and

  • sarcodine (protozoan)

    Sarcodine, any protozoan of the superclass (sometimes class or subphylum) Sarcodina. These organisms have streaming cytoplasm and use temporary cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopodia in locomotion (called amoeboid movement) and feeding. Sarcodines include the genus Amoeba (see amoeba) and

  • Sarcogyps calvus (bird)

    vulture: Old World vultures: …(Sarcogyps calvus), often called the Pondicherry vulture or the Indian (black) vulture, is an Old World vulture ranging from Pakistan to Malaysia. It is about 75 cm (30 inches) long and has a wingspan of about 2.7 metres (8.9 feet). It is black with white down on the breast and…

  • sarcoidosis (pathology)

    Sarcoidosis, systemic disease that is characterized by the formation of granulomas (small grainy lumps) in affected tissue. Although the cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, the disease may be caused by an abnormal immune response to certain antigens. Sarcoidosis often disappears spontaneously within

  • Sarcolaenaceae (plant family)

    Malvales: Sarcolaenaceae and Dipterocarpaceae: Sarcolaenaceae and Dipterocarpaceae are related families, having in common secretory canals, fibrous bark, sepals overlapping in bud, distinctive seed and wood anatomy, and reserve endosperm in the seeds with starch.

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