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  • Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (film by Reisz [1960])

    Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, British film drama, released in 1960, that is one of the best of the Angry Young Men movies that emanated from England in the late 1950s and ’60s. In his first starring role, Albert Finney played a charismatic man who seems destined to follow in his parents’ and

  • Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (novel by Sillitoe)

    Alan Sillitoe: …on his first published novel, Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1958; filmed 1960). It was an immediate success, telling the story of a rude and amoral young labourer for whom drink and sex on Saturday night provide the only relief from the oppression of the working life.

  • Saturday Night Fever (film by Badham [1977])

    disco: In 1977 the Bee Gees-dominated Saturday Night Fever soundtrack on the RSO label made disco fully mainstream and inspired forays by rock musicians such as Cher (“Take Me Home”), the Rolling Stones (“Miss You”), and Rod Stewart (“D’Ya Think I’m Sexy?”). Its popularity was matched by an equally ferocious criticism…

  • Saturday Night Fever (motion-picture soundtrack album)

    the Bee Gees: …on the sound track album Saturday Night Fever (1977) would popularize and in many ways define. The recording earned several Grammy Awards, including album of the year. Besides writing their own hits, such as “Stayin’ Alive,” the brothers composed tracks for other artists on the album, which would eventually sell…

  • Saturday Night Live (American television program)

    Saturday Night Live (SNL), American sketch comedy and variety television series that has aired on Saturday nights on the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) network since 1975, becoming one of the longest-running programs in television. The series is a fixture of NBC programming and a landmark in

  • Saturday Night Massacre (United States history)

    United States: The Watergate scandal: This “Saturday night massacre” of Justice Department officials did not, however, stem the flow of damaging revelations, confessions, and indictments.

  • Saturday Review (British magazine)

    George Bernard Shaw: Early life and career: …by Frank Harris to the Saturday Review as theatre critic (1895–98); in that position he used all his wit and polemical powers in a campaign to displace the artificialities and hypocrisies of the Victorian stage with a theatre of vital ideas. He also began writing his own plays.

  • Saturday Review (American magazine)

    John Ciardi: …as poetry editor of the Saturday Review from 1956 to 1972. He felt that interaction between audience and author was crucial, and he generated continuous controversy with his critical reviews. He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Institute of Arts and Letters.

  • Saturday Society (Finnish cultural organization)

    Finnish literature: Literature in Swedish: …centred on the L?rdagss?llskapet (Saturday Society), a group of young men that counted among its members, in addition to Runeberg, Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Zacharias Topelius, and, as an occasional guest, Elias L?nnrot. Although writing in Swedish, members of the Saturday Society were conscious of creating a culture and a…

  • Saturday’s Children (play by Anderson)

    Vincent Sherman: Early work: …based on a Maxwell Anderson play; John Garfield and Anne Shirley starred as struggling newlyweds. Sherman explored various genres with his next films. The Man Who Talked Too Much (1940) was a courtroom drama, and the low-budget Underground (1941) was an early anti-Nazi picture. In All Through the Night (1941),…

  • Saturday’s Children (film by Sherman [1940])

    Vincent Sherman: Early work: Saturday’s Children (1940) was a step up, a serious drama based on a Maxwell Anderson play; John Garfield and Anne Shirley starred as struggling newlyweds. Sherman explored various genres with his next films. The Man Who Talked Too Much (1940) was a courtroom drama, and…

  • Satureia hortensis (herb)

    savory: The most-common culinary species is summer savory (Satureja hortensis), an annual shrubby herb that grows well in warm climates. The square stems are covered with fine trichomes (plant hairs) and are sometimes tinged with purple. The linear gray-green leaves are arranged oppositely and are about 2.5 cm (1 inch) in…

  • Satureia montana (herb)

    savory: Winter savory, or dwarf savory (S. montana), is a smaller perennial subshrub that flowers in winter. It is used for culinary purposes almost interchangeably with the summer species.

