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  • Schoenfeld, Gerald (American producer and theatre owner)

    Gerald Schoenfeld, American producer and theatre owner (born Sept. 22, 1924, New York, N.Y.—died Nov. 25, 2008, New York City), led a revitalization of commercial theatre in New York City, bringing to Broadway such hits as Equus, A Chorus Line, and The Phantom of the Opera and transforming a

  • Schoenheimer, Rudolf (German biochemist)

    Rudolf Schoenheimer, German-born American biochemist whose technique of “tagging” molecules with radioactive isotopes made it possible to trace the paths of organic substances through animals and plants and revolutionized metabolic studies. Schoenheimer was a graduate in medicine from the

  • Schoening, Peter K. (American mountaineer)

    Peter K. Schoening, American mountaineer (born July 30, 1927, Seattle, Wash.—died Sept. 22, 2004, Kenmore, Wash.), single-handedly averted the loss in 1953 of an entire expedition on K2, the world’s second highest peak. After his climbing team experienced a chain-reaction series of falls, S

  • Schoenus (plant genus)

    Cyperaceae: Distribution and abundance: …Bulbostylis, with approximately 100 species; Schoenus, also with about 100 species; and Mapania, with up to 80 species.

  • Schoff, Hannah Kent (American social worker and reformer)

    Hannah Kent Schoff, American welfare worker and reformer who was influential in state and national child welfare and juvenile criminal legislation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Schoff married in 1873 and eventually settled in Philadelphia. She attended the first National Congress of

  • Sch?ffe (German law)

    Sch?ffe, in Germany, a lay jurist or assessor assigned primarily to a lower criminal court to make decisions both on points of law and on fact jointly with professional jurists. A Sch?ffe may also sit on a higher court. Since 1976, in the higher court, two Sch?ffen sit along with three

  • Sch?ffer, Johann (German printer)

    printing: The invention of typography—Gutenberg (1450?): …comes from his chief detractor, Johann Sch?ffer, the son of Peter Sch?ffer and grandson of Johann Fust. Though Sch?ffer claimed from 1509 on that the invention was solely his father’s and grandfather’s, the fact is that in 1505 he had written in a preface to an edition of Livy that…

  • Sch?ffer, Nicolas (French sculptor)

    Nicolas Sch?ffer, Hungarian-born French artist best known for his sculptures employing mechanical movement, light, and sound. Sch?ffer studied painting at the School of Fine Arts in Budapest from 1932 to 1935 and then at the école des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He became a French citizen in 1948. Between

  • Sch?ffer, Peter (German printer)

    Peter Sch?ffer, German printer who assisted Johannes Gutenberg and later opened his own printing shop. Sch?ffer studied in Paris, where he supported himself as a copyist, and then became an apprentice to Gutenberg in Mainz. He entered the printing business as the partner of Gutenberg’s creditor,

  • Schofield Barracks (mountain ridge, Hawaii, United States)

    Koolau Range: Western lava flows created the Schofield Barracks, a saddle (ridge) 14 miles (22 km) long and 5 miles (8 km) wide between the Koolau Range and the Waianae Range (which parallels the island’s west coast).

  • Schofield, John (United States Army officer)

    Battle of Nashville: Context: John Schofield at its head. Hood first engaged Schofield on November 29 at Spring Hill, Tennessee, just north of the Duck River. He intended to sever Schofield’s access to the Nashville road, but communication between Hood and his subordinates broke down and Schofield slipped past…

  • Schoharie (county, New York, United States)

    Schoharie, county, east-central New York state, U.S., comprising a mountainous region. The principal streams are Schoharie, Cobleskill, and Catskill creeks and West and Manor kills. The main (west) and east branches of the Delaware River originate in the southwestern corner of the county. Water is

  • Schoinobates volans (marsupial)

    marsupial: The gliders have a membrane along either flank, attached to the forelegs and hind legs, that enables these arboreal animals to glide down from a high perch. A few marsupials—such as tree kangaroos, koalas, and some cuscuses—spend most of their lives in trees. The water opossum,…

  • schola cantorum (medieval music school)

    Schola cantorum, medieval papal singing school and associated choir, the ancestor of the modern Sistine Choir. According to tradition, the schola cantorum was established by Pope Sylvester I (d. 335) and was reorganized by Pope Gregory I (d. 604), but the first written mention of it dates from the

  • Schola Cantorum (French music school)

