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  • school prayer

    Engel v. Vitale: …June 25, 1962, that voluntary prayer in public schools violated the U.S. Constitution’s First Amendment prohibition of a state establishment of religion.

  • school psychology (branch of applied psychology)

    School psychology, Branch of applied psychology that deals largely with educational assessment, psychological testing, and student consultation in elementary and secondary schools. School psychologists train in educational and developmental psychology as well as in general psychology, counseling,

  • school shark (fish)

    chondrichthyan: Growth: The Australian school shark (Galeorhinus australis) grows about 80 mm (3 inches) in its first year and about 30 mm (1 inch) in its 12th year. By its 22nd year, it is estimated to be approaching its maximum length of 1.6 metres (about 5 feet).

  • school shooting (crime)

    School shooting, in the typical case, an event in which a student at an educational institution—an elementary, middle, or high school or a college or university—shoots and injures or kills at least one other student or faculty member on the grounds of that institution. Such incidents usually

  • School Statute (Russian history)

    Russia: Education and intellectual life: Alexander I’s School Statute (1804) provided for a four-tier system of schools from the primary to the university level, intended to be open to persons of all classes. Under its provisions several new universities were founded, and gymnasiums (pre-university schools) were established in most provincial capitals. Less…

  • school subjects (education)

    multiculturalism: Multiculturalism’s impact on education: …are found in revisions of curricula, particularly in Europe and North America, and the expansion of the Western literary and other canons that began during the last quarter of the 20th century. Curricula from the elementary to the university levels were revised and expanded to include the contributions of minority…

  • school teaching

    Teaching, the profession of those who give instruction, especially in an elementary or a secondary school or in a university. Measured in terms of its members, teaching is the world’s largest profession. In the late 20th century it was estimated that there were 30 million teachers throughout the

  • school theatre

    Ukraine: Theatre and motion pictures: …into a specific genre, the school theatre, whose repertoire expanded to encompass dramatization of Christian legends, historical drama, and puppet theatre (vertep) performed on a stage of two levels. The best example of the Cossack Baroque theatre was the historical play Vladimir (1705) by Feofan Prokopovich (Ukrainian: Teofan Prokopovych

  • school-voucher program

    Zelman v. Simmons-Harris: …ruled (5–4) that an Ohio school-voucher program did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment, which generally prohibits the government from establishing, advancing, or giving favour to any religion.

  • schoolbook (education)

    history of publishing: The early 20th century: Specialization became frequent, particularly in educational books, as the needs of the new school populations were realized. Some companies, such as Macmillan, in both its British and American houses, had begun to issue schoolbooks almost by chance; then, as their sales grew most profitably, they developed separate departments for school…

  • Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe (American explorer and ethnologist)

    Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, American explorer and ethnologist noted for his discovery of the source of the Mississippi River and for his writings on the Native peoples of the North American Plains. Schoolcraft’s initial contact with the frontier came during a mineralogical trip through present Missouri

  • Schooldays of Jesus, The (novel by Coetzee)

    J.M. Coetzee: A sequel, The Schooldays of Jesus, was published in 2016.

  • Schoolgirl’s Odyssey, A (documentary)

    Malala Yousafzai: Childhood and early activism: …second film with her, titled A Schoolgirl’s Odyssey. The New York Times posted both films on their Web site in 2009. That summer she met with the U.S. special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan, Richard Holbrooke, and asked him to help with her effort to protect the education of girls…

  • schooling behaviour (animal behaviour)

    Schooling behaviour, Activity characteristic of clupeiform fish (herrings, anchovies, and allies) in which many fish swim together, appearing to act as a single organism. A school of herring may contain many millions of individuals of roughly similar size. Fishes above or below the size limit break

  • Schoolmaster Ni Huanzhi (novel by Ye Shengtao)

    Ye Shengtao: …the novel Ni Huanzhi (Schoolmaster Ni Huanzhi), which chronicles the life and times of an intellectual from the time of the Chinese Revolution of 1911–12 to 1927, when the Northern Expedition against warlords came to an abrupt end. The novel was recognized as one of the landmarks of the…

  • schoolmaster’s bench (furniture)

    settle: …sometimes called a schoolmaster’s, or parson’s, bench.

