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  • Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxax?n Lao

    Laos, landlocked country of northeast-central mainland Southeast Asia. It consists of an irregularly round portion in the north that narrows into a peninsula-like region stretching to the southeast. Overall, the country extends about 650 miles (1,050 km) from northwest to southeast. The capital is

  • Sathya Sai Baba (Indian religious leader)

    Sathya Sai Baba, (Sathyanarayana Raju), Indian religious leader (born Nov. 23, 1926, Puttaparthi, British India—died April 24, 2011, Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh, India), was widely revered as a divine incarnation, but critics dismissed his claims of miracles performed, and he attracted scrutiny

  • Sathyanarayana Raju (Indian religious leader)

    Sathya Sai Baba, (Sathyanarayana Raju), Indian religious leader (born Nov. 23, 1926, Puttaparthi, British India—died April 24, 2011, Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh, India), was widely revered as a divine incarnation, but critics dismissed his claims of miracles performed, and he attracted scrutiny

  • Sati (Egyptian goddess)

    Anuket: Alongside Khnum (Khenemu) and Sati, Anuket oversaw the fertility of the lands near the river. Indeed, she was worshipped as the great nourisher of the farms and fields because of the annual inundation of the Nile that deposited the heavy layer of black silt from Upper Egypt and Nubia.

  • Sati (Hinduism)

    Sati, in Hinduism, one of the wives of the god Shiva and a daughter of the sage Daksa. Sati married Shiva against her father’s wishes. When her father failed to invite her husband to a great sacrifice, Sati died of mortification and was later reborn as the goddess Parvati. (Some accounts say she

  • satī (Hindu custom)

    Suttee, the Indian custom of a wife immolating herself either on the funeral pyre of her dead husband or in some other fashion soon after his death. Although never widely practiced, suttee was the ideal of womanly devotion held by certain Brahman and royal castes. It is sometimes linked to the myth

  • Satie, Eric Alfred Leslie (French composer)

    Erik Satie, French composer whose spare, unconventional, often witty style exerted a major influence on 20th-century music, particularly in France. Satie studied at the Paris Conservatory, dropped out, and later worked as a café pianist. About 1890 he became associated with the Rosicrucian movement

  • Satie, Erik (French composer)

    Erik Satie, French composer whose spare, unconventional, often witty style exerted a major influence on 20th-century music, particularly in France. Satie studied at the Paris Conservatory, dropped out, and later worked as a café pianist. About 1890 he became associated with the Rosicrucian movement

  • satiety (physiology)

    Satiety, desire to limit further food intake, as after completing a satisfying meal. The hypothalamus, part of the central nervous system, regulates the amount of food desired. Eating is thought to increase the body temperature, and as the temperature in the hypothalamus rises, the process of

  • Satima, Mount (mountain, Kenya)

    East African mountains: Physiography: …which the highest peak is Mount Lesatima (Satima), reaching a height of 13,120 feet, and the Mau Escarpment rise steeply from the eastern portion of the Eastern (Great) Rift Valley. To the west, beyond the Uasin Gishu Plateau, Mount Elgon emerges gently from a level of about 6,200 feet; but…

  • satimbe (African mask)

    African art: Dogon and Tellem: …authority of God; and the satimbe mask, a rectangular face surmounted by the figure of a mythical and powerful woman. The structure of the satimbe mask—its projecting and receding forms—recalls the facades of the mosques of ancient Mali. The Dogon are known for their architecture, including the rounded, organic form…

  • satin (fabric)

    Satin, any fabric constructed by the satin weave method, one of the three basic textile weaves. The fabric is characterized by a smooth surface and usually a lustrous face and dull back; it is made in a wide variety of weights for various uses, including dresses, particularly evening wear; linings;

  • satin bowerbird (bird)

    bowerbird: Avenues are made by the satin bowerbird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus); the regent bowerbird (Sericulus chrysocephalus) and its relatives; and the spotted bowerbird (Chlamydera maculata) and its relatives. Satin and regent bowerbirds make a paint of vegetable pulp, charcoal, and saliva and apply it to the interior walls; a daub of green…

  • satin glass (decorative arts)

    Satin glass, in the decorative arts, glass with a dull matte finish achieved by immersion in hydrofluoric or other abrasive acid. In the 19th century the process was synonymous with “frosting” and was a technique associated especially with the fancy art glass produced in the United States in the

