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  • Saddharmapu??arīka (Buddhist school)

    Tiantai, rationalist school of Buddhist thought that takes its name from the mountain in southeastern China where its founder and greatest exponent, Zhiyi, lived and taught in the 6th century. The school was introduced into Japan in 806 by Saichō, known posthumously as Dengyō Daishi. The chief

  • Saddharmapundarika-sutra (Buddhist text)

    Lotus Sutra, (“Lotus of the Good Law [or True Doctrine] Sutra”), one of the earlier Mahāyāna Buddhist texts venerated as the quintessence of truth by the Japanese Tendai (Chinese T’ien-t’ai) and Nichiren sects. The Lotus Sutra is regarded by many others as a religious classic of great beauty and p

  • saddhu (Hindu ascetic)

    Sadhu and swami, in India, a religious ascetic or holy person. The class of sadhus includes renunciants of many types and faiths. They are sometimes designated by the term swami (Sanskrit svami, “master”), which refers especially to an ascetic who has been initiated into a specific religious order,

  • saddle (horsemanship)

    Saddle, seat for a rider on the back of an animal, most commonly a horse or pony. Horses were long ridden bareback or with simple cloths or blankets, but the development of the leather saddle in the period from the 3rd century bc to the 1st century ad greatly improved the horse’s potential,

  • saddle (violin family)

    stringed instrument: Morphology: The saddle takes the pull of the tailgut off the edge of the belly.

  • saddle block (pathology)

    birth: Spinal anesthesia: Spinal anesthesia (sometimes called spinal block) is produced when a local anesthetic agent, such as lidocaine or bivucaine, sometimes mixed with a narcotic, is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid in the lumbar region of the spine. This technique allows the woman to be…

  • saddle bronc-riding (rodeo event)

    Saddle bronc-riding, rodeo event in which the contestant attempts to ride a bucking horse (bronco) for eight seconds. The horse is equipped with a regulation saddle with stirrups and a six-foot braided rein attached to a halter and held with one hand. The rider must “mark out” (position the spurs

  • saddle cheek chair (furniture)

    Wing chair, a tall-backed, heavily upholstered easy chair with armrests and wings, or lugs, projecting between the back and arms to protect against drafts. They first appeared in the late 17th century—when the wings were sometimes known as “cheeks”—and they have maintained their popularity through

  • saddle fungus

    cup fungus: …a dull yellow to bay-brown, saddle-shaped cap. It grows on rotten wood and rich soil from late summer to early fall and is poisonous to some people.

  • saddle oyster (bivalve)

    Jingle shell, any of several marine invertebrates of the class Bivalvia belonging to the family Anomiidae. In most species of these oysterlike bivalves, one shell valve (i.e., half) is closely appressed to a rock surface and has a large hole in its wall through which a calcified byssus (tuft of

  • Saddle Peak (mountain, India)

    Andaman Islands: The highest peak is Saddle, rising 2,418 feet (737 metres) on North Andaman. Flat land is scarce and confined to a few valleys such as the Bitampur and Diglipur. The islands are formed of sandstone, limestone, and shale of Neogene and Paleogene age (i.e., some 2.6 to 65 million…

  • saddle point (mathematics)

    game theory: Games of imperfect information: A “saddlepoint” in a two-person constant-sum game is the outcome that rational players would choose. (Its name derives from its being the minimum of a row that is also the maximum of a column in a payoff matrix—to be illustrated shortly—which corresponds to the shape of…

  • saddle quern (tool)

    mortar and pestle: Together with the saddle quern (a round stone rolled or rubbed on a flat stone bed), the mortar and pestle was the first means known for grinding grain; the grain was placed in a shallow depression in a stone, the mortar, and pounded with a rodlike stone, the…

  • saddle-billed stork (bird)

    stork: The saddle-billed stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis), or saddlebill, is a colourful stork of tropical Africa. More than 120 cm (4 feet) tall, its legs and neck are exceptionally long and thin. The slightly upturned bill is red, crossed by a broad black band surmounted in front of…