  • Schoolmaster’s Tour, The (work by Rowlandson and Combe)

    Thomas Rowlandson: His series of drawings “The Schoolmaster’s Tour,” accompanied by verses of William Combe, was published in the new Poetical Magazine (1809–11) launched by the art publisher Rudolph Ackermann, who was Rowlandson’s chief employer. The same collaboration of designer, author, and publisher resulted in the popular Dr. Syntax series—Tour of…

  • Schoolmaster, The (work by Ascham)

    Roger Ascham: The Scholemaster, written in simple, lucid English prose and published posthumously in 1570, is Ascham’s best-known book. It presents an effective method of teaching Latin prose composition, but its larger concerns are with the psychology of learning, the education of the whole person, and the ideal…

  • Schools Pact (Belgium [1958])

    Gaston Eyskens: …long-standing dispute by enacting the Schools Pact, which granted equal financial aid to public and parochial schools. In 1960, realizing that Belgium could no longer handle the political and economic problems of the Belgian Congo, he persuaded Parliament to grant independence to that colony. Belgium’s internal economic problems, as well…

  • schoolstrijd (Dutch political issue)

    education: The Netherlands: The first modern school law in the Netherlands was passed in 1801, when the government laid down the principle that each parish had the right to open and maintain schools. A debate between the proponents of denominational and nondenominational schools went on during the 19th century. The controversy…

  • schooner (ship)

    Schooner, a sailing ship rigged with fore-and-aft sails on its two or more masts. To the foremast there may also be rigged one or more square topsails or, more commonly, one or more jib sails or Bermuda sails (triangular sails extending forward to the bowsprit or jibboom). Though it probably was

  • Schooner, The (collage by Cornell)

    Joseph Cornell: …earliest extant collage, known as The Schooner (1931), is a small image of a ship at sea with a rose containing a spider on a spiderweb as one part of the ship’s sails. Those early works were inspired by Ernst’s collage-novel La Femme 100 têtes (1929; The Hundred Headless Woman),…

  • Schooreel, Jan van (Dutch artist and engineer)

    Jan van Scorel, Dutch humanist, architect, engineer, and painter who established the painting style of the Italian Renaissance in Holland, just as his teacher Jan Gossaert did in Brussels. Scorel studied with several local artists, but by 1517 he was in Utrecht working with Gossaert, who encouraged

  • Schoorel, Jan van (Dutch artist and engineer)

    Jan van Scorel, Dutch humanist, architect, engineer, and painter who established the painting style of the Italian Renaissance in Holland, just as his teacher Jan Gossaert did in Brussels. Scorel studied with several local artists, but by 1517 he was in Utrecht working with Gossaert, who encouraged

  • Schoorel, Jan van (Dutch artist and engineer)

    Jan van Scorel, Dutch humanist, architect, engineer, and painter who established the painting style of the Italian Renaissance in Holland, just as his teacher Jan Gossaert did in Brussels. Scorel studied with several local artists, but by 1517 he was in Utrecht working with Gossaert, who encouraged

  • Schoorl, Jan van (Dutch artist and engineer)

    Jan van Scorel, Dutch humanist, architect, engineer, and painter who established the painting style of the Italian Renaissance in Holland, just as his teacher Jan Gossaert did in Brussels. Scorel studied with several local artists, but by 1517 he was in Utrecht working with Gossaert, who encouraged

  • Schooten, Frans van (Dutch mathematician)

    mathematics: Analytic geometry: …became established in Leiden around Frans van Schooten, a Dutch mathematician who edited and published in 1649 a Latin translation of La Géométrie. Van Schooten published a second two-volume translation of the same work in 1659–1661 that also contained mathematical appendixes by three of his disciples, Johan de Witt, Johan…

  • Schopenhauer, Arthur (German philosopher)

    Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher, often called the “philosopher of pessimism,” who was primarily important as the exponent of a metaphysical doctrine of the will in immediate reaction against Hegelian idealism. His writings influenced later existential philosophy and Freudian psychology.

