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  • Schütz, Heinrich (German composer)

    Heinrich Schütz, composer, widely regarded as the greatest German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach. In 1599 he became a chorister at Kassel, where the landgrave of Hesse-Kassel provided him with a wide general education. In 1608 Schütz entered the University of Marburg to study law, but in

  • Schütz, Wilhelm (German bacteriologist)

    glanders: …the bacteriologists Friedrich L?ffler and Wilhelm Schütz in Germany isolated and identified the causal agent, which they named the Bacillus mallei, now designated technically as the Pfeifferella mallei or Malleomyces mallei. After infection, the disease usually follows a chronic course with a variable period of incubation extending from several weeks…

  • Schutzbund (Austrian political organization)

    Schutzbund, (German: Republican Defense League), paramilitary socialist organization active in Austria between World War I and 1934. Compared with its chief right-wing opponent force, the Heimwehr, the Schutzbund was tightly organized, having been created in 1923 from the workers’ guards by the

  • Schutzstaffel (corps of Nazi Party)

    SS, the black-uniformed elite corps and self-described “political soldiers” of the Nazi Party. Founded by Adolf Hitler in April 1925 as a small personal bodyguard, the SS grew with the success of the Nazi movement and, gathering immense police and military powers, became virtually a state within a

  • Schutzvereinigung (Swiss political organization)

    Sonderbund, (German: Separatist League) league formed on Dec. 11, 1845, by the seven Catholic Swiss cantons (Luzern, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug, Fribourg, and Valais) to oppose anti-Catholic measures by Protestant liberal cantons. The term Sonderbund also refers to the civil war that resulted

  • Schuyler (county, New York, United States)

    Schuyler, county, west-central New York state, U.S., comprising a hilly upland region. Seneca Lake extends deeply into the county from the north, nearly bisecting it. Other bodies of water are Waneta and Lamoka lakes and Meads and Cayuta creeks. Parklands include Finger Lakes National Forest,

  • Schuyler, James (American author)

    James Schuyler, American poet, playwright, and novelist, often associated with the New York school of poets, which included Frank O’Hara, John Ashbery, and Kenneth Koch. An acute observer of natural landscapes, Schuyler described common experiences with familiar images in compact lines of varied

  • Schuyler, James Marcus (American author)

    James Schuyler, American poet, playwright, and novelist, often associated with the New York school of poets, which included Frank O’Hara, John Ashbery, and Kenneth Koch. An acute observer of natural landscapes, Schuyler described common experiences with familiar images in compact lines of varied

  • Schuyler, Louisa Lee (American social worker)

    Louisa Lee Schuyler, American welfare worker, noted for her efforts in organizing public welfare services and legislation to benefit the poor and the disabled. As a young woman, Schuyler became interested in the work of the Children’s Aid Society of New York, which her parents supported as well.

  • Schuyler, Philip John (United States statesman)

    Philip John Schuyler, American soldier, political leader, and member of the Continental Congress. Born into a prominent New York family, Schuyler served in the provincial army during the last French and Indian War (1755–60), rising to the rank of major. After the war he went to England (1761–63) to

  • Schuylkill (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Schuylkill, county, east-central Pennsylvania, U.S., located west of the city of Allentown and bordered to the south by Blue Mountain. It consists of a rugged ridge-and-valley terrain that includes Mahantango, Broad, Sharp, and Second mountains. The county is drained by the West Branch Schuylkill

  • Schuylkill River (river, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Schuylkill River, river of southeastern Pennsylvania, U.S. It rises in eastern Schuylkill county in an anthracite-coal region and receives the Little Schuylkill River while flowing through a gap in Blue Mountain at Port Clinton. It then continues generally southeastward for a total length of 130

  • schwa indogermanicum (vowel)

    Indo-European languages: Consonants: …separate Proto-Indo-European vowel ? (called schwa indogermanicum) was reconstructed to account for these correspondences.