  • saddleback (bird)

    Saddleback, (Creadion, sometimes Philesturnus, carunculatus), rare songbird of the family Callaeidae (Callaeatidae) of order Passeriformes, which survives on a few small islands off New Zealand. Its 25-cm (10-inch) body is black except for the reddish brown back (“saddle”), and it has yellow or

  • saddleback (mammal)

    Harp seal, (Pagophilus, or Phoca, groenlandica), medium-sized, grayish earless seal possessing a black harp-shaped or saddle-shaped marking on its back. Harp seals are found on or near ice floes from the Kara Sea of Russia west to the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada. The harp seal is both the

  • Saddleback Church (American church)

    Rick Warren: …pastor who, as founder of Saddleback Church and as the author of The Purpose-Driven Life (2002), became one of the most influential Evangelical Christians in the United States.

  • saddlebill (bird)

    stork: The saddle-billed stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis), or saddlebill, is a colourful stork of tropical Africa. More than 120 cm (4 feet) tall, its legs and neck are exceptionally long and thin. The slightly upturned bill is red, crossed by a broad black band surmounted in front of…

  • saddled bichir (fish)

    bichir: …the largest two species, the saddled bichirs (P. endlicherii) and Congo bichirs (P. congicus), grow to lengths of 75 cm (29.5 inches) and 97 cm (38.2 inches) and weights of 3.3 kg (7.3 pounds) and 4.4 kg (9.7 pounds), respectively.

  • saddlepoint (mathematics)

    game theory: Games of imperfect information: A “saddlepoint” in a two-person constant-sum game is the outcome that rational players would choose. (Its name derives from its being the minimum of a row that is also the maximum of a column in a payoff matrix—to be illustrated shortly—which corresponds to the shape of…

  • Saddler (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Strategic missiles: …25-megaton warhead deployed on the SS-7 Saddler from 1961 to 1980 and a 25-megaton warhead on the SS-9 Scarp, deployed from 1967 to 1982. (For the development of nuclear weapons, see nuclear weapon.)

  • Saddler, Donald Edward (American choreographer)

    Donald Edward Saddler, American choreographer (born Jan. 24, 1918, Van Nuys, Calif.—died Nov. 1, 2014, Englewood, N.J.), worked on Broadway, in film, and for opera and ballet companies during his illustrious 60-year career. Saddler garnered two Tony Awards for choreography, the first in 1953 for

  • Saddler, Joseph (American performer)

    Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five: The members were Grandmaster Flash (original name Joseph Saddler; b. January 1, 1958), Cowboy (original name Keith Wiggins; b. September 20, 1960—d. September 8, 1989), Melle Mel (original name Melvin Glover), Kid Creole (original name Nathaniel Glover), Mr. Ness (also called Scorpio; original name Eddie Morris), and Raheim…

  • Saddler, Joseph (American boxer)

    Sandy Saddler, American professional boxer, world featherweight (126 pounds) champion in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Saddler’s rivalry with Willie Pep is considered one of the greatest of American pugilism. In style, the fighters were a study in contrast: Saddler was a powerful slugger, while

  • Saddler, Sandy (American boxer)

    Sandy Saddler, American professional boxer, world featherweight (126 pounds) champion in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Saddler’s rivalry with Willie Pep is considered one of the greatest of American pugilism. In style, the fighters were a study in contrast: Saddler was a powerful slugger, while

  • Saddlers Company (British company)

    lacquerwork: Europe: …the ballot box of the Saddlers Company. Information on the lacquer process seems first to have been published by the Italian Jesuit Martin Martinius (Novus Atlas Sinensis, 1655). John Stalker and George Parker’s Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing (London, 1688) was the first text with pattern illustrations. The English term…

  • Sadducee (Jewish sect)

    Sadducee, member of a Jewish priestly sect that flourished for about two centuries before the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem in ad 70. Not much is known with certainty of the Sadducees’ origin and early history, but their name may be derived from that of Zadok, who was high priest i

  • Sade (British singer)