  • Satin Slipper, The (play by Claudel)

    The Satin Slipper, philosophical play in four “days” or sections by Paul Claudel, published in 1929 in French as Le Soulier de satin; ou, le pire n’est pas toujours s?r. It was designed to be read rather than performed (an abridged version was staged in 1943), and it is often considered Claudel’s

  • Satin Slipper; or, The Worst Is Not Always Certain, The (play by Claudel)

    The Satin Slipper, philosophical play in four “days” or sections by Paul Claudel, published in 1929 in French as Le Soulier de satin; ou, le pire n’est pas toujours s?r. It was designed to be read rather than performed (an abridged version was staged in 1943), and it is often considered Claudel’s

  • satin spar (mineral)

    Satin spar, massive (noncrystalline) variety of the mineral gypsum

  • satin weave (fabric)

    Satin, any fabric constructed by the satin weave method, one of the three basic textile weaves. The fabric is characterized by a smooth surface and usually a lustrous face and dull back; it is made in a wide variety of weights for various uses, including dresses, particularly evening wear; linings;

  • satinwood (tree)

    Satinwood, (Chloroxylon swietenia), tree of the rue family (Rutaceae), native to Southeast Asia, India, and Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Satinwood is harvested for its hard yellowish brown wood, which has a satiny lustre and is used for fine cabinetwork and farming tools. Many parts of the plant are used in

  • satipa??hāna (Buddhist philosophy)

    Sm?tyupasthāna , (Sanskrit: “application of mentality”) in Buddhist philosophy, one of the preparatory stages of meditation practiced by Buddhist monks aiming for bodhi, or enlightenment. It consists of keeping something in mind constantly. According to the 4th- or 5th-century text Abhidharmako?a,

  • Sátira contra los abusos introducidos en la poesía castellana (work by Forner)

    Juan Pablo Forner: …seen in his early work Sátira contra los abusos introducidos en la poesía castellana (1782; “Satire Against the Abuses Introduced into Castilian Poetry”), an attack against the innovations of verse styles such as gongorismo (an ornate and exaggerated style named after the poet Luis de Góngora). A somewhat sour personality,…

  • Satire (work by Ariosto)

    Ludovico Ariosto: …1525, he composed his seven satires (titled Satire), modeled after the Sermones (satires) of Horace. The first (written in 1517 when he had refused to follow the cardinal to Buda) is a noble assertion of the dignity and independence of the writer; the second criticizes ecclesiastical corruption; the third moralizes…

  • satire

    Satire, artistic form, chiefly literary and dramatic, in which human or individual vices, follies, abuses, or shortcomings are held up to censure by means of ridicule, derision, burlesque, irony, parody, caricature, or other methods, sometimes with an intent to inspire social reform. Satire is a

  • Satires (work by Horace)

    Horace: Life: …on Book I of the Satires, 10 poems written in hexameter verse and published in 35 bc. The Satires reflect Horace’s adhesion to Octavian’s attempts to deal with the contemporary challenges of restoring traditional morality, defending small landowners from large estates (latifundia), combating debt and usury, and encouraging novi homines…

  • Satires (work by Ennius)

    Quintus Ennius: In the Saturae (Satires) Ennius developed the only literary genre that Rome could call its own. Four books in a variety of metres on diverse subjects, they were mostly concerned with practical wisdom, often driving home a lesson with the help of a fable. More philosophical was a…

  • Satires (poems by Juvenal)

    Satires, collection of 16 satiric poems published at intervals in five separate books by Juvenal. Book One, containing Satires 1–5, was issued c. 100–110 ce; Book Two, with Satire 6, c. 115; Book Three, which comprises Satires 7–9, contains what must be a reference to Hadrian, who ruled from 117 to

  • Satires upon the Jesuits (work by Oldham)

    English literature: The court wits: ) Oldham’s Satires upon the Jesuits (1681), written during the Popish Plot, makes too unrelenting use of a rancorous, hectoring tone, but his development of the possibilities (especially satiric) of the “imitation” form, already explored by Rochester in, for example, An Allusion to Horace (written 1675–76), earns…

  • Satirikon theatre (Soviet theatre)

    Arkady Isaakovich Raikin: …Moscow and reopened as the Satirikon theatre.