  • Schopenhauer, Johanna (German writer)

    Arthur Schopenhauer: Early life and education: Schopenhauer was the son of a wealthy merchant, Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, and his wife, Johanna, who later became famous for her novels, essays, and travelogues. In 1793, when Danzig came under Prussian sovereignty, they moved to the free city of Hamburg. Arthur enjoyed a gentlemanly…

  • Schopf, J. William (American paleobiologist)

    Precambrian: Microfossils and stromatolites: …the late 1960s, American paleobiologist J. William Schopf pointed out that the abundant microflora of the 900-million-year-old Bitter Springs Formation of central Australia includes some eukaryotic algae that have cells in various stages of division arranged into tetrahedral sporelike forms. These resemble the tetrad of spore cells of living plants…

  • Schopf, James Morton (American geologist)
  • Sch?pfung, Die (work by Haydn)

    The Creation, oratorio by Austrian composer Joseph Haydn dating from April 1798. It was inspired by Handel’s Messiah and Israel in Egypt, which Haydn had heard while visiting England. In the 1790s Haydn made two extended concert tours to London. Returning from the second of those trips in 1795, he

  • Schoppe, Amalie (German editor)

    Friedrich Hebbel: …Hamburg fashion magazine, whose editor, Amalie Schoppe, invited him to Hamburg in 1835 to prepare for the university. He was supported during this time, both spiritually and materially, by a seamstress, Elise Lensing, with whom he lived. At this time he started his Tagebücher (published 1885–87; “Diaries”), which became an…

  • Schoreel, Jan van (Dutch artist and engineer)

    Jan van Scorel, Dutch humanist, architect, engineer, and painter who established the painting style of the Italian Renaissance in Holland, just as his teacher Jan Gossaert did in Brussels. Scorel studied with several local artists, but by 1517 he was in Utrecht working with Gossaert, who encouraged

  • Schorel, Jan van (Dutch artist and engineer)

    Jan van Scorel, Dutch humanist, architect, engineer, and painter who established the painting style of the Italian Renaissance in Holland, just as his teacher Jan Gossaert did in Brussels. Scorel studied with several local artists, but by 1517 he was in Utrecht working with Gossaert, who encouraged

  • Schorel, Jan van (Dutch artist and engineer)

    Jan van Scorel, Dutch humanist, architect, engineer, and painter who established the painting style of the Italian Renaissance in Holland, just as his teacher Jan Gossaert did in Brussels. Scorel studied with several local artists, but by 1517 he was in Utrecht working with Gossaert, who encouraged

  • Schorer, Mark (American biographer)

    American literature: Literary biography and the new journalism: …study of Henry James (1953–72), Mark Schorer’s Sinclair Lewis: An American Life (1961), Richard Ellmann’s studies of James Joyce (1959) and Oscar Wilde (1988), R.W.B. Lewis’s revealing biography of Edith Wharton (1975), Joseph Frank’s five-volume biography of Dostoyevsky (1976–2002), Paul Zweig’s brilliant study of Walt Whitman (1984), and Carol Brightman’s…

  • schorl (rock)

    greisen: Greisen is closely connected with schorl, both in its mineralogical composition and in its mode of origin. Schorl is a pneumatolytic product consisting of quartz, tourmaline, and, often, white mica and thus passes into greisen. Both of these rocks frequently contain small percentages of cassiterite (tin oxide) and may be…

  • schorlomite (gem)

    andradite: …and the silicon, as in schorlomite, or may simply produce a black colour, as in melanite. Andradite is typically found with grossular in contact-metamorphosed limestone. For details of chemistry and occurrence, see garnet.