    Sade, Nigerian-born British singer known for her sophisticated blend of soul, funk, jazz, and Afro-Cuban rhythms. She enjoyed wide critical acclaim and popularity in the 1980s and early ’90s. Adu, who was born to a Nigerian economics professor and an English nurse, was never addressed by people in

  • Sade, Donatien-Alphonse-Fran?ois, Count de (French author)

    Marquis de Sade, French nobleman whose perverse sexual preferences and erotic writings gave rise to the term sadism. His best-known work is the novel Justine (1791). Related to the royal house of Condé, the de Sade family numbered among its ancestors Laure de Noves, whom the 14th-century Italian

  • Sade, Marquis de (French author)

    Marquis de Sade, French nobleman whose perverse sexual preferences and erotic writings gave rise to the term sadism. His best-known work is the novel Justine (1791). Related to the royal house of Condé, the de Sade family numbered among its ancestors Laure de Noves, whom the 14th-century Italian

  • Sadeddin, Hoca (Turkish historian)

    Hoca Sadeddin, Turkish historian, the author of the renowned Tac üt-tevarih (“Crown of Histories”), which covers the period from the origins of the Ottoman Empire to the end of the reign of Selim I (1520). He was tutor to Prince Murad, governor of Manisa, and followed him to Constantinople when he

  • Sadeh, Pin?as (Israeli author)

    Hebrew literature: Israeli literature: …the subjects of the novelist Pin?as Sadeh. Yitz?ak Orpaz’s novels tend toward psychological exploration, particularly in the series beginning with Bayit le-adam e?ad (1975; “One Man’s House”). Yoram Kaniuk’s work examines the alienated Israeli, but Ha-Yehudi ha-a?aron (1981; The Last Jew) explores the Israeli experience as a response to the…

  • Sadeler, Egidius II (Flemish engraver and painter)

    Egidius Sadeler, II, Flemish engraver, print dealer, and painter, most noted for his reproduction engravings of Renaissance and Mannerist paintings. Sadeler was born into a family of well-known engravers. Jan and Rapha?l Sadeler were probably uncles, and Egidius was Jan’s student in 1585. From 1590

  • Sadeler, Gillis (Flemish engraver and painter)

    Egidius Sadeler, II, Flemish engraver, print dealer, and painter, most noted for his reproduction engravings of Renaissance and Mannerist paintings. Sadeler was born into a family of well-known engravers. Jan and Rapha?l Sadeler were probably uncles, and Egidius was Jan’s student in 1585. From 1590

  • sadhaka (Hindu religious figure)

    Hinduism: Nature of Tantric tradition: The adept (sadhaka) has to perform the relevant rites on his own body, transforming its normal, chaotic state into a “cosmos.” The macrocosm is conceived as a complex system of powers that by means of ritual-psychological techniques can be activated and organized within the individual body of…

  • sadhana (Hindu and Buddhist Tantrism)

    Sadhana, (“realization”), in Hindu and Buddhist Tantrism, spiritual exercise by which the practitioner evokes a divinity, identifying and absorbing it into himself—the primary form of meditation in the Tantric Buddhism of Tibet. Sadhana involves the body in mudras (sacred gestures), the voice in

  • sādhana (Hindu and Buddhist Tantrism)

    Sadhana, (“realization”), in Hindu and Buddhist Tantrism, spiritual exercise by which the practitioner evokes a divinity, identifying and absorbing it into himself—the primary form of meditation in the Tantric Buddhism of Tibet. Sadhana involves the body in mudras (sacred gestures), the voice in

  • Sādhanamālā (Tantric Buddhist text)

    sadhana: One such collection is the Sādhanamālā (Sanskrit: “Garland of Realization”), composed perhaps between the 5th and the 11th century. This collection of some 300 sadhanas includes those designed for various practical results as well as those intended to further spiritual realization. The written sadhanas also serve to instruct sculptors and…

  • Sadharan Brahmo Samaj (Hinduism)

