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  • Schweizer Deutsch

    Swiss German language, collective name for the great variety of Alemannic (Upper German) dialects spoken in Switzerland north of the boundary between the Romance and Germanic languages, in Liechtenstein, in the Austrian province of Vorarlberg, and in parts of Baden-Württemberg in Germany and Alsace

  • Schweizer Republikaner (Swiss newspaper)

    Hans Conrad Escher: …Paul Usteri, Escher founded the Schweizer Republikaner, a journal of moderately reformist opinion. Elected to the parliament of the fledgling Helvetic Republic in 1798, he was named president of the Great Council in the autumn of that year. Although a supporter of cantonal autonomy, he continued to hold high offices…

  • Schweizer, Peter (American author and political consultant)

    Steve Bannon: Entertainment finance, moviemaking, and Breitbart: In 2012 Bannon and Peter Schweizer founded the Government Accountability Institute, a nonprofit organization that mounted investigations of prominent politicians with the intention of exposing wrongdoing, and distributed the results of its investigations through mainstream publishers and other media outlets, as it did with Schweizer’s inflammatory book Clinton Cash:…

  • Schweizer, Richard (Swiss writer and director)
  • Schweizerische Bankgesellschaft (bank, Switzerland)

    Union Bank of Switzerland, one of the largest commercial banks in Switzerland, with overseas representative offices and branches. Headquarters are in Zürich. The bank was founded in 1912 in the merger of Bank in Winterthur (established 1862) and Toggenburger Bank (1863). Since then it has absorbed

  • Schweizerische Bankverein (Swiss bank)

    Swiss Bank Corporation, major Swiss bank, now part of UBS AG. The Swiss Bank Corporation was established in 1872 as the Basler Bankverein, specializing in investment banking. In an 1895 merger with Zürcher Bankverein, it became a commercial bank and changed its name to Basler und Zürcher

  • Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft

    Switzerland, federated country of central Europe. Switzerland’s administrative capital is Bern, while Lausanne serves as its judicial centre. Switzerland’s small size—its total area is about half that of Scotland—and its modest population give little indication of its international significance. A

  • Schweizerische Luftverkehr Ag (Swiss airline)

    Swiss International Air Lines (SWISS), Swiss airline formed in 2002 following the bankruptcy of Swiss Air Transport Company Ltd. (Swissair). The airline serves cities in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and North and Latin America. Swissair was founded on March 26, 1931, in the merger of

  • Schweizerische Nationalpark (national park, Switzerland)

    Swiss National Park, national park in Graubünden canton, southeastern Switzerland, adjoining the Italian border 15 miles (24 km) northeast of Saint Moritz. Established in 1914 and enlarged in 1959, the park occupies 65 square miles (169 square km) and is made up of a magnificent area in the Central

  • schweizerische Robinson, Der (novel by Wyss and Wyss)

    The Swiss Family Robinson, novel for children completed and edited by Johann Rudolf Wyss, published in German as Der schweizerische Robinson (1812–27). The original manuscript of the novel had been written by Wyss’s father, Johann David, a clergyman, for and with the aid of his four sons. After the

  • Schweizerische Volkspartei (political party, Switzerland)

    Swiss People’s Party, conservative Swiss political party. The Swiss People’s Party (SVP) was founded in 1971 by the merger of the Farmers, Artisans, and Citizens’ Party—generally known as the Agrarian Party—with the Democratic Party. It has pursued conservative social and economic policies,

  • Schweizerischer Evangelischer Kirchenbund (religious organization)

    Swiss Federation of Protestant Churches, confederation founded in 1920 to represent the interests of the churches in social issues, government liaison, and overseas mission and aid work. Membership is open to Christian churches that have adopted the principles of the Reformation. The Federation is

  • Schweizerischer Werkbund (Swiss artists organization)

    Deutscher Werkbund: …1912) and in Switzerland (Schweizerischer Werkbund, 1913). Sweden’s Sl?jdf?reningen was converted to the approach by 1915, and England’s Design and Industries Association (1915) also was modeled on the Deutscher Werkbund.

  • Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch (Switzerland [1907])

    Swiss Civil Code, body of private law codified by the jurist Eugen Huber at the end of the 19th century; it was adopted in 1907 and went into effect in 1912, and it remains in force, with modifications, in present-day Switzerland. Because Huber’s work was completed after the Napoleonic Code (

  • Schweizerk?nig (Swiss military leader)

    Ludwig Pfyffer, Swiss military leader, spokesman for Roman Catholic interests in the cantons, and probably the most important Swiss political figure in the latter half of the 16th century. For many years an active and intrepid warrior in the service of France, Pfyffer won fame by safely leading the

  • Schwenckfeld von Ossig, Kaspar (German theologian)

    Kaspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig, German theologian, writer, and preacher who led the Protestant Reformation in Silesia. He was a representative of a phenomenon called Reformation by the Middle Way, and he established societies that survive in the United States as the Schwenckfelder Church. Born into