  • Satureja hortensis (herb)

    savory: The most-common culinary species is summer savory (Satureja hortensis), an annual shrubby herb that grows well in warm climates. The square stems are covered with fine trichomes (plant hairs) and are sometimes tinged with purple. The linear gray-green leaves are arranged oppositely and are about 2.5 cm (1 inch) in…

  • Saturia–Manikganj Sadar tornado (tornado, Manikganj district, Bangladesh [1989])

    Saturia–Manikganj Sadar tornado, catastrophic tornado that struck the Manikganj district of Bangladesh on April 26, 1989. Causing approximately 1,300 fatalities, it was likely the deadliest tornado in recorded history. The tornado struck at around 6:30 pm local time and moved east from the

  • Saturiq (ancient city, Iran)

    Takht-e Soleymān, (Persian: “Solomon’s Throne”) ancient city and Zoroastrian temple complex of Iran’s Sāsānian dynasty, subsequently occupied by other groups, including the Mongol Il-Khanid dynasty. It is located in northwestern Iran in the southeastern highlands of Western āz?arbāyjān province,

  • Saturn (Roman god)

    Saturn, in Roman religion, the god of sowing or seed. The Romans equated him with the Greek agricultural deity Cronus. The remains of Saturn’s temple at Rome, eight columns of the pronaos (porch), still dominate the west end of the Forum at the foot of the Clivus Capitolinus. The temple goes back

  • Saturn (automobile)

    materials science: Aluminum: …average automobile, and General Motors’ Saturn, with an aluminum engine block and cylinder heads. These vehicles and others took their place alongside the British Land Rover, which was built with all-aluminum body panels beginning in 1948—a choice dictated by a shortage of steel during World War II and continued by…

  • Saturn (launch vehicle)

    Saturn, in space exploration, any of a series of large two- and three-stage vehicles for launching spacecraft, developed by the United States beginning in 1958 in connection with the crewed Apollo Moon-landing program. Saturn I, the first U.S. rocket specifically developed for spaceflight, was a

  • Saturn (planet)

    Saturn, second largest planet of the solar system in mass and size and the sixth nearest planet in distance to the Sun. In the night sky Saturn is easily visible to the unaided eye as a non-twinkling point of light. When viewed through even a small telescope, the planet encircled by its magnificent

  • Saturnalia (Roman festival)

    Saturnalia, the most popular of Roman festivals. Dedicated to the Roman god Saturn, the festival’s influence continues to be felt throughout the Western world. Originally celebrated on December 17, Saturnalia was extended first to three and eventually to seven days. The date has been connected with

  • Saturnalia (work by Macrobius)

    Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius: …most important work is the Saturnalia, the last known example of the long series of symposia headed by the Symposium of Plato.

  • Saturnia pavonia (insect)

    saturniid moth: …heavily scaled wings of the emperor moth (Saturnia pavonia), which occurs in temperate regions of Europe and Asia, are marked by transparent eyespots, which presumably serve a protective function in frightening predators. Larval forms feed on shrubs. The promethea moth (Callosamia promethea)—also called spicebush moth because the larvae feed on…

  • Saturnia pyri (insect)

    caterpillar: Caterpillars of the giant peacock moth (Saturnia pyri) send out ultrasonic warning chirps to deter predators. In some cases, those chirps occur just prior to or in conjunction with the release of pungent chemical deterrents. The masked birch caterpillar (Drepana arcuata) produces vibratory signals in order to defend…

  • Saturnian metre (poetry)

    Saturnian verse, the ancient Latin verse used mainly by Livius Andronicus and Gnaeus Naevius before the adoption of Greek verse forms by later Latin writers. Little is known about its origins or whether its rhythm was accentual or

  • Saturnian verse (poetry)

    Saturnian verse, the ancient Latin verse used mainly by Livius Andronicus and Gnaeus Naevius before the adoption of Greek verse forms by later Latin writers. Little is known about its origins or whether its rhythm was accentual or