  • Schwab, Charles M. (American manufacturer)

    Charles M. Schwab, entrepreneur of the early steel industry in the United States, who served as president of both the Carnegie Steel Company and United States Steel Corporation and later pioneered Bethlehem Steel into one of the nation’s giant steel producers. Schwab, the son of a woollen worker

  • Schwab, Charles Michael (American manufacturer)

    Charles M. Schwab, entrepreneur of the early steel industry in the United States, who served as president of both the Carnegie Steel Company and United States Steel Corporation and later pioneered Bethlehem Steel into one of the nation’s giant steel producers. Schwab, the son of a woollen worker

  • Schwab, Klaus (German business policy scholar)

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution: …and great responsibility of the next 50 years.

  • Schwabach test (audiometry)

    human ear: Tuning-fork tests: In the Schwabach test the presence of a sensorineural impairment is indicated when the individual being tested cannot hear the bone-conducted sound as long as the examiner with normal hearing can. The individual with a conductive hearing loss, however, can hear the fork for a longer period…

  • Schwabach, Articles of (religion)

    Articles of Schwabach, early Lutheran confession of faith, written in 1529 by Martin Luther and other Wittenberg theologians and incorporated into the Augsburg Confession by Philipp Melanchthon in 1530. It was prepared at the request of John the Steadfast, elector of Saxony, to provide a unifying

  • Schwabacher (typeface)

    typography: Type, from Gutenberg to the 18th century: The italic and the Gothic Schwabacher, which serves as a kind of italic to Fraktur (as black letter is known in Germany), both had their genesis in the fast, informal, cursive, generally ligatured letters developed by chancellery clerks to speed their work.

  • Schwabacher, Ethel (American artist)

    Ethel Schwabacher, American artist associated with the Abstract Expressionist movement. Though not as well-known as her male peers or as Lee Krasner, Elaine DeKooning, or Helen Frankenthaler, her work is found in major museum collections throughout the United States, and exhibitions in the late

  • Schwabe, Samuel Heinrich (German astronomer)

    Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, amateur German astronomer who discovered that sunspots vary in number in a cycle of about 10 years; he announced his findings in 1843, after 17 years of almost daily observations. Schwabe also made (1831) the first known detailed drawing of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. He

  • Schwaben (historical region, Germany)

    Swabia, historic region of southwestern Germany, including what is now the southern portion of Baden-Württemberg Land (state) and the southwestern part of Bavaria Land in Germany, as well as eastern Switzerland and Alsace. Swabia’s name is derived from that of the Suebi, a Germanic people who,

  • Schw?bisch Gmünd (Germany)

    Schw?bisch Gmünd, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies on the Rems River, east of Stuttgart and just north of the Swabian Alp. The Roman limes (a defensive line of fortifications against the Germanic tribes) passed over the northern part of the city, where two castles

  • Schw?bisch Hall (Germany)

    Schw?bisch Hall, city, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southern Germany, on the Kocher River, east of Heilbronn. The centre of the Hohenlohe lands, a free imperial city from 1276 to 1802, it owed both its foundation and its prosperity to its saline springs and the salt trade. It retains its

  • Schw?bisch W?rth (Germany)

    Donauw?rth, city and port, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. It lies at the confluence of the Danube and W?rnitz rivers, some 25 miles (40 km) north-northwest of Augsburg. There is evidence of settlement of the site from the 6th century ad. The city itself grew up around the Mangoldstein, a

  • Schw?bische Alb (mountain region, Germany)

    Swabian Alp, continuation of the Jura Mountains in Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. The upland plateau extends approximately 100 miles (160 km) from the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) to the W?rnitz River at an average elevation of about 2,300 feet (700 m). The plateau rises in a

  • Schwagerina (paleontology)

    Schwagerina, extinct genus of fusulinid foraminiferans, small, single-celled protozoans related to the modern amoeba but possessing a hard shell capable of being preserved in the fossil record. Schwagerina is a useful guide, or index, fossil for Early Permian rocks and time (the Permian Period

  • Schwandbach Bridge (bridge, Schwarzenberg, Switzerland)

    Robert Maillart: …most famous is the curving Schwandbach Bridge, at Schwarzenburg, which has been described as “a work of art in modern engineering.”