  • Satiro-mastix (play by Dekker)

    Thomas Dekker: …on Jonson in the play Satiro-mastix (produced 1601). Thirteen more plays survive in which Dekker collaborated with such figures as Thomas Middleton, John Webster, Philip Massinger, John Ford, and William Rowley.

  • Satisfactio (work by Dracontius)

    Blossius Aemilius Dracontius: …poems reappears in his elegiac Satisfactio, a plea for pardon addressed to Gunthamund during his imprisonment, and is evident even in his most religious poem, De laudibus dei. This last poem, considered his most important work, comprises 2,327 hexameters in three books: Book I describes the Creation and Fall and…

  • Satisfaction (song by Jagger and Richards)

    “It's All Right”: Chicago Soul: …for their epochal single “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction.”

  • satisfaction (logic)

    metalogic: Logic and metalogic: …all possible worlds) and of satisfiability (or having a model—i.e., being true in some particular interpretation). Hence, the completeness of a logical calculus has quite a different meaning from that of a formal system: a logical calculus permits many sentences such that neither the sentence nor its negation is a…

  • satisfiability (logic)

    metalogic: Logic and metalogic: …all possible worlds) and of satisfiability (or having a model—i.e., being true in some particular interpretation). Hence, the completeness of a logical calculus has quite a different meaning from that of a formal system: a logical calculus permits many sentences such that neither the sentence nor its negation is a…

  • satisfiability problem (mathematics)

    P versus NP problem: …Stephen Cook proved that the satisfiability problem (a problem of assigning values to variables in a formula in Boolean algebra such that the statement is true) is NP-complete, which was the first problem shown to be NP-complete and opened the way to showing other problems that are members of the…

  • satisfice (economics)

    Herbert A. Simon: …is the concept of “satisficing” behaviour—achieving acceptable economic objectives while minimizing complications and risks—as contrasted with the traditional emphasis on maximizing profits. Simon’s theory thus offers a way to consider the psychological aspects of decision making that classical economists have tended to ignore.

  • satisficing (social science)

    decision making: Satisficing and bounded rationality: …Simon labeled this process “satisficing” and concluded that human decision making could at best exhibit bounded rationality. Although objective rationality leads to only one possible rational conclusion, satisficing can lead to many rational conclusions, depending upon the information available and the imagination of the decision maker.

  • Satish Dhawan Space Centre (launch centre, India)

    Pulicat Lake: …Bengal, is the site of Satish Dhawan Space Centre, India’s satellite-launching facility. The only sea entrance into the lake is around the south end of the island, north of the town of Pulicat on the mainland.

  • Satīt, Nahr (river, Africa)

    Tekezē River, river, major tributary of the Atbara River, itself a tributary of the Nile. It rises near Lalībela, Ethiopia, and flows in a deep ravine, north and then west, where it forms part of the border between Ethiopia and Eritrea, to enter Sudan below Om Hajer. It joins the Atbara River 35

  • satkaryavada (Indian philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: The nature, origin, and structure of the world (prakriti): …of causality known as the satkaryavada, according to which an effect is implicitly pre-existent in its cause prior to its production. This latter doctrine is established on the ground that if the effect were not already existent in its cause, then something would have to come out of nothing. The…

  • ?a?kha??āgama (work by Puspandanta and Bhūtabalin)

    Jainism: Canonical and commentarial literature: …two works in Prakrit: the Karmaprabhrita (“Chapters on Karma”), also called Shatkhandagama (“Scripture of Six Sections”), and the Kashayaprabhrita (“Chapters on the Kashayas”). The Karmaprabhrita, allegedly based on the lost Drishtivada text, deals with the doctrine of karma and was redacted by Pushpadanta and Bhutabalin in the mid-2nd century; the…

  • Satna (India)

    Satna, city, northeastern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is situated about 25 miles (40 km) west of Rewa in an upland area on the Tons River, a tributary of the Ganges (Ganga) River. The city served as the headquarters of the British political agent in the historic region of Baghelkhand.