  • Schorr, Daniel (American journalist)

    Daniel Louis Schorr, American journalist (born Aug. 31, 1916, New York, N.Y.—died July 23, 2010, Washington, D.C.), was an uncompromising and sometimes combative newsman who had an illustrious career (1946–2010) as a foreign correspondent, a CBS television news reporter rewarded with three Emmy

  • Schorske, Florence Sophie (American nurse and educator)

    Florence Wald, (Florence Sophie Schorske), American nurse and educator (born April 19, 1917, Bronx, N.Y.—died Nov. 8, 2008, Branford, Conn.), reinvented the guidelines surrounding end-of-life care and was the driving force behind the building in the U.S. of a hospice system for the terminally ill,

  • Schott, Friedrich Otto (German chemist)

    Carl Zeiss: They engaged Otto Schott, a chemist, who developed about 100 new kinds of optical glass and numerous types of heat-resistant glass (later called Jena glass) at a glassworks the three founded.

  • Schott, Marge (American businesswoman)

    Marge Schott, (Margaret Unnewehr), American sports executive (born Aug. 18, 1928, Cincinnati, Ohio—died March 2, 2004, Cincinnati), became notorious for making outrageous and offensive public statements about blacks, homosexuals, and Asians, among others, while serving (1984–99) as the owner of t

  • Schottegat (bay, Cura?ao)

    Netherlands Antilles: Relief: …bays, the largest of which, Schottegat, provides a magnificent harbour for Willemstad. Bonaire, with an area of 111 square miles (288 square km), lies about 20 miles (32 km) east of Cura?ao. Sint Eustatius covers 8 square miles (21 square km) and Saba 5 square miles (13 square km); the…

  • Schottenheimer, Marty (American football coach)

    Kansas City Chiefs: …the Chiefs hired head coach Marty Schottenheimer and drafted linebacker Derrick Thomas. Schottenheimer guided Kansas City to a playoff berth in his second season with the team, and in 1993, led by quarterback Joe Montana, the Chiefs advanced to the AFC championship game, which they lost to the Buffalo Bills.…

  • Schottky defect (crystallography)

    crystal defect: In the Schottky defect, two ions of opposite sign leave the lattice. Impurity defects are foreign atoms that replace some of the atoms making up the solid or that squeeze into the interstices; they are important in the electrical behaviour of semiconductors, which are materials used in…

  • Schottky diode (electronics)

    semiconductor device: Schottky diode: Such a diode is one that has a metal-semiconductor contact (e.g., an aluminum layer in intimate contact with an n-type silicon substrate). It is named for the German physicist Walter H. Schottky, who in 1938 explained the rectifying behaviour of this kind of…

  • Schottky effect (physics)

    Schottky effect, increase in the discharge of electrons from the surface of a heated material by application of an electric field that reduces the value of the energy required for electron emission. The minimum energy required for an electron to escape the surface of a specific material, called

  • Schottky emission (physics)

    Schottky effect, increase in the discharge of electrons from the surface of a heated material by application of an electric field that reduces the value of the energy required for electron emission. The minimum energy required for an electron to escape the surface of a specific material, called

  • Schottky, Walter (German physicist)

    Walter Schottky, German physicist whose research in solid-state physics and electronics yielded many devices that now bear his name. Schottky obtained doctorates in engineering, technology, and natural sciences from the University of Berlin, where he conducted research under Max Planck. He taught

  • Schouten Islands (islands, Indonesia)

    Schouten Islands, archipelago in the Pacific Ocean across the entrance to Cenderawasih Bay, off the northern coast of Irian Jaya provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. The first European sighting of the group was by the Dutch navigator Willem Corneliszoon Schouten. The chief islands are Biak, Supiori,

  • Schouten, Kepulauan (islands, Indonesia)