    Charles Bordes: …d’Indy, founded in Paris the Schola Cantorum, a society that in 1896 became a school for church music with Bordes as professor. Its publication, La Tribune de St. Gervais (1895), became the main organ of French musicology. He also began publication of the Anthologie des ma?tres religieux primitifs, which provided…

  • Scholar Gipsy, The (lyric poem by Arnold)

    The Scholar Gipsy, lyric poem by Matthew Arnold, published in Poems (1853). It is a masterful handling of the 10-line stanza that John Keats used in many of his odes. The poem’s subject is a legendary Oxford scholar who gives up his academic life to roam the world with a band of Gypsies, absorbing

  • Scholarios, Georgios (patriarch of Constantinople)

    Gennadios II Scholarios , first patriarch of Constantinople (1454–64) under Turkish rule and the foremost Greek Orthodox Aristotelian theologian and polemicist of his time. Scholarios became expert in European philosophy and theology and was called “the Latinist” derisively by his colleagues. He

  • scholarly journal

    history of publishing: Scholarly journals: The publishing of scholarly journals, begun in the 17th century, expanded greatly in the 19th as fresh fields of inquiry opened up or old ones were further divided into specialties. Numerous learned societies were formed in such fields as classical studies, biblical studies,…

  • scholarly library

    library: University and research libraries: Before the invention of printing, it was common for students to travel long distances to hear famous teachers. Printing made it possible for copies of a teacher’s lectures to be widely disseminated, and from that point universities began to create great libraries. The…

  • scholarly tradition (Chinese philosophy)

    Confucianism: The historical context: …by Chinese historians as the rujia, “scholarly tradition,” that had its origins two millennia previously, when the legendary sages Yao and Shun created a civilized world through moral persuasion.

  • Scholars, The (work by Wu Jingzi)

    Wu Jingzi: 1750; The Scholars).

  • scholarship (study grant)

    gridiron football: Scholarships and the student athlete: College football’s other post-World War II crisis, regarding professionalism, reached a flash point in the late 1940s and early 1950s over athletic scholarships. Subsidizing athletes had been common since the 1920s but was not officially sanctioned and was entirely unregulated,…

  • scholarship, classical

    Classical scholarship, the study, in all its aspects, of ancient Greece and Rome. In continental Europe the field is known as “classical philology,” but the use, in some circles, of “philology” to denote the study of language and literature—the result of abbreviating the 19th-century “comparative

  • Scholastic Aptitude Test (educational test)

    aptitude test: The Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the American College Testing Exam (ACT) are examples of group tests commonly used in the United States to gauge general academic ability; in France the International Baccalaureate exam (le bac) is taken by secondary-school students. Such tests yield a profile…

  • Scholastica (Italian nun)

    St. Benedict: Life: His sister Scholastica, who came to live nearby as the head of a nunnery, died shortly before her brother. The only certain date in Benedict’s life is given by a visit from the Gothic king Totila about 542. Benedict’s feast day is kept by monks on March…

  • Scholasticism (philosophy)

    Scholasticism, the philosophical systems and speculative tendencies of various medieval Christian thinkers, who, working against a background of fixed religious dogma, sought to solve anew general philosophical problems (as of faith and reason, will and intellect, realism and nominalism, and the

  • scholasticism, Buddhist (Buddhism)

    Buddhism: The Pali canon (Tipitaka): …the interest in scholasticism (Pali: Abhidhamma).

  • Scholem, Gershom Gerhard (Israeli scholar)

    Moses De León: …disguised, were discerned by Gershom Scholem, one of the great 20th-century scholars of Jewish mysticism, and he became convinced that the Zohar was a medieval work. He was able to demonstrate, further, that the Aramaic in which the Zohar is written is, in both vocabulary and idiom, the work of…

  • Scholemaster, The (work by Ascham)

    Roger Ascham: The Scholemaster, written in simple, lucid English prose and published posthumously in 1570, is Ascham’s best-known book. It presents an effective method of teaching Latin prose composition, but its larger concerns are with the psychology of learning, the education of the whole person, and the ideal…

  • Scholes, Myron S. (Canadian-American economist)

    Myron S. Scholes, Canadian-born American economist best known for his work with colleague Fischer Black on the Black-Scholes option valuation formula, which made options trading more accessible by giving investors a benchmark for valuing. Scholes shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences

  • Scholia (work by Maximus the Confessor)

    Saint Maximus the Confessor: …of Gregory of Nazianzus), and Scholia (on Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite), mostly authentic, express Maximus’ teaching on the transcendental, nonpredicable nature of the divinity, his intrinsic Trinitarian existence, and his definitive communication in Christ. In his 400 Capita de caritate (“Four Hundred Chapters on Charity”), Maximus counselled a Christian humanism, integrating…

  • Scholia enchiriadis (work by Hucbald)

    Hucbald: The Musica enchiriadis and Scholia enchiriadis give the earliest written description of music in several voices: parallel organum, in which a plainchant melody is sung in parallel fourths or parallel fifths. De alia musica deals with a notational system called daseian notation. Although it never became generally accepted, it…

  • Scholl, Hans (German activist)

    White Rose: …of the group’s founding members—Hans Scholl, Willi Graf, and Alexander Schmorell—were medical students at the University of Munich. While on the Eastern Front, the trio observed the murder of Jewish civilians by SS troops. When they returned to Munich, the three joined with other students—including Hans’s sister Sophie—to discuss…

  • Scholl, Sophie (German activist)

    White Rose: …with other students—including Hans’s sister Sophie—to discuss their opposition to the Nazi regime. Coupling youthful idealism with an impressive knowledge of German literature and Christian religious teachings, the students published their beliefs in a series of leaflets under the name “the White Rose” (and later as “Leaflets of the Resistance”).

  • Scholl, William Howard (British businessman)

    William Howard Scholl, British businessman and shoe designer (born Sept. 24, 1920, London, Eng.—died March 15, 2002, Douglas, Isle of Man), developed an orthopedic wooden sandal in the late 1950s, but young women, charmed by the shoe’s deceptively simple looks and the distinctive clip-clip sound i

  • Schollander, Don (American swimmer)

    Don Schollander, American athlete who was the first swimmer to win four gold medals in a single Olympic Games. A product of the acclaimed Santa Clara (California) Swim Club, Schollander was noted for his speed, perfection of stroke, and effortless crawl. He broke several U.S. and world freestyle

  • Sch?llenen Gorge (gorge, Switzerland)

    Switzerland: Relief and drainage: …of a bridge in the Sch?llenen Gorge, which traverses the northern chain, while the southern range is crossed by the St. Gotthard Pass at an elevation of 6,916 feet (2,108 metres). The 9-mile (14-km) Saint Gotthard rail tunnel through the pass was opened in 1882; a twin 10.5-mile (17-km) road…

  • Scholtz, Friedrich von (German officer)

    Battle of Tannenberg: Initial developments on the Eastern Front: …East Prussia to advance against Friedrich von Scholtz’s XX Corps. He had been so hurried on by Zhilinsky that his troops were tired and hungry, their transport incomplete, and the supply services in chaos. Samsonov’s appearance was reported to Prittwitz on August 20, and the Russian force was under, rather…

  • Scholz, Georg (German artist)

    Neue Sachlichkeit: Alexander Kanoldt, Carlo Mense, Georg Scholz, and Heinrich Davringhausen.

  • Scholz, Heinrich (German scholar)

    Karl Barth: Years in Germany: …with the philosopher of science Heinrich Scholz. It was in this connection that he produced his celebrated study of St. Anselm, Fides quaerens intellectum (1931; Faith in Search of Understanding).

  • Scholz, Tom (American musician)

    Boston: The original members were Tom Scholz (b. March 10, 1947, Toledo, Ohio, U.S.), Brad Delp (b. June 12, 1951, Boston, Massachusetts—found dead March 9, 2007, Atkinson, New Hampshire), Fran Sheehan (b. March 26, 1949, Boston), Barry Goudreau (b. November 29, 1951, Boston), and John (“Sib”) Hashian (b. August 17,…

  • Schomberg, Frederick Herman, duke of (German soldier)

    Frederick Herman, duke of Schomberg, German soldier of fortune, a marshal of France, and an English peer, who fought in the service of various countries in the major European wars between 1634 and 1690. Schomberg was the son of the Protestant court marshal of Frederick V, elector Palatine, and of

  • Schomburgk, Sir Robert Hermann (British explorer)

    Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk, German-born British explorer and surveyor whose “Schomburgk Line” marked the boundary of British Guiana from 1841 to 1895. He was knighted in 1844. Schomburgk was educated in Germany, and in 1829 he went to the United States and from there in 1831 visited Anegada, one