  • Schwanengesang (work by Schubert)

    Franz Schubert: Last years: …together as the Schwanengesang (Swan Song). In September and early October the succession was concluded by the last three piano sonatas, in C Minor, A Major, and B-flat Major, and the great String Quintet in C Major—the swan song of the Classical era in music.

  • Schwanenlied der Romantik, Ein (work by Hamerling)

    Robert Hamerling: …popular collections of lyrics, including Ein Schwanenlied der Romantik (1862; “A Swan Song of the Romantic”), which have some attractive rhythms but not much originality. His most important works are his epic poems: Ahasver in Rom (1866; “Ahasuerus in Rome”), a grandiosely romantic retelling of the myth of the wandering…

  • Schwaner Mountains (mountains, Indonesia)

    Central Kalimantan: The Schwaner Mountains and the Muller (Müller) Mountains run parallel to the northwestern boundary of the province, and an offshoot of the Muller range skirts the northern boundary. Mount Raya, the highest peak in the Schwaner range, reaches 7,474 feet (2,278 metres). To the south of…

  • Schwanhardt, Georg (German engraver)

    glassware: Germany: …Nürnberg school of engravers was Georg Schwanhardt, a pupil of Caspar Lehmann. Lehmann had been gem cutter to the emperor Rudolf II in Prague and there had taken the decisive step of transferring the art of engraving from precious stones to glass. His first dated work is a beaker of…

  • Schwankovsky, Frederick John de St. Vrain (American artist)

    Jackson Pollock: Early life and work: …came under the influence of Frederick John de St. Vrain Schwankovsky, a painter and illustrator who was also a member of the Theosophical Society, a sect that promoted metaphysical and occult spirituality. Schwankovsky gave Pollock some rudimentary training in drawing and painting, introduced him to advanced currents of European modern…

  • Schwann cell

    Schwann cell, any of the cells in the peripheral nervous system that produce the myelin sheath around neuronal axons. Schwann cells are named after German physiologist Theodor Schwann, who discovered them in the 19th century. These cells are equivalent to a type of neuroglia called

  • Schwann, Theodor (German physiologist)

    Theodor Schwann, German physiologist who founded modern histology by defining the cell as the basic unit of animal structure. Schwann studied at the Jesuits’ College at Cologne before attending the University of Bonn and then the University of Würzburg, where he began his medical studies. In 1834,

  • Schwartz, Anna Jacobson (American economist)

    Anna Jacobson Schwartz, American economist (born Nov. 11, 1915, Bronx, N.Y.—died June 21, 2012, New York, N.Y.), produced seminal economic texts with Nobel Prize laureate Milton Friedman and championed monetarism, a school of thought that posits that money supply is the chief determinant of

  • Schwartz, Bernard (American actor)

    Tony Curtis, American actor whose handsome looks first propelled him to fame in the 1950s. He won critical plaudits as well as broad popularity in both dramatic roles and comic performances. Schwartz grew up in the Bronx, where he experienced a troubled home life and became a member of a notorious

  • Schwartz, Delmore (American writer)

    Delmore Schwartz, American poet, short-story writer, and literary critic noted for his lyrical descriptions of cultural alienation and the search for identity. Educated at the University of Wisconsin, New York University, and Harvard University, Schwartz later taught at Harvard and at a number of

  • Schwartz, Eduard (German philologist)

    textual criticism: Reaction against the genealogical method: …extreme position was taken by E. Schwartz, who in his edition of Eusebius’s Historia ecclesiastica (1909) denied that “vertically” transmitted texts of Greek books existed at all. The limitations of the stemmatic method have subsequently been stressed in a more temperate fashion by other writers. The modern tendency is to…