    Brahmo Samaj: …third samaj (“society,” “association”), the Sadharan (i.e., common) Brahmo Samaj, in 1878. The Sadharan Samaj gradually reverted to the teaching of the Upanishads and carried on the work of social reform. Although the movement lost force in the 20th century, its fundamental social tenets were accepted, at least in theory,…

  • Sadhji: An African Ballet (play by Nugent)

    Richard Nugent: A one-act musical, “Sadhji: An African Ballet” (based on his earlier short story of the same name), was published in Plays of Negro Life: A Source-book of Native American Drama (1927) and produced in 1932. This African morality tale tells of the beautiful Sadhji, a chieftain’s wife, beloved…

  • sadhu (Hindu ascetic)

    Sadhu and swami, in India, a religious ascetic or holy person. The class of sadhus includes renunciants of many types and faiths. They are sometimes designated by the term swami (Sanskrit svami, “master”), which refers especially to an ascetic who has been initiated into a specific religious order,

  • sadhu bhasa (language)

    Bengali language: Varieties: …standard styles in Bengali: the Sadhubhasa (elegant or genteel speech) and the Chaltibhasa (current or colloquial speech). The former was largely shaped by the language of early Bengali poetical works. In the 19th century it became standardized as the literary language and also as the appropriate vehicle for business and…

  • Sadhubhasa (language)

    Bengali language: Varieties: …standard styles in Bengali: the Sadhubhasa (elegant or genteel speech) and the Chaltibhasa (current or colloquial speech). The former was largely shaped by the language of early Bengali poetical works. In the 19th century it became standardized as the literary language and also as the appropriate vehicle for business and…

  • sādhumatī (Buddhism)

    bhūmi: (“far-going”), (8) acalā (“immovable”), (9) sādhumatī (“good-minded”), and (10) dharmameghā (showered with “clouds of dharma,” or universal truth).

  • Sadie Thompson (film by Walsh [1928])

    Raoul Walsh: Early work: ) Nearly as famous was Sadie Thompson (1928), for which Walsh wrote the screenplay based on W. Somerset Maugham’s story “Rain” and in which he also starred as the rowdy Sgt. Tim O’Hara, opposite Gloria Swanson in the title role. Walsh was also going to direct and act in In…

  • Sadie, Stanley (British musicologist)

    Stanley Sadie, British musicologist (born Oct. 30, 1930, London, Eng.—died March 21, 2005, Cossington, Somerset, Eng.), was the editor of the 20-volume The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980) and of a second, expanded edition published in 2001. He also edited several spinoffs, i

  • ?adiq, Mu?ammad a?- (ruler of Tunisia)

    Tunisia: The growth of European influence: … came during the reign of Mu?ammad al-?ādiq (1859–82). Though sympathetic to the need for reforms, Mu?ammad was too weak either to control his own government or to keep the European powers at bay. He did, in 1861, proclaim the first constitution (dustūr; also destour) in the Arabic-speaking world, but this…

  • sadism (psychosexual disorder)

    Sadism, psychosexual disorder in which sexual urges are gratified by the infliction of pain on another person. The term was coined by the late 19th-century German psychologist Richard von Krafft-Ebing in reference to the Marquis de Sade, an 18th-century French nobleman who chronicled his own such

  • Sadist, The (work by Berg)

    Peter Kürten: …celebrated psychologist Karl Berg, whose The Sadist (1932) became a classic of criminological literature. According to Berg, Kürten was a sexual psychopath and his crimes represented a perfect example of Lustmord, or murder for pleasure. At his trial on nine counts of murder and seven counts of attempted murder, Kürten…

  • sadjagrama (Indian music)

    South Asian arts: Qualities of the scales: In the sadjagrama scale the interval ri-pa (E- to A) contains 10 shrutis; i.e., one more than the nine of the consonant fourth. Comparably, in the madhyamagrama scale the interval sa-pa (D to A-) contains 12 shrutis, or one fewer than the consonant fifth. These variances involve…

  • Sadji, Abdoulaye (Senegalese author)