  • Satnami sect (Indian religion)

    Satnami sect, any of several groups in India that have challenged political and religious authority by rallying around an understanding of God as satnam (from Sanskrit satyanaman, “he whose name is truth”). The earliest Satnamis were a sect of mendicants and householders founded by Birbhan in

  • Sato (Japanese dramatist)

    Sakurada Jisuke I, kabuki dramatist who created more than 120 plays and at least 100 dance dramas. After completing his studies with Horikoshi Nisōji in 1762, Sakurada moved to Kyōto to write plays for a theatre there. On his return to Edo three years later he became chief playwright at the M

  • Satō Eisaku (prime minister of Japan)

    Satō Eisaku, prime minister of Japan between 1964 and 1972, who presided over Japan’s post-World War II reemergence as a major world power. For his policies on nuclear weapons, which led to Japan’s signing of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, he was awarded (with cowinner Sean

  • Satō Haruo (Japanese author)

    Satō Haruo, Japanese poet, novelist, and critic whose fiction is noted for its poetic vision and romantic imagination. Satō came from a family of physicians with scholarly and literary interests. He entered Keiō University in Tokyo to study with the novelist Nagai Kafū in 1910, but he had already

  • Satō Kōichi (Japanese graphic designer)

    graphic design: Postwar graphic design in Japan: …emerged in the work of Satō Kōichi, who from the 1970s created an otherworldly, metaphysical design statement. He used softly glowing blends of colour, richly coloured and modulated calligraphy, and stylized illustrations to create poetic visual statements that ranged from contemplative quietude to celebratory exuberance. For example, in his poster…

  • Satō Nobuhiro (Japanese scientist)

    Satō Nobuhiro, scientist and an early advocate of Westernization in Japan. He favoured the development of an authoritarian type of government based on Western science and political institutions. Satō was born into a family of agricultural and mining specialists. At an early age he attempted to add

  • Satō Nobusuke (prime minister of Japan)

    Kishi Nobusuke, statesman whose term as prime minister of Japan (1957–60) was marked by a turbulent opposition campaign against a new U.S.–Japan security treaty agreed to by his government. Born Satō Nobusuke, an older brother of future prime minister Satō Eisaku, he was adopted by a paternal

  • Sato Norikiyo (Japanese poet)

    Saigyō, Japanese Buddhist priest-poet, one of the greatest masters of the tanka (a traditional Japanese poetic form), whose life and works became the subject matter of many narratives, plays, and puppet dramas. He originally followed his father in a military career, but, like others of his day, h

  • SATOR square (puzzle)

    magic square: …Western world is the well-known SATOR square, composed of the words SATOR, AREPO, TENET, OPERA, and ROTAS. Arranged both vertically and horizontally, the meaningless phrase reads through the centre TENET, thus forming the two arms of a hidden cross. Examples of this square from the 1st century ad were found…

  • Sátoraljaújhely (Hungary)

    Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén: Sátoraljaújhely, just north of Sárospatak, is a commercial centre with Baroque houses and a Piarist church dating from about the 13th century. In the southwest of the county is the Matyó area, centred on Mez?k?vesd, where quaint ornate local costumes survive. On the Mohi lowlands,…

  • Satori (Zen Buddhism)

    Satori, in Zen Buddhism of Japan, the inner, intuitive experience of Enlightenment; Satori is said to be unexplainable, indescribable, and unintelligible by reason and logic. It is comparable to the experience undergone by Gautama Buddha when he sat under the Bo tree and, as such, is the central

  • Satornil (Gnostic teacher)

    gnosticism: Adversus haereses: …those of Simon Magus, Menander, Satornil (or Saturninus) of Antioch, Basilides, Carpocrates, Marcellina, Cerinthus, Cerdo, Marcion of Sinope, Tatian, and the Ebionites.

  • Satpura Range (hills, India)

    Satpura Range, range of hills, part of the Deccan plateau, western India. The hills stretch for some 560 miles (900 km) across the widest part of peninsular India, through Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh states. The range, the name of which means “Seven Folds,” forms the watershed between the

  • satra (religious centre, India)

    Assam: Cultural life: …religious centres, such as the satra (seat of a religious head known as the satradhikar) and namghar (prayer hall). Satras in Assam have been looking after the religious and social well-being of the Hindu population since the 15th century.