  • Schwartz, Elizabeth Robinson (American athlete)

    Elizabeth Robinson Schwartz, (“Babe”), American sprinter who became the first woman to win an Olympic gold medal in track and field; at the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam, she won the 100-m dash, setting a world record of 12.2 sec; after suffering severe injuries in a plane crash in 1931, she

  • Schwartz, Jacob Theodore (American mathematician and computer scientist)

    Jacob Theodore Schwartz, (“Jack”), American mathematician and computer scientist (born Jan. 9, 1930, Bronx, N.Y.—died March 2, 2009, New York, N.Y.), made significant contributions to pure mathematics, including the Dunford-Schwartz theorem on bounded linear operators, and did seminal research in

  • Schwartz, Jonathan (American businessman)

    Sun Microsystems, Inc.: Open-source software and purchase by Oracle: However, soon after Jonathan Schwartz replaced McNealy as CEO in 2006, the company started working closely with Intel and chose that company’s chipset for some of its servers.

  • Schwartz, Julie (American editor)

    Julius Schwartz, (“Julie”), American comic-book and science-fiction editor (born June 19, 1915, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 8, 2004, Mineola, N.Y.), reenergized the comic-book industry in the late 1950s and ’60s by reviving the wartime superhero genre at DC Comics. Schwartz ushered in the “Silver A

  • Schwartz, Julius (American editor)

    Julius Schwartz, (“Julie”), American comic-book and science-fiction editor (born June 19, 1915, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 8, 2004, Mineola, N.Y.), reenergized the comic-book industry in the late 1950s and ’60s by reviving the wartime superhero genre at DC Comics. Schwartz ushered in the “Silver A

  • Schwartz, Laurent (French mathematician)

    Laurent Schwartz, French mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1950 for his work in functional analysis. Schwartz received his early education at the école Normale Supérieure (now part of the Universities of Paris) and the Faculty of Science, both located in Paris. He received his

  • Schwartz, Laurent-Mo?se (French mathematician)

    Laurent Schwartz, French mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1950 for his work in functional analysis. Schwartz received his early education at the école Normale Supérieure (now part of the Universities of Paris) and the Faculty of Science, both located in Paris. He received his

  • Schwartz, M. D. (American climatologist)

    climate: Biosphere controls on minimum temperatures: …the late 1980s, American climatologists M.D. Schwartz and T.R. Karl used the superimposed epoch method to study the climate before and after the leafing out of lilac plants in the spring in the U.S. Midwest. (This method uses time series data from multiple locations, which can be compared to one…

  • Schwartz, Maurice (American actor)

    Yiddish literature: Yiddish theatre: In 1918 Maurice Schwartz founded the above-mentioned Yiddish Art Theatre. In addition to his directorial success, Schwartz became the most highly esteemed actor of the Yiddish stage, and the theatre became the training ground of a generation of actors. Among the names associated with it is that…

  • Schwartz, Melvin (American physicist)

    Melvin Schwartz, American physicist and entrepreneur who, along with Leon M. Lederman and Jack Steinberger, received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1988 for their research concerning neutrinos (subatomic particles that have no electric charge and virtually no mass). Schwartz studied physics at

  • Schwartz, Michal (Israeli neuroimmunologist)

    Michal Schwartz, Israeli neuroimmunologist who carried out pioneering research on the relationship between the brain and the immune system and whose groundbreaking research on Alzheimer disease helped to overturn the long-standing notion that immunity should be suppressed in chronic

  • Schwartz, Sherwood (American comedy writer and, producer)

    Sherwood Charles Schwartz, American comedy writer and producer (born Nov. 14, 1916, Passaic, N.J.—died July 12, 2011, Los Angeles, Calif.), delighted television audiences for some 60 years, but he gained cult status with his hit situation comedies Gilligan’s Island (1964–67), for which he also