  • saturniid moth (insect)

    Saturniid moth, (family Saturniidae), any of about 1,500 species of moths (order Lepidoptera), some of which spin thick, silken cocoons and are sometimes used to produce commercial silk. Adults have stout, hairy bodies and broad wings that are often vividly coloured and patterned. Most species have

  • Saturniidae (insect)

    Saturniid moth, (family Saturniidae), any of about 1,500 species of moths (order Lepidoptera), some of which spin thick, silken cocoons and are sometimes used to produce commercial silk. Adults have stout, hairy bodies and broad wings that are often vividly coloured and patterned. Most species have

  • Saturninus (fictional character)

    Titus Andronicus: The late emperor’s son Saturninus is supposed to marry Titus’s daughter Lavinia; however, when his brother Bassianus runs away with her instead, Saturninus marries Tamora. Saturninus and Tamora then plot revenge against Titus. Lavinia is raped and mutilated by Tamora’s sadistic sons Demetrius and Chiron, who cut off her…

  • Saturninus of Antioch (Gnostic teacher)

    gnosticism: Adversus haereses: …those of Simon Magus, Menander, Satornil (or Saturninus) of Antioch, Basilides, Carpocrates, Marcellina, Cerinthus, Cerdo, Marcion of Sinope, Tatian, and the Ebionites.

  • Saturninus, Antonius (Roman general)

    Domitian: …came with the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, governor of Upper Germany, on Jan. 1, 89. This was suppressed by the Lower German army, but a number of executions followed, and the law of majestas (treason) was later employed freely against senators. The years 93–96 were regarded as a period of…

  • Saturninus, Lucius Appuleius (Roman politician)

    Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, Roman politician who, with Gaius Servilius Glaucia, opposed the Roman Senate from 103 to 100, at first with the cooperation of the prominent general Gaius Marius. Saturninus turned against the leaders of the Senate when, while serving as quaestor (financial

  • satya (philosophy)

    India: Gandhi’s strategy: He chose satya (“truth”) and ahimsa (nonviolence, or love) as the polar stars of his political movement; the former was the ancient Vedic concept of the real, embodying the very essence of existence itself, while the latter, according to Hindu (as well as Jain) scripture, was the…

  • Satya Wacana Christian University (university, Salatiga, Indonesia)

    Salatiga: The Satya Wacana Christian University, originally founded as a private Christian teacher-training college in 1956, is located there. Kopeng, a hill resort (4,593 feet [1,400 metres]), is about 9 miles (14 km) to the south of Salatiga. Pop. (2010) 170,332.

  • Satyabhāma (Indian mythological character)

    kuchipudi: …Bhama Kalapam, a story of Satyabhāma, the charming but jealous wife of the god Krishna. The dance performance begins with the sprinkling of holy water and the burning of incense. Other rituals are performed, the goddesses of learning, wealth, and energy are invoked, and the characters are introduced, together with…

  • satyagraha (philosophy)

    Satyagraha, (Sanskrit and Hindi: “holding onto truth”) concept introduced in the early 20th century by Mahatma Gandhi to designate a determined but nonviolent resistance to evil. Gandhi’s satyagraha became a major tool in the Indian struggle against British imperialism and has since been adopted by

  • Satyagraha (work by Glass)

    Philip Glass: Glass’s opera Satyagraha (1980) was a more authentically “operatic” portrayal of incidents from the early life of Mohandas K. Gandhi. In this work, the dronelike repetition of symmetrical sequences of chords attained a haunting and hypnotic power well attuned to the religio-spiritual themes of the libretto, adapted…

  • Satyanarayana Raju (Indian religious leader)

    Sathya Sai Baba, (Sathyanarayana Raju), Indian religious leader (born Nov. 23, 1926, Puttaparthi, British India—died April 24, 2011, Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh, India), was widely revered as a divine incarnation, but critics dismissed his claims of miracles performed, and he attracted scrutiny