    Schouten Islands, archipelago in the Pacific Ocean across the entrance to Cenderawasih Bay, off the northern coast of Irian Jaya provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. The first European sighting of the group was by the Dutch navigator Willem Corneliszoon Schouten. The chief islands are Biak, Supiori,

  • Schouten, Willem (Dutch explorer)

    Willem Schouten, Dutch explorer whose 1615–16 expedition discovered a new route, the Drake Passage, around the southern tip of South America, connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific. The Dutch East India Company held a monopoly on all East Indies trade by ships routed through the Strait of

  • Schouten, Willem Corneliszoon (Dutch explorer)

    Willem Schouten, Dutch explorer whose 1615–16 expedition discovered a new route, the Drake Passage, around the southern tip of South America, connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific. The Dutch East India Company held a monopoly on all East Indies trade by ships routed through the Strait of

  • Schouwburg (theatre, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Schouwburg, first permanent theatre in Amsterdam, built along the Keizergracht (“Emperor’s Canal”) in 1637 by Dutch architect Jacob van Campen. It opened on Jan. 3, 1638, with a production of Gysbrecht van Aemstel, a historical tragedy about Amsterdam by Joost van den Vondel; the play is still

  • Schouwburg Weltevreden (arts centre, Jakarta, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: Cultural institutions: …(1821) theatre to become the Jakarta Arts Building (Gedung Kesenian Jakarta); this institution also hosts major musical and theatrical productions from across the globe. Both institutions sponsor an array of international festivals featuring music, dance, film, spoken word, and other arts.

  • Schouwen en Duiveland Island (island, Netherlands)

    Zeeland: …Belgium, plus six former islands: Schouwen en Duiveland, Tholen, Noord-Beveland, Walcheren, Zuid-Beveland, and Sint Philipsland. None of these has preserved a true insular character, all being connected to each other or to Noord-Brabant province inland by dams or bridges.

  • Schoyffelin, Léonard (German painter)

    Hans Leonhard Sch?uffelein, German painter and designer of woodcuts whose work bears the strong influence of Albrecht Dürer. An altarpiece for the Church of Ober-Sankt-Veit, near Vienna, believed to be his first work, was drawn by Dürer. In 1509 Sch?uffelein worked in the Tirol and later in

  • Schradan (pesticide)

    origins of agriculture: Pesticides as a panacea: 1942–62: …systemic was octamethylpyrophosphoramide, trade named Schradan. Other organophosphorus insecticides of enormous power were also made, the most common being diethyl-p-nitrophenyl monothiophosphate, named parathion. Though low in cost, these compounds were toxic to humans and other warm-blooded animals. The products could poison by absorption through the skin, as well as through…

  • Schramm, David N. (American astrophysicist)

    David N. Schramm, American theoretical astrophysicist who was an international leader in the field of cosmology and a distinguished professor (1974-97) at the University of Chicago; by making a cosmic inventory of the material making up the universe, he helped determine that most of the universe

  • Schramm, Wilbur (American scholar)

    Wilbur Schramm, American scholar of mass communications who played an important role in founding and shaping the discipline of communication studies. Schramm received a B.A. from Marietta College in 1928 and an M.A. in American civilization from Harvard University in 1930. He worked as a reporter

  • Schranz, Karl (Austrian skier)

    Olympic Games: Sapporo, Japan, 1972: …vote to ban Austrian skier Karl Schranz. An outspoken critic of Brundage, Schranz had obtained every international honour bestowed on an Alpine skier except an Olympic gold medal. Schranz, who was 33 years old, delayed his retirement to make his final Olympic appearance at Sapporo. However, the IOC banned him…

  • Schrattenbach, Sigismund von (archbishop of Salzburg)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: The Italian tours: …tribute to the Salzburg prince-archbishop, Count Schrattenbach, this work may not have been given until the spring of 1772, and then for his successor Hieronymus, Count Colloredo; Schrattenbach, a tolerant employer generous in allowing leave, died at the end of 1771.