  • Schwartz, Stephen (American composer and songwriter)
  • Schwartz, Tony (American media theorist and advertising pioneer)

    Tony Schwartz, American media theorist and advertising pioneer credited with reinventing the genre of political advertising in the 1960s. He believed that in political campaign advertisements there is no reason to try to impart information about a candidate, because voters have already formed their

  • Schwartzberg, Richard Donald (American director)

    Richard Donner, American film director who emerged in the 1980s as one of Hollywood’s most reliable makers of action blockbusters, most notably the Lethal Weapon films. Donner acted in Off-Broadway productions before moving to California, where he began directing industrial films and television

  • Schwartzerd, Philipp (German theologian)

    Philipp Melanchthon, German author of the Augsburg Confession of the Lutheran Church (1530), humanist, Reformer, theologian, and educator. He was a friend of Martin Luther and defended his views. In 1521 Melanchthon published the Loci communes, the first systematic treatment of the new Wittenberg

  • Schwartzman, Jason (American actor, screenwriter, and musician)

    Wes Anderson: …cowrote Rushmore (1998), which starred Jason Schwartzman as an indefatigable prep-school student and Bill Murray as his wealthy benefactor and sometime foe. Anderson’s third collaboration with Wilson, The Royal Tenenbaums (2001), was a darkly comic exploration of the dysfunctional adulthoods of a family of child prodigies. It was also the…

  • Schwary, Ronald L. (American producer)
  • Schwarz, Berthold (German monk and alchemist)

    Berthold der Schwarze, German monk and alchemist who, probably among others, discovered gunpowder (c. 1313). The only evidence consists of entries of dubious authenticity in the town records of Ghent (now in Belgium). Little is known of his life, though he appears to have been a cathedral canon in

  • Schwarz, Hans (German artist)

    medal: Germany and Austria: …the first professional medalist was Hans Schwarz of Augsburg, active in Germany and elsewhere between 1512 and 1532. Christoph Weiditz produced numerous Augsburg medals and with Schwarz showed the greatest sensitivity in capturing individual character in his portraits. Friedrich Hagenauer, active in Munich and in Augsburg (1527–32), produced more than…

  • Schwarz, Johann Georg (Transylvanian professor)

    illuminati: Later illuminati: …been spread to Russia by Johann Georg Schwarz and Nikolay Novikov. Both strains of “illuminated” Martinism included elements of Kabbalism and Christian mysticism, imbibing ideas from Jakob B?hme and Emanuel Swedenborg.

  • Schwarz, John (American physicist)

    string theory: Predictions and theoretical difficulties: In 1974 John Schwarz of the California Institute of Technology and Joel Scherk of the école Normale Supérieure and, independently, Tamiaki Yoneya of Hokkaido University came to a radical conclusion. They suggested that one of the supposedly failed predictions of string theory—the existence of a particular massless…

  • Schwarz, Rudolf (German architect)

    stained glass: 20th century: …architects as Dominikus B?hm and Rudolf Schwarz and the stained-glass artist Anton Wendling were able to resume careers interrupted by the Nazi era and to set the course for a whole new generation of stained-glass artists, especially in the Rhineland. Inspired by the example of Thorn Prikker, these artists have…

  • Schwarz-Bart, André (French author)

    André Schwarz-Bart, French novelist, author of what is regarded as one of the greatest literary works of the post-World War II period: Le Dernier des justes (1959; The Last of the Just). Schwarz-Bart’s parents, Polish Jews, moved to France in 1924. By 1941, when he was 13, they had been deported

  • Schwarzburg (historical state, Germany)

    Schwarzburg, either of two sovereign states in Germany before 1918, descended from the Thuringian lands that had been held by the medieval counts of Schwarzburg. Over the centuries the Schwarzburg lands were divided, redivided, or consolidated until the lines of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and