  • Satyārath Prakāsh (work by Dayanand)

    Rajasthan: History: Udaipur, Dayananda Sarasvati wrote his Satyarth Prakash (“The Light of Truth”); intended to restore Hinduism to its pristine purity, the work created a ferment in Rajputana. Important movements of thought also occurred among the Jain sadhus (holy men) and scholars. Ajmer was the centre of political activity, and nationalist leaders…

  • Satyarthi, Kailash (Indian social reformer)

    Kailash Satyarthi, Indian social reformer who campaigned against child labour in India and elsewhere and advocated the universal right to education. In 2014 he was the corecipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, along with teenage Pakistani education advocate Malala Yousafzai, “for their struggle against

  • Satyasiddhi (Buddhist school)

    pantheism: Buddhist doctrines: …as well as to the Satyasiddhi (“perfect attainment of truth”) group in Theravada Buddhism. Since the Void is also called the highest synthesis of all oppositions, the doctrine of the Void may be viewed as an instance of identity of opposites pantheism.

  • Satyasiddhi-?āstra (Buddhist treatise)

    Satyasiddhi-?āstra , (Sanskrit: True Attainment Treatise), treatise in 202 chapters on the doctrine of the void (?ūnya). The work stands as a philosophical bridge between Hīnayāna, or Theravāda, Buddhism, the form predominant in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and Southeast Asia, and Mahāyāna Buddhism, the

  • Satyasiddhi-shastra (Buddhist treatise)

    Satyasiddhi-?āstra , (Sanskrit: True Attainment Treatise), treatise in 202 chapters on the doctrine of the void (?ūnya). The work stands as a philosophical bridge between Hīnayāna, or Theravāda, Buddhism, the form predominant in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and Southeast Asia, and Mahāyāna Buddhism, the

  • Satyavati (legendary Indian princess)

    Vyasa: and the dasyu (aboriginal) princess Satyavati and grew up in forests, living with hermits who taught him the Vedas (ancient sacred literature of India). Thereafter he lived in the forests near the banks of the river Sarasvati, becoming a teacher and a priest, fathering a son and disciple, Shuka, and…

  • Satyr (Greek mythology)

    Satyr and Silenus, in Greek mythology, creatures of the wild, part man and part beast, who in Classical times were closely associated with the god Dionysus. Their Italian counterparts were the Fauns (see Faunus). Satyrs and Sileni were at first represented as uncouth men, each with a horse’s tail

  • Satyr Against Mankind (work by Wilmot)

    satire: Literature: …all of humanity, as in Satyr Against Mankind (1675), by John Wilmot, 2nd earl of Rochester, from Erasmus’s attack on corruptions in the church to Jonathan Swift’s excoriation of all civilized institutions in Gulliver’s Travels. Its forms within the Western literary tradition are as varied as its victims: from an…

  • Satyr Against Wit (work by Blackmore)

    Sir Richard Blackmore: …also treated in his verse Satyr Against Wit (1700). These and other writings in prose provoked retorts from Alexander Pope and his friends and earned Blackmore his reputation as “father of the Bathos, and indeed the Homer of it.”

  • satyr butterfly (insect)

    Satyr butterfly, (subfamily Satyrinae), any of a group of delicate butterflies in the family Nymphalidae (order Lepidoptera) that are abundant during summer months in the woods and grasslands of the United States and Europe. The adults are dull brown or grey, while the larvae possess small, forked

  • satyr play (Greek drama)

    Satyr play, genre of ancient Greek drama that preserves the structure and characters of tragedy while adopting a happy atmosphere and a rural background. The satyr play can be considered the reversal of Attic tragedy, a kind of “joking tragedy.” The actors play mythical heroes engaged in action

  • Satyre Ménippée (pasquinade)

    Florent Chrestien: …of the authors of the Satyre Ménippée, the famous pasquinade in the interest of his old pupil Henry IV, in which the harangue put into the mouth of Cardinal de Pelvé is usually attributed to Chrestien.