  • satrap (Persian provincial governor)

    Satrap, provincial governor in the Achaemenian Empire. The division of the empire into provinces (satrapies) was completed by Darius I (reigned 522–486 bc), who established 20 satrapies with their annual tribute. The satraps, appointed by the king, normally were members of the royal family or of

  • Satrapi, Marjane (Iranian artist and writer)

    Marjane Satrapi, Iranian artist and writer whose graphic novels explore the gaps and the junctures between East and West. Satrapi was the only child of Westernized parents; her father was an engineer and her mother a clothing designer. She grew up in Tehrān, where she attended the Lycée Fran?ais.

  • Satraps, Revolt of the (Persian history)

    Ariobarzanes: …about 366, led the unsuccessful revolt of the satraps of western Anatolia against the Persian king Artaxerxes II (reigned 404–359/358 bc).

  • Satsa?g (Sikhism)

    Satsa?g, in Sikhism, “the assembly of true believers,” a practice that dates back to the first Gurū of the religion, Nānak. While not unique to Sikhism, the convention of gathering together and singing the compositions of the Gurū was understood in peculiarly Sikh terms, at first as a sign of

  • Satsu-no-umi (lake, Japan)

    Lake Chūzenji, lake, lying within Nikkō National Park, Tochigi ken (prefecture), north-central Honshu, Japan. It is situated at an elevation of 4,163 feet (1,269 metres) and has a surface area of about 4.6 square miles (11.8 square km). Lake Chūzenji is a resort site noted for its shrines,

  • Satsuma (historical domain, Japan)

    Satsuma, Japanese feudal domain (han) in southern Kyushu noted for its role in Japan’s modernization. Satsuma (part of modern-day Kagoshima prefecture) was ruled by the Shimazu family from the end of the 12th century to the Meiji Restoration in 1868. In 1609 the family had conquered the Ryukyu

  • Satsuma pottery (Japan)

    pottery: Stoneware and earthenware: …popular under the name of Satsuma and was copied avidly at Worcester and elsewhere (see below Japan: 19th and 20th centuries).

  • Satsuma Rebellion (Japanese history)

    education: The conservative reaction: Following the repression of the Satsuma Rebellion, a samurai uprising in 1877, Japan again forged ahead toward political unity, but there was an increasing trend of antigovernment protest from below, which was epitomized by the Movement for People’s Rights. Because of the Satsuma Rebellion, the government faced serious financial difficulties.…

  • Satta, Salvatore (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Fiction at the turn of the 21st century: ” The Sardinian Salvatore Satta, for example, was a professor of law whose considerable literary production—his best-known novel is Il giorno del giudizio (1979; The Day of Judgement)—was not revealed until after his death. Meanwhile, Stefano D’Arrigo was being supported by publisher Arnoldo Mondadori to compose his ambitious…

  • Sattahip (Thailand)

    Sattahip, port, south-central Thailand. It lies on the northern Gulf of Thailand coast, at the head of a small bay protected by Phra Island. It was developed as a naval base in 1920–23 and continued to serve predominantly military purposes in the 1970s. It is linked to Bangkok by river and by a

  • Sattapanni (cave, Rajgir Hills, India)

    Rajgir Hills: Sattapanni cave, which has been identified with a number of sites on Baibhar Hill and with the Sonbhandar cave at its foot, was the site of the first Buddhist synod (543 bce) to record the tenets of the faith. The Sonbhandar cave is now believed…

  • Sattar, Abdus (president of Bangladesh)

    Bangladesh: Bangladesh since independence: Meanwhile, the civilian vice president, Abdus Sattar, was confirmed as president by a nationwide election in 1981, but he was ill, and real power was exercised by Lieut. Gen. Hussein Mohammad Ershad and a National Security Council. On March 24, 1982, Ershad ejected Sattar and took over as chief martial-law…

  • Sattasaī (poems compiled by Hāla)

    South Asian arts: The short lyric: …Hāla under the name of Sattasaī (“The Seven Hundred”), tends to be simpler in imagery and in the emotion portrayed than their Sanskrit counterparts, but essential differences are difficult to pinpoint.

  • sattva (Indian philosophy)

    Samkhya: …expansiveness; and the highest is sattva (“goodness”), which is illumination, enlightening knowledge, and lightness. To these correspond personality types: to tamas, that of the ignorant and lazy person; to rajas, that of the impulsive and passionate person; to sattva, that of the enlightened and serene person.