    Abdoulaye Sadji, Senegalese writer and teacher who was one of the founders of African prose fiction in French. Sadji was the son of a marabout (Muslim holy man) and attended Qur?ānic school before entering the colonial school system. He was graduated from the William Ponty teacher training college

  • Sadki Na grades (Thai tenure rules)

    Sadki Na grades, (1454), rules of land tenure established in Thailand by King Trailok of Ayutthaya (1448–88) to regulate the amount of land a man could own. Before Trailok’s reform, the rulers of the Thai kingdoms did not exert effective control over the land extending beyond the immediate environs

  • Sadko (Soviet ship)

    Arctic: The Russian Arctic: …are three cruises of the Sadko, which went farther north than most; in 1935 and 1936 the last unexplored areas in the northern Kara Sea were examined and the little Ushakova Island discovered, and in 1937 the ship was caught in the ice with two others and forced to winter…

  • Sadko (work by Rimsky-Korsakov)

    rhythm: Time: Rimsky-Korsakov, in Sadko, and Stravinsky, in Le Sacre du printemps, use 11 as a unit. Ravel’s piano trio opens with a signature of 88 with the internal organization 3 + 2 + 3. Folk song and folk dance, particularly from eastern Europe, influenced the use of asymmetrical…

  • Sadler Commission (India)

    education: Pre-independence period: …1917 the government appointed the Sadler Commission to inquire into the “conditions and prospects of the University of Calcutta,” an inquiry that was in reality nationwide in scope. Covering a wide field, the commission recommended the formation of a board with full powers to control secondary and intermediate education; the…

  • Sadler’s Birthday (novel by Tremain)

    Rose Tremain: … before publishing her first novel, Sadler’s Birthday (1976). This book, which presents the reminiscences of an elderly butler who lives alone in the house he has inherited from his former employers, established Tremain’s reputation as a chronicler of despair and loneliness. In Letter to Sister Benedicta (1978), a middle-aged woman…

  • Sadler’s Wells Ballet (British ballet company)

    Royal Ballet, English ballet company and school. It was formed in 1956 under a royal charter of incorporation granted by Queen Elizabeth II to the Sadler’s Wells Ballet and its sister organizations, the Sadler’s Wells Theatre Ballet and the Sadler’s Wells School. The founders of the Sadler’s Wells

  • Sadler’s Wells Theatre (theatre, London, United Kingdom)

    theatre: The evolution of modern theatrical production: Samuel Phelps at The Sadler’s Wells Theatre instituted audience controls that drove out the old audience and paved the way for respectability. The Bancrofts, as representative as any of the new movement, took over the run-down Prince of Wales’ Theatre, cleaned up the auditorium, and placed antimacassars on the…

  • Sadler, Barry (American soldier, songwriter, and author)

    Barry Sadler, American soldier, singer, songwriter, and pulp-fiction author who is principally remembered for his best-selling song “The Ballad of the Green Berets.” Sadler’s parents divorced in 1945, three years before his father’s death. The young Sadler and his mother moved around the U.S.

  • Sadler, Barry Allen (American soldier, songwriter, and author)

    Barry Sadler, American soldier, singer, songwriter, and pulp-fiction author who is principally remembered for his best-selling song “The Ballad of the Green Berets.” Sadler’s parents divorced in 1945, three years before his father’s death. The young Sadler and his mother moved around the U.S.

  • Sadler, John (English reformer)

    gun control: Historical origins of gun control: As English reformer and MP John Sadler wrote in 1649 in his pamphlet titled “The Rights of the Kingdom,” “Men ought indeed have Arms, and them to keep in Readiness for Defence of the King and Kingdom,” but Parliament defined which men were to “provide and bear arms, how, and…

  • Sadler, Michael Thomas (British politician)

    Michael Thomas Sadler, radical politician, philanthropic businessman, and leader of the factory reform movement in England, who was a forerunner of the reformers from the working class whose activities (from the late 1830s) became known as Chartism. An importer of Irish linens in Leeds, Yorkshire,