  • Satyre of the Thrie Estaits, Ane (work by Lyndsay)

    Sir David Lyndsay: Lyndsay’s Ane Satyre of the Thrie Estaits is the only surviving complete Scottish morality play. Originally entitled “the mysdemeanours of Busshops Religious persones and preists within the Realme” (1540), it was enlarged with coarse comedy and performed in 1552 at Cupar, Fife, and again on the…

  • Satyre, Le (poem by Hugo)

    Victor Hugo: Exile (1851–70): …is the theme of “Le Satyre”; and “Plein Ciel” proclaims, through utopian prediction of men’s conquest of the air, the poet’s conviction of indefinite progress toward the final unity of science with moral awareness.

  • Satyricon (novel by Petronius Arbiter)

    Satyricon, (1st century ad), comic, picaresque novel attributed to Petronius

  • Satyricon (film by Fellini [1969])

    Federico Fellini: Major works: …Petronius Arbiter and Lucius Apuleius, Fellini Satyricon (1969), promoted with the slogan “Before Christ. After Fellini,” actually celebrated the hippie movement, which he first encountered in the United States. Two aimless young bisexual men wander a morally and physically decaying world of casual decadence, rendered in the gaudy colours that…

  • Satyricon liber (novel by Petronius Arbiter)

    Satyricon, (1st century ad), comic, picaresque novel attributed to Petronius

  • Satyrinae (insect)

    Satyr butterfly, (subfamily Satyrinae), any of a group of delicate butterflies in the family Nymphalidae (order Lepidoptera) that are abundant during summer months in the woods and grasslands of the United States and Europe. The adults are dull brown or grey, while the larvae possess small, forked

  • Satyrs and Sunlight: Sylvarum Libri (poetry by McCrae)

    Hugh McCrae: His first book of verse, Satyrs and Sunlight: Sylvarum Libri (1909), appeared in a revised edition in 1928, which contains much of his best work. Colombine (1920) was followed by Idyllia (1922). Other works include The Mimshi Maiden (1938), Poems (1939), Forests of Pan (1944), and Voice of the Forest…

  • Satyrs upon the Jesuits (work by Oldham)

    John Oldham: The four Satyrs upon the Jesuits (1681), including “Garnet’s Ghost,” previously published as a broadsheet in 1679, met with considerable contemporary success and constitute his most widely known work. They are forceful but melodramatic, crowded with coarse images and uneven versification, an attempt to imitate the invective…

  • Satyry albo przestrogi do naprawy rz?du i obyczajów w Polszcze nale??ce (work by Opaliński)

    Krzysztof Opaliński: …literature as the author of Satyry albo przestrogi do naprawy rz?du i obyczajów w Polszcze nale??ce (1650; “Satires or Warnings on the Reform of the Government and Customs in Poland”). In this work, which was widely read in Poland during the 17th century, Opaliński attacked the injustice and abuses of…

  • Sau River (river, Europe)

    Sava River, river in the western Balkans. Its basin, 36,960 square miles (95,720 square km) in area, covers much of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and northern Serbia. It rises in the Triglav group of the Julian Alps as two rivers, the Sava Bohinjka and the Sava Dolinka, which join at Radovljica. It

  • Saubel, Katherine Siva (Native American scholar)

    Katherine Siva Saubel, Native American scholar and educator committed to preserving her Cahuilla culture and language and to promoting their fuller understanding by the larger public. Reared on the Palm Springs Reservation in California, Katherine Siva was taught by her parents from an early age to

  • sauce (food)

    Sauce, liquid or semiliquid mixture that is added to a food as it cooks or that is served with it. Sauces provide flavour, moisture, and a contrast in texture and colour. They may also serve as a medium in which food is contained, for example, the velouté sauce of creamed chicken. Seasoning liquids

  • sauce a?oli (food)

    mayonnaise: … (with anchovies, pickles, and capers), sauce a?oli (a Proven?al mayonnaise flavoured with a great deal of garlic), and salad dressings such as Thousand Island and Russian dressings.