  • Schreckengost, Viktor Sebring (American industrial designer)

    Viktor Sebring Schreckengost, American industrial designer (born June 26, 1906, Sebring, Ohio—died Jan. 26, 2008, Tallahassee, Fla.), was perhaps best remembered for his Art Deco “Jazz” bowls, which were originally created in the 1930s for first lady Eleanor Roosevelt for use in the White House.

  • Schreckstoff (fish secretion)

    pheromone: …been shown to release a chemical from specialized epidermal cells that elicits a dispersal response from the school. Pheromones play a role in sexual attraction and copulatory behaviour, and they have been shown to influence the sexual development of many mammals as well as of insects such as termites and…

  • Schreiber’s long-fingered bat (mammal)

    migration: Flying mammals (bats): Schreiber’s long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) changes its habitat in winter and moves more than 160 kilometres (100 miles) in a complex pattern. These local movements represent an adjustment to winter conditions and the search for more habitable caves.

  • Schreiber, Liev (American actor)

    Spotlight: …editor-in-chief, Marty Baron (played by Liev Schreiber). Robby Robinson (Michael Keaton), the head of the newspaper’s Spotlight team—which produces long-form investigative articles that take months to research and develop—meets with Baron. After reading an article in which a lawyer for people who were molested by Geoghan declares that the archbishop,…

  • Schreiber, R. E. (American physicist)

    R.E. Schreiber, American experimental physicist who during World War II was one of the scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, N.M., to develop the first atomic bombs and then helped assemble the two bombs that were dropped on Japan; after the war he stayed on at Los Alamos in

  • Schreiber, Raemer Edgar (American physicist)

    R.E. Schreiber, American experimental physicist who during World War II was one of the scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, N.M., to develop the first atomic bombs and then helped assemble the two bombs that were dropped on Japan; after the war he stayed on at Los Alamos in

  • schreibersite (mineral)

    Schreibersite, mineral consisting of iron nickel phosphide [(Fe,Ni)3P] that is present in most meteorites containing nickel-iron metal. In iron meteorites, it often is found in the form of plates and as shells around nodules of troilite (an iron sulfide mineral). Rodlike schreibersite is called

  • schreiner calender (technology)

    calender: …by William Smith, and the schreiner calender was developed about 1895. Calenders for embossing and moiréing are other types in use.

  • Schreiner, Olive (South African writer)

    Olive Schreiner, writer who produced the first great South African novel, The Story of an African Farm (1883). She had a powerful intellect, militantly feminist and liberal views on politics and society, and great vitality that was somewhat impaired by asthma and severe depressions. Her brother

  • Schreiner, Olive Emilie Albertina (South African writer)

    Olive Schreiner, writer who produced the first great South African novel, The Story of an African Farm (1883). She had a powerful intellect, militantly feminist and liberal views on politics and society, and great vitality that was somewhat impaired by asthma and severe depressions. Her brother

  • Schreiner, William Philip (South African politician)

    William Philip Schreiner, Southern African politician who was prime minister of Cape Colony at the outbreak of the South African War (1899–1902); he was the younger brother of author and political activist Olive Schreiner. A moderate politician, he tried to prevent the war and later was a champion

  • Schreiter, Johannes (German artist)

    stained glass: 20th century: …in Wegsburg, near M?nchengladbach; and Johannes Schreiter’s almost monochromatic Abstract Expressionist windows for the Church of St. Margaret (1961) in Bürgstadt. Trained once again to work of the scale of the cathedral windows and to develop their art in accordance with its own intrinsic potentialities, such artists have been collaborating…

  • Schrempp, Jürgen (German businessman)

    Jürgen Schrempp, German businessman who was chairman of the Daimler-Benz corporation (1995–2005) and the architect of Daimler’s ill-fated 1998 merger with the Chrysler Corporation. After completing his education, Schrempp served as an apprentice mechanic at the Mercedes-Benz plant in his hometown,

  • Schrenck, Leopold von (German zoologist)