  • Satu Mare (county, Romania)

    Satu Mare, jude? (county), northwestern Romania. The county is bounded on the north by Ukraine and on the west by Hungary. It consists mostly of rolling hills and is drained northwestward by the Some? River and its tributaries. Satu Mare city is the county capital and has industries that produce

  • Satu Mare (Romania)

    Satu Mare, city, northwestern Romania. It lies on the northeastern fringe of the Great Hungarian Plain, on the right bank of the Some? River, 8 miles (13 km) east of the Hungarian border and 17 miles (27 km) south of the Ukrainian border. Legend indicates it was founded by boatmen carrying salt

  • Satul (Thailand)

    Satun, town, southern Thailand, on the Malay Peninsula. Satun remains a small community at the end of a branch road; its shallow coastal waters are unsuitable for port development. The area in which Satun is situated was historically part of Kedah state (now in Malaysia). It includes several

  • Satum (ceremonial prayer)

    Nowruz: …commemorating the dead; and the Satum, prayers recited at funeral feasts. Throughout the day, Parsis greet one another with the rite of hamāzor, in which one’s right hand is passed between the palms of another. Words of greeting and good wishes are then exchanged.

  • Satun (Thailand)

    Satun, town, southern Thailand, on the Malay Peninsula. Satun remains a small community at the end of a branch road; its shallow coastal waters are unsuitable for port development. The area in which Satun is situated was historically part of Kedah state (now in Malaysia). It includes several

  • satura (Latin literature)

    Gaius Lucilius: …to the existing formless Latin satura (meaning “a mixed dish”) the distinctive character of critical comment that the word satire still implies.

  • saturable control dimmer (electronics)

    stagecraft: Dimmers: A saturable core dimmer uses a small DC current to magnetize an iron core through which AC current flows. As the level of magnetism increases, the conductivity of the core also increases; more AC load current is thus able to pass through it, and any lights…

  • saturable-inductor compass

    navigation: The gyromagnetic compass: In one such arrangement, a saturable-inductor compass (so named because of its use of materials that can be readily induced to carry a maximum magnetic flow, or magnetic saturation) is mounted on a gyroscope, but this is not always convenient from the point of view of size and weight.

  • Saturae (work by Ennius)

    Quintus Ennius: In the Saturae (Satires) Ennius developed the only literary genre that Rome could call its own. Four books in a variety of metres on diverse subjects, they were mostly concerned with practical wisdom, often driving home a lesson with the help of a fable. More philosophical was a…

  • Saturae Menippeae (work by Varro)

    Marcus Terentius Varro: …stature, best known for his Saturae Menippeae (“Menippean Satires”). He was a man of immense learning and a prolific author. Inspired by a deep patriotism, he intended his work, by its moral and educational quality, to further Roman greatness. Seeking to link Rome’s future with its glorious past, his works…

  • saturated acid (chemical compound)

    Saturated fat, a fatty acid in which the hydrocarbon molecules have a hydrogen atom on every carbon and thus are fully hydrogenated. (By way of comparison, the hydrocarbon molecules of unsaturated fats have two carbons that share double or triple bonds and are therefore not completely saturated

  • saturated compound (chemical compound)

    hydrocarbon: Alkanes are described as saturated hydrocarbons, while alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons are said to be unsaturated.

  • saturated fat (chemical compound)

    Saturated fat, a fatty acid in which the hydrocarbon molecules have a hydrogen atom on every carbon and thus are fully hydrogenated. (By way of comparison, the hydrocarbon molecules of unsaturated fats have two carbons that share double or triple bonds and are therefore not completely saturated

  • saturated fatty acid (chemical compound)

    Saturated fat, a fatty acid in which the hydrocarbon molecules have a hydrogen atom on every carbon and thus are fully hydrogenated. (By way of comparison, the hydrocarbon molecules of unsaturated fats have two carbons that share double or triple bonds and are therefore not completely saturated

  • saturated hydrocarbon (chemical compound)

    hydrocarbon: Alkanes are described as saturated hydrocarbons, while alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons are said to be unsaturated.