  • Sch?n Ellen (work by Bruch)

    Max Bruch: …orchestra—such as Sch?n Ellen (1867; Beautiful Ellen) and Odysseus (1872). These were favourites with German choral societies during the late 19th century. These works failed to remain in the concert repertoire, possibly because, despite his sound workmanship and effective choral writing, he lacked the depth of conception and originality needed…

  • Sch?n, Helmut (German athlete and coach)

    Helmut Sch?n, German association football (soccer) player and coach who, during 14 years, 1964-78, as coach of the West German national team, guided West Germany to the World Cup final twice (losing in 1966 and coming back to win in 1974) and to the European championship twice (winning in 1972 and

  • Sch?n, Mila (Italian fashion designer)

    Mila Sch?n, (Maria Carmen Nutrizio), Italian fashion designer (born 1917?, Trogir, Dalmatia, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia]—died Sept. 4, 2008, near Alessandria, Italy), created understated, impeccably tailored haute couture worn by such fashion icons as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, but it was

  • Schon, Neal (American musician)

    Santana: …III (1971), featuring new guitarist Neal Schon, followed. With Caravanserai (1972) the group shifted toward jazz. Musicians began leaving the band—most notably Rolie and Schon, who formed Journey. Influenced in part by the philosophy of Sri Chinmoy, Carlos Santana continued excursions into jazz-rock with various musicians for several years before…

  • Sch?nbein, Christian Friedrich (German chemist)

    Christian Friedrich Sch?nbein, German chemist who discovered and named ozone (1840) and was the first to describe guncotton (nitrocellulose). His teaching posts included one at Epsom, Eng., before he joined the faculty at the University of Basel, Switz. (1828), where he was appointed professor of

  • Schonberg, Albert (American actor)

    Gallagher and Shean: …the act of “Gallagher and Shean.” They went separate ways from 1914 to 1920, but in the latter year (at the urging of Shean’s sister Minnie Marx, mother of the Marx Brothers) they rejoined to star in the Shubert Brothers’ Cinderella on Broadway, with huge success. They then appeared in…

  • Sch?nberg, Arnold (American composer)

    Arnold Schoenberg, Austrian-American composer who created new methods of musical composition involving atonality, namely serialism and the 12-tone row. He was also one of the most-influential teachers of the 20th century; among his most-significant pupils were Alban Berg and Anton Webern.

  • Sch?nberg, Arnold Franz Walter (American composer)

    Arnold Schoenberg, Austrian-American composer who created new methods of musical composition involving atonality, namely serialism and the 12-tone row. He was also one of the most-influential teachers of the 20th century; among his most-significant pupils were Alban Berg and Anton Webern.

  • Sch?nberg, August (American banker)

    August Belmont, German-born American banker, diplomat, political leader, sportsman, and a patron of the arts who was a defining figure of America’s Gilded Age. At age 14 Belmont entered the banking house of the Rothschilds at Frankfurt am Main, and he later transferred to the Naples office. In 1837

  • Sch?nberg, Friedrich Hermann von (German soldier)

    Frederick Herman, duke of Schomberg, German soldier of fortune, a marshal of France, and an English peer, who fought in the service of various countries in the major European wars between 1634 and 1690. Schomberg was the son of the Protestant court marshal of Frederick V, elector Palatine, and of

  • Schonberg, Harold Charles (American music critic)

    Harold Charles Schonberg, American music critic (born Nov. 29, 1915, New York, N.Y.—died July 26, 2003, New York City), considered that he wrote for himself—not for any particular audience—and led readers to think for themselves. In doing so during his half-century-long career—two decades of them (

  • Sch?nborn, Friedrich Karl, Graf von (vice chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire)

    Friedrich Karl, Graf (count) von Sch?nborn, prince-prelate, bishop of Bamberg and Würzburg (1729–46) whose long reign as vice chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire (1705–34) raised the imperial chancery for the last time to a position of European importance. After studies at Mainz, Aschaffenburg, and

  • Sch?nborn, Johann Philipp von (elector of Mainz)

    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Early life and education: …elector, the archbishop of Mainz, Johann Philipp von Sch?nborn, where he was concerned with questions of law and politics.