  • sauce rémoulade (food)

    mayonnaise: …verte (with puréed green herbs), sauce rémoulade (with anchovies, pickles, and capers), sauce a?oli (a Proven?al mayonnaise flavoured with a great deal of garlic), and salad dressings such as Thousand Island and Russian dressings.

  • sauceboat (metalwork)

    Sauceboat, metal or pottery bowl with a lip and handle, used for holding and serving sauces. The earliest type of silver sauceboat, introduced during the second decade of the 18th century, had a protuberant lip at either end, two central scroll handles, and a molded base. By the 1740s the

  • saucer lamp

    lamp: …Egypt and China, was the saucer lamp. Made of pottery or bronze, it was sometimes provided with a spike in the centre of the declivity to support the wick, which was used to control the rate of burning. Another version had a wick channel, which allowed the burning surface of…

  • saucer magnolia (magnolia hybrid)

    Magnoliales: Magnoliaceae: …is Magnolia × soulangeana (saucer magnolia), a spreading deciduous shrub with leaves that measure up to 15–20 cm (6–8 inches) long. Its flowers appear in early spring before the leaves, and this flowering continues after the leaves have developed. The flowers are typically white at their tips, with dark…

  • Saucesian Stage (geology)

    Saucesian Stage, lowermost and oldest major division of Early Miocene rocks and time (23.7 to 16.6 million years ago) on the Pacific coast of North America. The Saucesian Stage, which preceded the Relizian Stage, was named for exposures studied at Los Sauces Creek, California. Three zones, or

  • Sauckel, Fritz (German Nazi politician)

    Fritz Sauckel, Nazi politician who was Adolf Hitler’s chief recruiter of slave labour during World War II. While Sauckel was serving as a seaman during World War I, his ship was captured by the British, and he spent the remainder of the war as a prisoner in France. He joined the Nazi Party in 1923

  • sauconite (mineral)

    clay mineral: Smectite: Zinc dominant species are called sauconite. There are other types of trioctahedral smectites in which the net charge deficiency arises largely from the imbalanced charge due to ionic substitution or a small number of cation vacancies in the octahedral sheets or both conditions. Ideally x is zero, but most often…

  • Saucourt (France)

    Louis III: Louis’s victory at Saucourt (the memory of which was preserved in the chanson de geste called Gormont et Isembart) inflicted heavy losses on the Vikings, but the able and energetic king, not yet 20, died in the following year.

  • Saud (king of Saudi Arabia)

    Saud, son of Ibn Saud and his successor as king of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to 1964. After Ibn Saud conquered (1925) the Hejaz, a district in the Arabian Peninsula, he made his two eldest sons, Saud and Fay?al, his deputies in Najd and Hejaz, respectively. Saud’s primary responsibility was for the

  • Saud ibn Abd al-?Azīz al-Fay?al al-Saud (king of Saudi Arabia)

    Saud, son of Ibn Saud and his successor as king of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to 1964. After Ibn Saud conquered (1925) the Hejaz, a district in the Arabian Peninsula, he made his two eldest sons, Saud and Fay?al, his deputies in Najd and Hejaz, respectively. Saud’s primary responsibility was for the

  • Saud of Saudi Arabia (king of Saudi Arabia)

    Saud, son of Ibn Saud and his successor as king of Saudi Arabia from 1953 to 1964. After Ibn Saud conquered (1925) the Hejaz, a district in the Arabian Peninsula, he made his two eldest sons, Saud and Fay?al, his deputies in Najd and Hejaz, respectively. Saud’s primary responsibility was for the

  • Saud, Sulaimon (American musician)