  • saturated rock (geology)

    felsic and mafic rocks: …minerals and rocks as oversaturated, saturated, or undersaturated with respect to silica. Felsic rocks are commonly oversaturated and contain free quartz (SiO2), intermediate rocks contain little or no quartz or feldspathoids (undersaturated minerals), and mafic rocks may contain abundant feldspathoids. This broad grouping on the basis of mineralogy related to…

  • saturation (colour)

    colour: The nature of colour: …precisely specified by its hue, saturation, and brightness—three attributes sufficient to distinguish it from all other possible perceived colours. The hue is that aspect of colour usually associated with terms such as red, orange, yellow, and so forth. Saturation (also known as chroma or tone) refers to relative purity. When…

  • saturation (chemistry and physics)

    Saturation, any of several physical or chemical conditions defined by the existence of an equilibrium between pairs of opposing forces or of an exact balance of the rates of opposing processes. Common examples include the state of a solution left in contact with the pure undissolved solute until

  • saturation bombing (warfare)

    Carpet bombing, devastating bombing attack that seeks to destroy every part of a wide area. Some military strategists characterize “carpet bombing” as an emotional term that does not describe any actual military strategy. However, Article 51 of Geneva Protocol I prohibits bombardment that treats a

  • saturation control (television)

    television: Controls: If the saturation control is turned to the “off” position, no colour difference action will occur and the reproduction will appear in black and white. As the saturation control is advanced, the colour differences become more accentuated, and the colours become progressively more vivid.

  • saturation deficit (meteorology)

    Saturation deficit, an index of humidity typically characterized by the difference between the saturation vapour pressure and the actual vapour pressure of a volume of air. The index has the particular utility of being proportional to the evaporation capability of the air. It is sometimes conveyed

  • saturation horizon (oceanography)

    ocean acidification: Physiological and ecological effects: …a boundary called the “saturation horizon.” Above this boundary there are enough carbonates present in the water to support coral communities. In midlatitude waters and in waters closer to the poles, many so-called cold-water coral communities are found at depths that range from 40 to 1,000 metres (about 130…

  • saturation spectroscopy (physics)

    spectroscopy: Techniques for obtaining Doppler-free spectra: … of France, is known as saturation spectroscopy (see Figure 2). Here, an intense, monochromatic beam of light is directed into the sample gas cell. If the frequency spread of the light is much less than the Doppler-broadened absorption line, only those atoms with a narrow velocity spread will be excited,…

  • saturation vapour pressure (atmospheric science)

    hydrosphere: Water vapour and precipitation: The equilibrium, or saturation, water vapour pressure of a saturated solution of sodium chloride is 22 percent lower than that of pure water. Precipitable water vapour has, on the average, a vapour pressure of 0.0025 atmosphere, which amounts to 15 percent of the saturation vapour pressure. The ratio…

  • saturation, ion

    radiation measurement: Ion chambers: …marks the onset of the ion-saturation region, where the current no longer depends on applied voltage; this is the region of operation normally chosen for ion chambers. Under these conditions the current measured in the external circuit is simply equal to the rate of formation of charges in the gas…

  • saturation, magnetic (physics)

    magnetism: Induced and permanent atomic magnetic dipoles: …field, the magnetization approaches a saturation value.

  • Saturday (novel by McEwan)

    Ian McEwan: Dalloway (1925) is evident in Saturday (2005), a vivid depiction of London on February 15, 2003, a day of mass demonstrations against the incipient war in Iraq. On Chesil Beach (2007; film 2017) describes the awkwardness felt by two virgins on their wedding night. Climate change is the subject of…

  • Saturday (day)

    Saturday, seventh day of the week

  • Saturday Club (British radio program)

    Rock and radio in the United Kingdom: …Broadcasting Corporation’s (BBC’s) Light Programme: Saturday Club and Sunday morning’s Easy Beat. Both were presented by the avuncular Brian Matthew and blighted by a bewilderingly broad musical base and an imbalance between studio sessions and recorded music. The restriction on records played was a result of the “needle time” agreement…

  • Saturday Evening Post, The (American journal)

    Mary Roberts Rinehart: …appeared as serials in the Saturday Evening Post over a number of years and as a series of novels beginning with The Amazing Adventures of Letitia Carberry (1911).

  • Saturday Market (poetry by Mew)

    Charlotte Mew: title, Saturday Market), was praised for its natural, direct language, including Wessex country dialect. The title poem and “Madeleine in Church”—in which a prostitute addresses the Virgin Mary—are noted for their then avant-garde conversational rhythms. The Rambling Sailor (1929), a posthumous collection of 32 previously uncollected…

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