  • Schonbrunn Imperial Palace (palace, Vienna, Austria)

    Schloss Sch?nbrunn, Rococo-style 1,440-room summer palace of the Habsburgs in Vienna. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach’s first design for the building, meant to rival France’s Palace of Versailles, was done in 1690. A second, somewhat less ornate, plan, however, dating from 1695–96 was adopted,

  • Sch?nbrunn Zoo (zoo, Vienna, Austria)

    zoo: …the Imperial Menagerie at the Sch?nbrunn Palace in Vienna. This menagerie, which still flourishes, was opened to the general public in 1779. In 1775 a zoo was founded in a Royal Park in Madrid, and 18 years later the zoological collection of the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, was begun. The…

  • Sch?nbrunn, Schloss (palace, Vienna, Austria)

    Schloss Sch?nbrunn, Rococo-style 1,440-room summer palace of the Habsburgs in Vienna. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach’s first design for the building, meant to rival France’s Palace of Versailles, was done in 1690. A second, somewhat less ornate, plan, however, dating from 1695–96 was adopted,

  • Sch?nbrunn, Treaty of (Europe [1809])

    Treaty of Sch?nbrunn, (Oct. 14, 1809), agreement signed at the Schloss Sch?nbrunn in Vienna after Austria’s premature war of liberation against Napoleon collapsed with its defeat at Wagram and its failure to get the Prussian support it had expected. Austria lost about 32,000 square miles (83,000

  • Sch?ne Brunnen (fountain, Nürnberg, Germany)

    fountain: Medieval European: A noteworthy example is the Sch?ne Brunnen at Nürnberg (1398), distinguished by its high, rich Gothic spirelet with many statues and ironwork railing.

  • sch?ne Müllerin, Die (poetry by Müller)

    Wilhelm Müller: …for his verse cycles “Die sch?ne Müllerin” and “Die Winterreise,” which Franz Schubert set to music.

  • sch?ne Müllerin, Die (song cycle by Schubert)

    Franz Schubert: Maturity: …however, was the song cycle Die sch?ne Müllerin (“The Fair Maid of the Mill”), representing the epitome of Schubert’s lyrical art. Schubert spent part of the summer in the hospital and probably started work—while still a patient—on his most ambitious opera, Fierrabras. The work was rejected by the directorate of…

  • Sch?nemann, Johann Friedrich (German actor and manager)

    Johann Friedrich Sch?nemann, actor-manager who was influential in the development of Germany’s public theatre. Sch?nemann made his professional debut in 1725 with a traveling Harlequin troupe and in 1730 joined Caroline Neuber’s theatre company, where he was admired for his comedic abilities. In

  • Sch?nerer, Georg, Ritter von (Austrian politician)

    Georg, Ritter (knight) von Sch?nerer, Austrian political extremist, founder of the Pan-German Party (1885). He was a virulent anti-Semite and was perhaps the best-known spokesman for popular antidemocratic sentiments in the late empire. A left-wing Liberal when first elected to the Reichsrat

  • Schongauer, Martin (German engraver)

    Martin Schongauer, painter and printmaker who was the finest German engraver before Albrecht Dürer. Schongauer was the son of Caspar Schongauer, a goldsmith of Augsburg. In 1465 he registered at the University of Leipzig but apparently remained there only for a short time. It is not clear whether

  • Sch?nherr, Karl (Austrian writer)

    Karl Sch?nherr, Austrian writer known for his simple, robust plays dealing with the political and religious problems of peasant life. Sch?nherr was the son of a country schoolmaster and became a practicing physician in Vienna. His first publications (1895) were unassuming dialect poems and short

  • Sch?nhuber, Franz (German politician)

    fascism: Germany: …by another former Waffen-SS member, Franz Sch?nhuber. Like Almirante in Italy, Sch?nhuber strove to give his party a more respectable image, and his efforts extended to denying his own previous connection with the Waffen-SS. “I have no Nazi past,” he said. “I regard the National Socialist state as absolutely incompatible…

  • Sch?ning, Hans Adam von (German royal adviser)

    John George IV: …reign his chief adviser was Hans Adam von Sch?ning (1641–96), who counselled a union between Saxony and Brandenburg and a more independent attitude toward the emperor Leopold I. In accordance with this advice certain proposals were put before Leopold to which he refused to agree; consequently the Saxon troops withdrew…

  • Sch?nlein, Johann Lukas (German physician)