    Paleo-Siberian languages: Lack of a genetic relationship: …Baltic German zoologist and explorer Leopold von Schrenck surmised, in the middle of the 19th century, that they constituted the remnants of a formerly more widely dispersed language family that had been encroached upon by invading groups of Uralic and Altaic speakers. Schrenck’s hypothesis is quite correct to the extent…

  • Schrey, Ferdinand (German stenographer)

    shorthand: Modern symbol systems: In 1885 Ferdinand Schrey, a Berlin merchant, attempted to simplify the Gabelsberger system. Sometime later the Stolze and Schrey methods were merged and became the leading system in Germany and Switzerland. Stolze-Schrey shorthand was also adapted to other languages, including Danish, Dutch, English, French, Italian, Norwegian, Polish,…

  • Schrieck, Josephine Van der (Roman Catholic nun)

    Sister Louise Van der Schrieck, Roman Catholic leader under whom the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur and their associated educational institutions were established across the American Midwest and East. Van der Schrieck was educated at the school of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur in Belgium. In

  • Schrieck, Sister Louise Van der (Roman Catholic nun)

    Sister Louise Van der Schrieck, Roman Catholic leader under whom the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur and their associated educational institutions were established across the American Midwest and East. Van der Schrieck was educated at the school of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur in Belgium. In

  • Schrieffer, John Robert (American physicist)

    John Robert Schrieffer, American physicist and winner, with John Bardeen and Leon N. Cooper, of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for developing the BCS theory (for their initials), the first successful microscopic theory of superconductivity. Schrieffer was educated at the Massachusetts Institute

  • Schrieke, Bertram (Dutch social anthropologist)

    Bertram Schrieke, Dutch social anthropologist known for his critical analyses of early Indonesian economic and social history, cultural change, and foreign relations. His doctoral dissertation for the University of Leiden, Neth. (1916), considered the influences that led to the establishment of

  • Schriever, Bernard Adolph (United States Air Force general)

    Bernard Adolph Schriever, general (ret.), U.S. Air Force (born Sept. 14, 1910, Bremen, Ger.—died June 20, 2005, Washington, D.C.), led intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and military space programs during the Cold War. He established a new management technique known as concurrency. Unlike t

  • Schrift, Shirley (American actress)

    Shelley Winters, (Shirley Schrift), American actress (born Aug. 18, 1922, St. Louis, Mo.—died Jan. 14, 2006, Beverly Hills, Calif.), had a career that spanned more than half a century, well over 100 films, and a variety of colourful characters. She won two best supporting actress Academy Awards,

  • Schriften (work by Matthisson)

    Friedrich von Matthisson: …eight-volume edition of his works, Schriften, was published in 1825–29.

  • Schrifttanz (work by Laban)

    dance notation: Twentieth-century developments: Schrifttanz (1928; “Written Dance”), by the Hungarian-born dance theorist Rudolf Laban, provided the basis for the notation system that bears his name: labanotation (also called Kinetography Laban). Laban had an eclectic interest in movement but found himself architecturally fascinated by its spatial aspects. Thus, his…

  • Schrimpf, Georg (German artist)

    Neue Sachlichkeit: Grosz, Otto Dix, Max Beckmann, Georg Schrimpf, Alexander Kanoldt, Carlo Mense, Georg Scholz, and Heinrich Davringhausen.