  • Schwarze Elster River (river, Germany)

    Schwarze Elster River, right- (east-) bank tributary of the Elbe River, rising in the Lusatian Mountains, about 4 miles (7 km) northwest of Bischofswerda, Ger. Flowing north, it leaves the mountains near Kamenz, where it turns northeast to enter the Upper Lusatia region. Between Hoyerswerda, where

  • Schwarze Schar (Prussian army corp)

    Adolf, baron von Lützow: …mounted free corps (called the Lützowsche Freikorps), composed mainly of non-Prussian volunteers, to operate behind the French lines. The formation eventually numbered about 3,000 and became popularly known as the Schwarze Schar (“Black Band”) after its uniform, which was a symbol of mourning for enslaved Germany. The armistice of June…

  • schwarze Spinne, Die (opera by Burkhard)

    Robert Faesi: …libretto for Willy Burkhard’s opera Die schwarze Spinne (“The Black Spider”). Faesi also wrote important critical studies of Rainer Maria Rilke, Gottfried Keller, Thomas Mann, and other writers. His correspondence with Mann was published in 1962.

  • Schwarzen (German student organization)

    Adolf Ludwig Follen: …also the leader of the Unbedingten (Uncompromising Ones), or Schwarzen (Blacks), a radical student group whose ideas resulted in the assassination of the conservative dramatist August Kotzebue in 1819. Based on an idealized picture of the medieval Christian empire, Follen’s political ideas were aimed at incorporating the German states into…

  • Schwarzenau (historical site, Germany)

    Brethren: …that trace their origin to Schwarzenau, Hesse, where in 1708 a group of seven persons under the leadership of Alexander Mack (1679–1735) formed a brotherhood dedicated to following the commandments of Jesus Christ. The brotherhood was shaped by three influences—the Protestant faith in which its organizers had been raised, the…

  • Schwarzenau Baptist (Protestant church group)

    Brethren, group of Protestant churches that trace their origin to Schwarzenau, Hesse, where in 1708 a group of seven persons under the leadership of Alexander Mack (1679–1735) formed a brotherhood dedicated to following the commandments of Jesus Christ. The brotherhood was shaped by three

  • Schwarzenberg, Felix, prince zu (prime minister of Austria)

    Felix, prince zu Schwarzenberg, Austrian statesman who restored the Habsburg empire as a great European power after its almost complete collapse during the revolutions of 1848–49. Entering the Austrian army in 1818, Schwarzenberg transferred to the diplomatic service in 1824 and became a protégé of

  • Schwarzenberg, Karl Philipp, Fürst zu (Austrian diplomat and military officer)

    Karl Philipp, prince zu Schwarzenberg, Austrian field marshal and diplomat who was one of the most successful Allied commanders in the Napoleonic Wars and who contributed significantly to the French emperor’s defeat in 1813–14. Scion of one of the oldest aristocratic houses of the Habsburg empire,

  • Schwarzenegger, Arnold (American politician, actor, and athlete)

    Arnold Schwarzenegger, Austrian-born American bodybuilder, film actor, and politician who rose to fame through roles in blockbuster action movies and later served as governor of California (2003–11). Schwarzenegger was known as the Styrian Oak, or Austrian Oak, in the bodybuilding world, where he

  • Schwarzenegger, Arnold Alois (American politician, actor, and athlete)

    Arnold Schwarzenegger, Austrian-born American bodybuilder, film actor, and politician who rose to fame through roles in blockbuster action movies and later served as governor of California (2003–11). Schwarzenegger was known as the Styrian Oak, or Austrian Oak, in the bodybuilding world, where he

  • schwarzer Peter (card game)

    Old maid, simple card game popular with young children. It takes its name from a 19th-century specially illustrated deck of cards showing colourful characters in matching pairs, plus a single old maid card. In Germany the equivalent game is called schwarzer Peter (“black Peter”) and in France vieux