    Johann Lukas Sch?nlein, German physician whose attempts to establish medicine as a natural science helped create modern methods for the teaching and practice of clinical medicine. A professor of medicine at the universities of Würzburg (1824–33), Zürich (1833–40), and Berlin (1840–59), Sch?nlein

  • Schonthal, Ruth (American composer and musician)

    Ruth Schonthal, (Ruth Sch?nthal), German-born American composer and pianist (born June 27, 1924, Hamburg, Ger.—died July 11, 2006, Scarsdale, N.Y.), was a child prodigy who was admitted to the Stern Conservatory in Berlin at age five and was composing music from age six. A Jew, she was forced to l

  • Sch?nwald, Albert (Hungarian cellist)

    Albert Siklós, Hungarian cellist, composer, and musicologist. Siklós began composing at the age of six and started studying the pianoforte and music theory at seven. He took up the cello in 1891 and began lecturing while a student at the Hungarian Music School in 1895. He joined the staff of the

  • school (education)

    education: Spanish and Portuguese America: The first elementary school in the New World was organized in Mexico by the Franciscan Pedro de Gante in 1523 in Texcoco, followed in 1525 by a similar school in San Francisco. Because such schools in Mexico were designed for Indian children, the monks learned the native languages…

  • School and Society, The (work by Dewey)

    education: Education and personal growth: As he propounded in The School and Society (1899) and The Child and the Curriculum (1902), education must be tied to experience, not abstract thought, and must be built upon the interests and developmental needs of the child. He argued for a student-centred, not subject-centred, curriculum and stressed the…

  • School Board of Nassau County v. Arline (law case)

    School Board of Nassau County v. Arline, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on March 3, 1987, ruled (7–2) that an individual with the contagious disease tuberculosis could be considered handicapped under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The case centred on Gene Arline, an elementary

  • school bullying (social behaviour)

    bullying: School bullying: Bullying in educational settings remains a commonplace everyday experience. In Europe significant attention to school bullying began in the early 1970s, in part because of the efforts of Olweus, as well as a widely publicized trio of victim suicides in Norway in 1983.…

  • school bus (vehicle)

    bus: Modern buses: School buses generally consist of a 50-passenger bus body, with special signal lamp and safety provisions, mounted on a long-wheelbase truck chassis. As fuel costs increased during the 1990s and 2000s, bus ridership increased in many urban regions around the world.

  • School Committee of the Town of Burlington v. Massachusetts Department of Education (law case)

    School Committee of the Town of Burlington v. Massachusetts Department of Education, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on April 29, 1985, ruled (9–0) that, under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA; now the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [IDEA]), parents could be

  • school conflict (Dutch political issue)

    education: The Netherlands: The first modern school law in the Netherlands was passed in 1801, when the government laid down the principle that each parish had the right to open and maintain schools. A debate between the proponents of denominational and nondenominational schools went on during the 19th century. The controversy…

  • School Daze (film by Lee [1988])

    stepping: …step show in the film School Daze (1988).

  • School District of Abington Township v. Schempp (law case)

    School District of Abington Township v. Schempp, legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on June 17, 1963, ruled (8–1) that legally or officially mandated Bible reading or prayer in public schools is unconstitutional. Whether required by state laws or by rules adopted by local school boards,

  • school drama (literature)

    School drama, any play performed by students in schools and colleges throughout Europe during the Renaissance. At first these plays were written by scholars in Latin as educational works, especially in Jesuit schools, but they later were viewed as entertainment as well. The works included

  • school figure (ice skating)

    figure skating: Recent trends and changes: The elimination of compulsory figures from competition in 1991 gave an advantage to the more athletic freestyle skaters. Until the late 1980s, skaters who were good at figures could win competitions without having strong freestyle-skating techniques, since compulsory figures were the most important part of the sport. They…

  • School for Dictators, The (work by Silone)

    Ignazio Silone: …La scuola dei dittatori (1938; The School for Dictators, 1939).

  • School for Fathers, The (opera by Wolf-Ferrari)

    Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari: …operas, I quattro rusteghi (1906; The School for Fathers) and Il segreto di Susanna (1909; The Secret of Susanne), presented 18th-century styles orchestrated in the manner of the 20th century. Comic points in these operas are delicately underlined. In Sly (1927; based on the opening scenes of The Taming of…

  • School for Love (work by Manning)

    Olivia Manning: In 1951 she published School for Love, the story of a 16-year-old boy in war-ravaged Jerusalem, notable for its characterization of the central figure, the repellent Miss Bohun.