  • Sadler, Sir James (British colonial commissioner)

    Uganda: Growth of a peasant economy: Early in the 20th century Sir James Hayes Sadler, who succeeded Johnston as commissioner, concluded that the country was unlikely to prove attractive to European settlers. Sadler’s own successor, Sir Hesketh Bell, announced that he wished to develop Uganda as an African state. In this he was opposed by a…

  • Sadler, Sir Michael Ernest (English educator)

    Sir Michael Ernest Sadler, world-renowned authority on secondary education and a champion of the English public school system. Sadler was the first child of a physician. He excelled in the study of classics at Trinity College, Oxford. He served as secretary of the Oxford University Extension

  • Sadleria (plant genus)

    Blechnaceae: Some species of Blechnum and Sadleria develop short, stout, trunklike stems and stiff, leathery leaves, which give them the appearance more of a cycad than a typical fern. The sori vary from bean-shaped to linear and in most genera are positioned along both sides of the midrib of the leaflets…

  • SADM (tactical nuclear device)

    tactical nuclear weapons: …tactical nuclear device called the Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM). The project called for a two-man crew to parachute from an aircraft carrying a portable warhead similar to the W-54. The crew would place the weapon in a harbour or another target reachable by sea. They would then swim to…

  • sadness (emotion)
  • Sado (island, Japan)

    Sado, island, western Niigata ken (prefecture), central Japan, in the Sea of Japan (East Sea), 32 miles (51 km) west of Honshu. It faces Niigata, the prefectural capital, across the Sado Strait. With an area of 331 square miles (857 square km), it is the fifth largest Japanese island. Sado is

  • sadō (Japanese tradition)

    Tea ceremony, time-honoured institution in Japan, rooted in the principles of Zen Buddhism and founded upon the reverence of the beautiful in the daily routine of life. It is an aesthetic way of welcoming guests, in which everything is done according to an established order. The ceremony takes

  • Sadoveanu, Mihail (Romanian author)

    Romanian literature: Between the wars: …writer of this period was Mihail Sadoveanu, who, together with I.A. Br?tescu-Voine?ti, represented a link with the older generation of Romanian authors. Sadoveanu wrote about the historical role of the peasantry and an almost mythologized village life, as well as about the peasants’ adoption of a modern lifestyle. He remains…

  • Sadovsky, Mykola (Ukrainian actor)

    Ukraine: Theatre and motion pictures: …artistry by such actors as Mykola Sadovsky and Mariia Zankovetska in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A lifting of censorship in 1905 permitted a significant expansion of the repertoire to include modern dramas by Lesia Ukrainka (who introduced to the Ukrainian stage both ancient Greek and Shakespearian techniques),…

  • Sadovsky, Prov (Russian actor)

    Prov Sadovsky, Russian character actor and patriarch of a three-generation theatrical family. He is regarded as the greatest interpreter of Aleksandr Ostrovsky’s plays and was responsible, in part, for securing Ostrovsky’s reputation. Sadovsky was reared and trained by his maternal uncles, who were

  • Sadowa, Battle of (Austrian history)

    Battle of K?niggr?tz, (July 3, 1866), decisive battle during the Seven Weeks’ War between Prussia and Austria, fought at the village of Sadowa, northwest of the Bohemian town of K?niggr?tz (now Hradec Králové, Czech Republic) on the upper Elbe River. The Prussian victory effected Austria’s

  • Sadoyi Osiyo (work by Tursunzade)

    Tajikistan: Literature: …lyric cycle Sadoyi Osiyo (1956; The Voice of Asia) won major communist awards. A number of female writers, notably the popular poet Gulrukhsor Safieva, circulated their work in newspapers, magazines, and Tajik-language collections.