  • Schwarzkopf, Dame Elisabeth (German singer)

    Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, German soprano who performed in the major opera houses of the Western world and is remembered especially for her mastery of German songs known as lieder. Schwarzkopf studied at the Berlin High School for Music from 1934, winning various prizes. She also studied at

  • Schwarzkopf, Dame Olga Maria Elisabeth Friederike (German singer)

    Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, German soprano who performed in the major opera houses of the Western world and is remembered especially for her mastery of German songs known as lieder. Schwarzkopf studied at the Berlin High School for Music from 1934, winning various prizes. She also studied at

  • Schwarzkopf, Herbert Norman (United States general)

    Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. Army officer who commanded Operation Desert Storm, the American-led military action that liberated Kuwait from Iraqi occupation during the Persian Gulf War (1991). Schwarzkopf’s father, Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr., rose to the rank of colonel in the army before becoming

  • Schwarzkopf, Norman (United States general)

    Norman Schwarzkopf, U.S. Army officer who commanded Operation Desert Storm, the American-led military action that liberated Kuwait from Iraqi occupation during the Persian Gulf War (1991). Schwarzkopf’s father, Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr., rose to the rank of colonel in the army before becoming

  • Schwarzlose machine gun (weapon)

    Schwarzlose machine gun, early Austrian water-cooled machine gun (q.v.) operating on the blowback principle. A heavy breechlock and spring hold the bolt closed until the pressure has been reduced to a safe level. Then the fired cartridge case and bolt are blown to the rear against the main

  • Schwarzlot (pottery)

    pottery: Tin-glazed ware: …first they mostly used the Schwarzlot technique—decoration in a black, linear style that was nearly always based on line engravings. Faience thus decorated dates from about 1660 and is the work of Johann Schaper (died 1670), who had been a Nürnberg glass painter, J.L. Faber, and others. Polychrome enamel decoration…

  • Schwarzschild radius (astrophysics)

    Schwarzschild radius, the radius below which the gravitational attraction between the particles of a body must cause it to undergo irreversible gravitational collapse. This phenomenon is thought to be the final fate of the more massive stars (see black hole). The Schwarzschild radius (Rg) of an

  • Schwarzschild singularity (astronomy)

    black hole: …and infinite density called the singularity.

  • Schwarzschild, Karl (German astronomer)

    Karl Schwarzschild, German astronomer whose contributions, both practical and theoretical, were of primary importance in the development of 20th-century astronomy. Schwarzschild’s exceptional ability in science became evident at the age of 16, when his paper on the theory of celestial orbits was

  • Schwarzschild, Martin (American astronomer)

    Martin Schwarzschild, German-born American astronomer who in 1957 introduced the use of high-altitude hot-air balloons to carry scientific instruments and photographic equipment into the stratosphere for solar research (b. May 31, 1912--d. April 10,

  • Schwarzwald (mountain region, Germany)

    Black Forest, mountain region, Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany, source of the Danube and Neckar rivers. It occupies an area of 2,320 square miles (6,009 square km) and extends toward the northeast for about 100 miles (160 km) from S?ckingen on the Upper Rhine River (at the

  • Schwassmann, Friedrich Karl Arnold (German astronomer)

    Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1: …photographically by the German astronomers Friedrich Karl Arnold Schwassmann and Arno Arthur Wachmann on November 15, 1927. It has one of the most circular orbits of any comet known (eccentricity = 0.044) and remains always between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, with an orbital period of 14.7 years. It…

  • Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, Comet (astronomy)

    Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, short-period comet discovered photographically by the German astronomers Friedrich Karl Arnold Schwassmann and Arno Arthur Wachmann on November 15, 1927. It has one of the most circular orbits of any comet known (eccentricity = 0.044) and remains always between the

  • Schwechat (Austria)