    McCoy Tyner, American jazz pianist, bandleader, and composer, noted for his technical virtuosity and dazzling improvisations. Tyner began performing with local jazz ensembles while in his mid-teens. He met saxophonist John Coltrane in 1955 and, after a brief stint (1959) with a group led by Art

  • Saud, Sultan Salman Abdulaziz al- (Saudi royal and astronaut)

    Sultan ibn Salman Al Saud, astronaut who was the first Saudi Arabian citizen, the first Arab, the first Muslim, and the first member of a royal family to travel into space. Educated in the United States, Sultan received a degree in mass communications from the University of Denver (Colorado) and

  • saudade (Portuguese literature)

    Saudade, (Portuguese: “yearning”), overtone of melancholy and brooding loneliness and an almost mystical reverence for nature that permeates Portuguese and Brazilian lyric poetry. Saudade was a characteristic of the earliest Portuguese folk poetry and has been cultivated by sophisticated writers of

  • Saudades do Brasil (work by Milhaud)

    polytonality: …the left, while Darius Milhaud’s Saudades do Brasil combines a melody in C with an accompaniment in A? major. Such combinations of tonalities may be reviewed as 20th-century extensions of diatonic harmonic practices, following logically from post-Wagnerian chromaticism.

  • Saudagar (film by Ghai [1991])

    Dilip Kumar: …Vidhaata (1982), Karma (1986), and Saudagar (1991; “Merchant”), for which he won his first of eight Filmfare Awards for best actor. He was also noted for his performance in Ramesh Sippy’s Shakti (1982; “Strength”). Kumar’s last film was the family drama Qila (1998; “Fort”).

  • Saudi Arabia

    Saudi Arabia, arid, sparsely populated kingdom of the Middle East. Extending across most of the northern and central Arabian Peninsula, Saudi Arabia is a young country that is heir to a rich history. In its western highlands, along the Red Sea, lies the Hejaz, which is the cradle of Islam and the

  • Saudi Arabia, flag of

    national flag consisting of a green field (background) bearing, in white, an Arabic inscription and a sabre. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 2 to 3.When Muhammad began his proselytizing on behalf of Islam, there were no national flags in the modern sense, but in later years various flags

  • Saudi Arabia, history of

    Saudi Arabia: History: This discussion focuses on Saudi Arabia since the 18th century. For a treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see Arabia.

  • Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (financial institution, Saudi Arabia)

    Saudi Arabia: Finance: The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) was established in 1952 as the kingdom’s central money and banking authority. It regulates commercial and development banks and other financial institutions. Its functions include issuing, regulating, and stabilizing the value of the national currency, the riyal; acting as banker…

  • Saudi Arabian Oil Company (oil company)

    Saudi Aramco, Oil company founded by the Standard Oil Co. of California (Chevron) in 1933, when the government of Saudi Arabia granted it a concession. Other U.S. companies joined after oil was found near Dhahran in 1938. In 1950 Aramco opened a pipeline from Saudi Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea

  • Saudi Aramco (oil company)

    Saudi Aramco, Oil company founded by the Standard Oil Co. of California (Chevron) in 1933, when the government of Saudi Arabia granted it a concession. Other U.S. companies joined after oil was found near Dhahran in 1938. In 1950 Aramco opened a pipeline from Saudi Arabia to the Mediterranean Sea

  • Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Saudi Arabian company)

    Saudi Arabia: Manufacturing: …when the government established the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) in order to diversify the economy. Its initial goal was to expand the manufacturing potential of sectors of the economy related to petroleum. Since then manufactures, many associated with Sabic, have included rolled steel, petrochemicals, fertilizers, pipes, copper wire and…

  • Saudi Binladin Group (Saudi Arabian international company)

    Abrāj al-Bayt: Designed and constructed by the Saudi Binladin Group, along with a number of other Saudi and international firms, the entire project was reported to cost $3 billion.

  • Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (Saudi Arabian organization)

    Sultan ibn Salman Al Saud: …the first secretary-general of the Supreme Tourism Commission in Saudi Arabia when the organization was formed in 2000. In this position, he worked to expand and enhance the tourism sector in his country by playing a leading role in developing the country’s tourism strategy and devising the industry’s regulations. He…

  • Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage (Saudi Arabian organization)

    Sultan ibn Salman Al Saud: …the first secretary-general of the Supreme Tourism Commission in Saudi Arabia when the organization was formed in 2000. In this position, he worked to expand and enhance the tourism sector in his country by playing a leading role in developing the country’s tourism strategy and devising the industry’s regulations. He…

  • Saudi gazelle (mammal)

    gazelle: Asian gazelles: arabica; now extinct), the Saudi gazelle (G. saudiya; now extinct in the wild), the Queen of Sheba’s gazelle (G. bilkis; now extinct), and the dorcas gazelle (G. dorcas). The dorcas gazelle also ranges into North Africa. The range of the goitred gazelle extends across the Asian deserts to China,…

  • Saudi Space Commission (Saudi government entity)

    Sultan ibn Salman Al Saud: …become head of the new Saudi Space Commission.

  • saudosismo (Portuguese literature)

    Saudade, (Portuguese: “yearning”), overtone of melancholy and brooding loneliness and an almost mystical reverence for nature that permeates Portuguese and Brazilian lyric poetry. Saudade was a characteristic of the earliest Portuguese folk poetry and has been cultivated by sophisticated writers of

  • Sauer Fluss (river, Europe)

    S?re River, river rising in the Belgian province of Luxembourg and flowing 107 miles (172 km) east and southeast into the Mosel (Moselle) River, 7 miles (11 km) southwest of Trier in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The S?re, which is navigable past Dekirche for about 40 miles (64 km), forms the

  • Sauer, Carl O. (American geographer)

    Carl O. Sauer, American geographer who was an authority on desert studies, tropical areas, the human geography of American Indians, and agriculture and native crops of the New World. He obtained his Ph.D. (1915) at the University of Chicago, then taught at the University of Michigan (1915–23)

  • Sauer, Carl Ortwin (American geographer)

    Carl O. Sauer, American geographer who was an authority on desert studies, tropical areas, the human geography of American Indians, and agriculture and native crops of the New World. He obtained his Ph.D. (1915) at the University of Chicago, then taught at the University of Michigan (1915–23)

  • Sauer, Christopher (American printer)

    Christopher Sower, German-born American printer and Pietist leader of the Pennsylvania Germans. Sower migrated with his wife and son Christopher to Germantown, Pa., in 1724. He was an artisan skilled in many crafts, was profoundly religious, and found his true career in 1738 as the first successful

  • Sauer, Emil George Konrad von (German pianist, teacher, and composer)

    Emil von Sauer, German pianist in the style of Liszt, teacher, and composer noted especially for his long and successful concert career. He was a student of Nikolay Rubinstein at the Moscow Conservatory from 1879 to 1881 and of Franz Liszt in Weimar from 1884 to 1885. He made numerous concert tours

  • Sauer, Emil von (German pianist, teacher, and composer)

    Emil von Sauer, German pianist in the style of Liszt, teacher, and composer noted especially for his long and successful concert career. He was a student of Nikolay Rubinstein at the Moscow Conservatory from 1879 to 1881 and of Franz Liszt in Weimar from 1884 to 1885. He made numerous concert tours

  • sauerbraten (food)

    Sauerbraten, in German cuisine, dish of spiced braised beef. A solid cut from the round or rump is marinated for three or four days in red wine and vinegar flavoured with onions, bay leaves, juniper berries, cloves, and peppercorns. After being dried and browned, the beef is braised in the

  • Sauerbruch, Ernst Ferdinand (surgeon)

    history of medicine: Anesthesia and thoracic surgery: …the negative pressure cabinet of Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch, then at Mikulicz’s clinic at Breslau; the cabinet was first demonstrated in 1904 but was destined soon to become obsolete.

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