  • SADR (self-declared state)

    Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), self-declared state claiming authority over the disputed territory of Western Sahara, which is presently occupied by Morocco. The independence of the SADR has been recognized at various points by some 80 countries, although, beginning in the mid-1990s, a

  • ?adr (?afavid official)

    Islamic world: Expansion in Iran and beyond: …of the religious community, the ?adr. Gradually forms of piety emerged that were specific to ?afavid Shī?ism; they centred on pilgrimage to key sites connected with the imams, as well as on the annual remembering and reenacting of the key event in Shī?ite history, the caliph Yazīd I’s destruction of…

  • ?adr ad-Dīn ash-Shīrāzī (Iranian philosopher)

    Mullā ?adrā, philosopher, who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. The foremost representative of the illuminationist, or Ishrāqī, school of philosopher-mystics, he is commonly regarded by Iranians as the greatest philosopher their country has produced. A scion of a notable

  • ?adr City (district, Baghdad, Iraq)

    Baghdad: Districts: …between 1982 and 2003, as Saddam City.

  • ?adr Dīwānī ?Adālat (British Indian court)

    ?adr Dīwānī ?Adālat, in Mughal and British India, a high court of civil and revenue jurisdiction. It was instituted by Warren Hastings, the British governor-general, in 1772. It sat in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and was the final court of appeal in civil matters; it consisted of the governor-general

  • ?adr, Ayatollah Mu?ammad Bāqir al- (Iraqi political leader)

    Muqtadā al-?adr: Early life and education: …by those of his father-in-law, Ayatollah Mu?ammad Bāqir al-?adr, founder of the Islamic Da?wah Party, who in 1980 was executed for his opposition to Iraqi strongman Saddam Hussein.

  • ?adr, Muqtadā al- (Iraqi Shī?ite leader)

    Muqtadā al-?adr, Iraqi Shi?i leader and cleric. He was considered one of the most powerful political figures in Iraq in the early 21st century. ?adr was the son of Grand Ayatollah Mu?ammad ?ādiq al-?adr, one of the most prominent religious figures in the Islamic world. ?adr was greatly influenced

  • ?adr, Mūsā al- (Lebanese Shī?ite cleric)

    Mūsā al-?adr, Iranian-born Lebanese Shī?ite cleric. The son of an ayatollah, he received a traditional Islamic education in Qom and in Al-Najaf, Iraq, and also briefly studied political economy and law at Tehrān University. In the late 1950s he moved to Lebanon, where he became involved in social

  • sadr-?-azem (Ottoman official)

    vizier: …use the distinguishing epithet “grand.” A number of viziers, known as the “dome viziers,” were appointed to assist the grand vizier, to replace him when he was absent on campaign, and to command armies when required. Later the title vizier was granted to provincial governors and to high officials…

  • Sadriddin Ayniy (Muslim educator)

    Uzbekistan: Education: …Mahmud Khoja Behbudiy in Samarkand, Sadriddin Ayniy in Bukhara, and ?Ashur ?Ali Zahiriy in Kokand (Q?qon). They exerted a strong influence on education during the initial decades of the Soviet period, and their methods and aims have reemerged since independence.

  • ?adrinsk (Russia)

    Shadrinsk, city and centre of Shadrinsk rayon (sector) of Kurgan oblast (region), west-central Russia, on the Iset River and the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Founded in 1662, it was chartered in 1781 and today is a manufacturing and agricultural centre, with transport functions. Light engineering,

  • ?adrist Movement (Iraqi history)

    Muqtadā al-?adr: Militancy: …political movement known as the ?adrist Movement and had attracted millions of Shi?i followers across Iraq, mainly youth and the poor and downtrodden, to whom he offered a variety of social, educational, and health services. He also maintained tight security over the areas he controlled and established a court system…

  • Sadruddin Aga Khan, Prince (UN official)

    Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan, UN official (born Jan. 17, 1933, Paris, France—died May 12, 2003, Boston, Mass.), as the longest-serving UN high commissioner for refugees (1965–77), coordinated relief and resettlement efforts throughout the world, including those in Bangladesh, Uganda, Vietnam, A

  • Sadulgarh (India)

    Hanumangarh, city, northern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It lies on the right bank of the Ghaggar River about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Ganganagar. Previously called Bhatner (“The Fortress of the Bhatti Rajputs”), it became Hanumangarh in 1805 when it was annexed by the princely state