  • School for Scandal, The (play by Sheridan)

    The School for Scandal, comedy in five acts by Richard Brinsley Sheridan, performed in 1777 and published in 1780. With its spirited ridicule of affectation and pretentiousness, it is one of the greatest comedies of manners in English. Charles Surface is an extravagant but good-hearted young man.

  • School for Scandal, The (overture by Barber)

    Samuel Barber: …reputation with his overture to The School for Scandal (1933), based on Richard Sheridan’s comedy by that name, and with Music for a Scene from Shelley (1935), inspired by the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound.

  • School for Wives, The (play by Molière)

    The School for Wives, comedy in five acts by Molière, performed in 1662 and published in 1663 as L’école des femmes. The School for Wives presents a pedant, Arnolphe, so frightened of women that he decides to marry his ward, Agnès, a girl entirely unacquainted with the ways of the world. The

  • school library (education)

    library: School libraries: Where public libraries and schools are provided by the same education authority, the public library service may include a school department, which takes care of all routine procedures, including purchasing, processing with labels, and attaching book cards and protective covers; the books are…

  • School of Art (building, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Charles Rennie Mackintosh: …chief architectural projects were the Glasgow School of Art (1896–1909), considered the first original example of Art Nouveau architecture in Great Britain; two unrealized projects—the 1901 International exhibition, Glasgow (1898), and “Haus eines Kunstfreundes” (1901); Windyhill, Kilmacolm (1899–1901), and Hill House, Helensburgh (1902); the Willow Tea Rooms, Glasgow (1904); and…

  • School of Athens (painting by Raphael)

    Aristotle: Legacy: …Aristotle in Raphael’s Vatican fresco The School of Athens.) In fact, however, the doctrines that Plato and Aristotle share are more important than those that divide them. Many post-Renaissance historians of ideas have been less perceptive than the commentators of late antiquity, who saw it as their duty to construct…

  • School of Fencing, The (work by Angelo)

    Domenico Angelo: …treatise, L’école des armes (1763; The School of Fencing), included colourful instructional sketches by London’s most accomplished illustrators; some historians have suggested that the chevalier d’éon de Beaumont, who had joined Angelo in London, may have assisted with the French text. This work and its illustrations were considered so excellent…

  • School of Flesh, The (motion picture)

    Isabelle Huppert: Versatility in the 1990s and 2000s: …L’école de la chair (1998; The School of Flesh). In 2001 Huppert garnered acclaim as a sexually repressed music instructor in La Pianiste (The Piano Teacher). The disturbing drama, which was directed by Michael Haneke, earned Huppert her second best actress award at Cannes. She turned to comedy with 8…

  • School of Good Manners (work by Moody)

    etiquette: …the manual for parents entitled School of Good Manners (attributed to Eleazar Moody, 1715).

  • School of Infancy, The (work by Comenius)

    John Amos Comenius: Educational reform: …Great Didactic and also of The School of Infancy—a book for mothers on the early years of childhood. Second, to make European culture accessible to all children, it was necessary that they learn Latin. But Comenius was certain that there was a better way of teaching Latin than by the…

  • School of Law of the Youngstown Association School (university, Youngstown, Ohio, United States)

    Youngstown State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Youngstown, Ohio, U.S. It comprises colleges of business administration; science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; liberal arts and social sciences; education; fine and performing arts; and health and

  • School of Mind (Chinese philosophy)

    Confucianism: The Song masters: …and implicitly rejecting Cheng Hao’s School of Mind, developed a method of interpreting and transmitting the Confucian Way that for centuries defined Confucianism not only for the Chinese but for the Koreans and Japanese as well. If, as quite a few scholars have advocated, Confucianism represents a distinct form of…

  • School of Rock (musical by Lloyd Webber)

    Julian Fellowes: …book for the stage musical School of Rock (2015), which was adapted from Richard Linklater’s film of the same name, and wrote and produced a 2016 television adaptation of the Anthony Trollope novel Doctor Thorne (1858). In 2020 Fellowes returned to TV with the series Belgravia, which he adapted from…

  • School of Rock (film by Linklater [2003])

    Richard Linklater: First films: Dazed and Confused and Before Sunrise: …music at a prep academy, School of Rock (2003); in 2016 the latter film was adapted as a television show for children.

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