    Schwechat, town, northeastern Austria. It lies on the west bank of the Danube River near the mouth of the Schwechat River, just southeast of Vienna. Schwechat was the site of a Roman camp; it was first mentioned in the 11th century and was granted market rights in 1624. It was a district of Vienna

  • Schwedt (Germany)

    Schwedt, city, Brandenburg Land (state), eastern Germany. It lies along the Westoder River, southwest of Szczecin (German: Stettin), Poland, about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Berlin. Mentioned as a town in 1265, it was the seat of a lordship that passed from Pomerania to Brandenburg in 1479. From

  • Schwedt an der Oder (Germany)

    Schwedt, city, Brandenburg Land (state), eastern Germany. It lies along the Westoder River, southwest of Szczecin (German: Stettin), Poland, about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Berlin. Mentioned as a town in 1265, it was the seat of a lordship that passed from Pomerania to Brandenburg in 1479. From

  • Schwegmann Bros. v. Calvert Distillers (law case)

    Miller-Tydings Act of 1937: …1951 Supreme Court ruling (Schwegmann Bros. v. Calvert Distillers) invalidated nonsigner clauses to fair-trade laws. Nonsigner clauses had allowed distributors to take action against parties with whom they had no contractual arrangements that limited fair-trade laws. That Supreme Court ruling along with subsequent legislative lobbying efforts by various chain…

  • Schweickart, Russell Louis (American astronaut)

    David Scott: …McDivitt and lunar module pilot Russell Schweickart; their mission was launched on March 3, 1969. In Earth orbit these men rendezvoused and docked the command module with the lunar module, which was on its first crewed flight, and they successfully tested all systems necessary for a lunar landing.

  • Schweidnitz (Poland)

    ?widnica, city, Dolno?l?skie województwo (province), southwestern Poland, on the Bystrzyca River, a tributary of the Oder River. Located in the Sudeten (Sudety) foothills, the city is an economic centre for the Lower Silesia agricultural area. It has metal, chemical, wood, sugar, and textile

  • Schweigaard, A. M. (Norwegian politician)

    A.M. Schweigaard, Norwegian jurist and economic reformer who helped bring about Norway’s change to a capitalist economy. A professor of jurisprudence and economics in the 1830s and ’40s and an extremely influential publicist for economic liberalism, Schweigaard was elected to the Storting

  • Schweinfurth, Georg August (German botanist)

    Georg August Schweinfurth, German botanist and traveler who explored the region of the upper Nile River basin known as the Ba?r al Ghazāl and discovered the Uele River, a tributary of the Congo. Schweinfurth’s interest in African plants took him across the Red Sea to the Sudanese port of Suakin and

  • Schweitzer, Albert (Alsatian-German theologian and physician)

    Albert Schweitzer, Alsatian-German theologian, philosopher, organist, and mission doctor in equatorial Africa, who received the 1952 Nobel Prize for Peace for his efforts in behalf of “the Brotherhood of Nations.” The eldest son of a Lutheran pastor, Schweitzer studied philosophy and theology at

  • Schweitzer, Hoyle (American surfer)

    windsurfing: …Jim Drake (a sailor) and Hoyle Schweitzer (a surfer) received the first patent for a sailboard in 1968. They called their design a Windsurfer, and Schweitzer began mass-producing sailboards in the early 1970s. The sport quickly spread throughout North America, and by the late 1970s it had become widely popular…

  • Schweitzer, Louis (French government official and businessman)

    Louis Schweitzer, French government official and automotive executive who rose to the post of chairman and chief executive officer of Renault in the 1990s. Schweitzer was educated mainly in France and graduated in 1970 from the école Nationale d’Administration, one of the country’s prestigious

  • Schweiz

    Switzerland, federated country of central Europe. Switzerland’s administrative capital is Bern, while Lausanne serves as its judicial centre. Switzerland’s small size—its total area is about half that of Scotland—and its modest population give little indication of its international significance. A

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