  • ?adūq, a?- (Muslim theologian)

    Ibn Bābawayh, Islamic theologian, author of one of the “Four Books” that are the basic authorities for the doctrine of Twelver (Ithnā ?Ashāri) Shī?ah. Little is known about Ibn Bābawayh’s life. According to legend he was born as the result of special prayers to the mahdī (the expected one). In 966

  • Sadyattes (king of Lydia)

    Anatolia: The Cimmerians, Lydia, and Cilicia, c. 700–547 bce: The Lydian kings Sadyattes (died c. 610) and Alyattes (ruled c. 610–c. 560) continued their attacks on Greek Miletus. Under Alyattes Lydia reached its commercial and political zenith. He attacked Clazomenae, took Smyrna in 590, and subjected many inland regions to Lydian rule. The war described by Herodotus…

  • SAE (American organization)

    SAE number: Society of Automotive Engineers. The numbers for crankcase lubricants range from 5 to 50, for transmission and axle lubricants they range from 75 to 250; the lower the number, the more readily the oil flows. The suffix W indicates that the oil is suitable for…

  • SAE number (motor oil)

    SAE number, code for specifying the viscosity of lubricating oil, established by the U.S. Society of Automotive Engineers. The numbers for crankcase lubricants range from 5 to 50, for transmission and axle lubricants they range from 75 to 250; the lower the number, the more readily the oil flows.

  • Saeberht (king of Essex)

    Saberht, first Christian king of the East Saxons, or Essex (from sometime before 604). Saberht reigned as a dependent of his uncle Aethelberht I, king of Kent, and became a Christian after Aethelberht’s conversion. A late and doubtful legend attributes the founding of Westminster Abbey to

  • Saeed, Hafiz Muhammad (Pakastani Islamist militant)

    Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, cofounder of several Islamic organizations in Pakistan that followed the Ahl-e-Hadith school of thought, a Muslim reform movement rooted in the works of Shāh Wālī Allāh and influenced by the Wahhābī movement in Saudi Arabia. Most notable among these organizations were the

  • Saeima (Latvian history)

    Latvia: Independence: …and a unicameral parliament, the Saeima, of 100 members elected for three years.

  • Saeki (Japan)

    Saiki, city, ōita ken (prefecture), Kyushu, Japan, facing Saiki Bay. It developed as a castle town on the small delta of the Banjō River during the Muromachi era (1338–1573) and came into the possession of the Mori daimyo family in 1601. Because of its good harbour, Saiki was selected for a base of

  • Saeki Kishi (Japanese painter)

    Ganku, Japanese painter of the late Tokugawa period who established the Kishi school of painting. A retainer of Prince Arisugawa in Kyōto and a holder of high rank, Ganku studied various styles of painting, including those of the Maruyama school, known for its realism, and of the Chinese painter S

  • Saeki Mao (Japanese Buddhist monk)

    Kūkai, one of the best-known and most-beloved Buddhist saints in Japan, founder of the Shingon (“True Word”) school of Buddhism that emphasizes spells, magic formulas, ceremonials, and masses for the dead. He contributed greatly to the development of Japanese art and literature and pioneered in

  • Saeman’g?m Seawall (seawall, South Korea)

    Kunsan: The Saeman’g?m (Saemangeum) Seawall, a 21-mile- (33-km-) long dike linking Kunsan with Py?nsan (Byeonsan) Peninsula National Park to the south, was completed in 2010; the world’s longest seawall at the time of its opening, it made possible the reclamation of some 155 square miles (400 square…

  • Saemangeum Seawall (seawall, South Korea)

    Kunsan: The Saeman’g?m (Saemangeum) Seawall, a 21-mile- (33-km-) long dike linking Kunsan with Py?nsan (Byeonsan) Peninsula National Park to the south, was completed in 2010; the world’s longest seawall at the time of its opening, it made possible the reclamation of some 155 square miles (400 square…

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