  • Schrock carbene (chemical compound)

    organometallic compound: Alkylidene ligands: The complexes are known as Schrock carbenes for their discoverer, American chemist Richard Schrock. The chemistry and spectroscopy of the Schrock carbenes indicate that these compounds have the opposite polarity of the Fischer carbenes. The carbon behaves as if it were electron-rich, because the Mδ+=Cδ? bond is polarized so as…

  • Schrock, Richard R. (American chemist)

    Richard R. Schrock, American chemist who, with Robert H. Grubbs and Yves Chauvin, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2005 for developing metathesis, one of the most important types of chemical reactions used in organic chemistry. Schrock was honoured as “the first to produce an efficient

  • Schr?der, Ernst (German logician and mathematician)

    metalogic: Satisfaction of a theory by a structure: finite and infinite models: …the late 19th-century German mathematician Ernst Schr?der and in L?wenheim (in particular, in his paper of 1915). The basic tools and results achieved in model theory—such as the L?wenheim-Skolem theorem, the completeness theorem of elementary logic, and Skolem’s construction of nonstandard models of arithmetic—were developed during the period from 1915…

  • Schr?der, Friedrich Ludwig (German actor and theatrical manager)

    Friedrich Ludwig Schr?der, German actor, theatrical manager, and playwright who introduced the plays of William Shakespeare to the German stage. Schr?der’s parents were legendary figures of the German stage: his stepfather, Konrad Ernst Ackermann, was a brilliant and much-beloved comic actor, and

  • Schr?der, Gerhard (chancellor of Germany)

    Gerhard Schr?der, German politician, chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. Having practiced law in Hannover, Schr?der was elected to the Bundestag (lower house of parliament) in 1980 and served there until 1986, when he lost an election for premier of the state of Lower Saxony. He led the Social

  • Schr?der, Sophie Charlotte (German actress)

    Konrad Ernst Ackermann: In 1749 Ackermann married Sophie Charlotte Schr?der, the leading lady of Sch?nemann’s company, and with her and a skilled troupe toured Russia, the Baltic states, and East Prussia for many years. It was also during this period that Ackermann was authorized to build an 800-seat theatre in K?nigsberg; it…

  • Schr?der-Devrient, Wilhelmine (German opera singer)

    Wilhelmine Schr?der-Devrient, German soprano celebrated for her portrayal of the great dramatic roles of German opera. The daughter of a celebrated baritone and a renowned actress, Schr?der-Devrient received early training in movement and diction from her parents and appeared in both ballet and

  • Schr?dinger equation (physics)

    Schr?dinger equation, the fundamental equation of the science of submicroscopic phenomena known as quantum mechanics. The equation, developed (1926) by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schr?dinger, has the same central importance to quantum mechanics as Newton’s laws of motion have for the large-scale

  • Schr?dinger wave equation (physics)

    Schr?dinger equation, the fundamental equation of the science of submicroscopic phenomena known as quantum mechanics. The equation, developed (1926) by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schr?dinger, has the same central importance to quantum mechanics as Newton’s laws of motion have for the large-scale

  • Schr?dinger’s cat (physics)

    Serge Haroche: …experiments, such as the famous Schr?dinger’s cat. (In the 1930s German physicist Erwin Schr?dinger, as a demonstration of the philosophical paradoxes involved in quantum theory, proposed a closed box in which a cat whose life depends on the possible radioactive decay of a particle would be both alive and dead…

  • Schr?dinger, Erwin (Austrian physicist)

    Erwin Schr?dinger, Austrian theoretical physicist who contributed to the wave theory of matter and to other fundamentals of quantum mechanics. He shared the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics with British physicist P.A.M. Dirac. Schr?dinger entered the University of Vienna in 1906 and obtained his

  • Schroeder (comic strip character)

    Peanuts: The strip’s other characters included Schroeder, the Beethoven-obsessed object of Lucy’s desire; Peppermint Patty, a freckled and frequently bewildered tomboy who referred to Charlie Brown as “Chuck”; Marcie, Peppermint Patty’s wisecracking sidekick; and Woodstock, a yellow bird who, in spite of his inexpert flying skills, accompanied Snoopy on his many…

  • Schroeder House (house, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    De Stijl: …principles in his work; the Schr?der House in Utrecht (1924), for example, resembles a Mondrian painting in the severe purity of its facade and in its interior plan. Beyond the Netherlands, the De Stijl aesthetic found expression at the Bauhaus in Germany during the 1920s and in the International Style.

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