  • Schwenckfeld, Kaspar (German theologian)

    Kaspar Schwenckfeld von Ossig, German theologian, writer, and preacher who led the Protestant Reformation in Silesia. He was a representative of a phenomenon called Reformation by the Middle Way, and he established societies that survive in the United States as the Schwenckfelder Church. Born into

  • Schwenckfelder Church (religion)

    Christianity: Protestant Christianity: …groups of mystics were the Schwenckfeldians, founded by Kaspar Schwenckfeld, and the Family of Love, founded in Holland by Hendrik Niclaes in about 1540. He later made two trips to England, where his group had its largest following and survived into the 17th century. The religion of the Ranters and…

  • Schwenckfeldians (religion)

    Christianity: Protestant Christianity: …groups of mystics were the Schwenckfeldians, founded by Kaspar Schwenckfeld, and the Family of Love, founded in Holland by Hendrik Niclaes in about 1540. He later made two trips to England, where his group had its largest following and survived into the 17th century. The religion of the Ranters and…

  • Schwenter, Daniel (German scholar)

    number game: Pioneers and imitators: …found its way into Germany: Daniel Schwenter, a professor of Hebrew, Oriental languages, and mathematics, assiduously compiled a comprehensive collection of recreational problems based on a translation of Leurechon’s book, together with many other problems that he himself had previously collected. This work appeared posthumously in 1636 under the title…

  • Schweppe, Jacob (Swiss jeweler)

    soft drink: History of soft drinks: Swiss jeweler Jacob Schweppe read the papers of Priestley and Lavoisier and determined to make a similar device. By 1794 he was selling his highly carbonated artificial mineral waters to his friends in Geneva; later he started a business in London.

  • Schwerin (Germany)

    Schwerin, city, capital of Mecklenburg–West Pomerania Land (state), northern Germany. It lies on the southwestern shore of Schweriner Lake, southwest of Rostock. Originally a Wendish settlement first mentioned in 1018, the German town was founded and chartered by the Saxon duke Henry the Lion in

  • schwerpunkt (warfare theory)

    blitzkrieg: Blitzkrieg in principle: …had its origins with the Schwerpunktprinzip (“concentration principle”) proposed by Carl von Clausewitz in his seminal work On War (1832). Having studied generals who predated Napoleon, Clausewitz found that commanders of various armies had dispersed their forces without focused reasoning, which resulted in those forces’ being used inefficiently. So as…

  • schwerpunktprinzip (warfare theory)

    blitzkrieg: Blitzkrieg in principle: …had its origins with the Schwerpunktprinzip (“concentration principle”) proposed by Carl von Clausewitz in his seminal work On War (1832). Having studied generals who predated Napoleon, Clausewitz found that commanders of various armies had dispersed their forces without focused reasoning, which resulted in those forces’ being used inefficiently. So as…

  • Schwertbrüderorden (German organization of knights)

    Order of the Brothers of the Sword, organization of crusading knights that began the successful conquest and Christianization of Livonia (most of modern Latvia and Estonia) between 1202 and 1237. After German merchants from Lübeck and Bremen acquired commercial interests in the lands around the

  • Schwimmer, David (American actor)

    David Schwimmer, American actor and director who was perhaps best known for his role on the television sitcom Friends (1994–2004). Schwimmer was raised by his parents—both prominent attorneys—in Los Angeles. In 1984 he entered the theatre department of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois,

  • Schwimmer, Rosika (Hungarian feminist and pacifist)

    Rosika Schwimmer, Hungarian-born feminist and pacifist whose national and international activism brought her both persecution and worldwide accolades. Schwimmer was obliged by family financial reverses to go to work as a bookkeeper in 1896. She organized in Hungary the National Association of Women

  • Schwind, Moritz von (German painter)

    Moritz von Schwind, Austrian-born German painter who was a leading early Romantic portrayer of an idealized Austria and Germany—of knights, castles, and the provincial charm of his own time. Schwind was something of a bohemian in his youth. He joined the composer Franz Schubert’s circle of friends,

  • Schwingen (sport)

    Schwingen, (German: “swinging”), form of wrestling native to Switzerland and the Tirolese valleys. Wrestlers wear Schwinghosen (wrestling breeches) with strong belts on which holds are taken. Lifting and tripping are common, and the first man down loses the bout. Schwingen tournaments were

  • Schwinger, Julian Seymour (American physicist)

    Julian Seymour Schwinger, American physicist and joint winner, with Richard P. Feynman and Tomonaga Shin’ichirō, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1965 for introducing new ideas and methods into quantum electrodynamics. Schwinger was a child prodigy, publishing his first physics paper at age 16. He

  • Schwinn Stingray (bicycle model)

    bicycle: The modern bicycle: …that was typified by the Schwinn Stingray. These high-rise bicycles had small wheels, banana-shaped saddles, and long handlebars. By 1968 they made up about 75 percent of U.S. bicycle sales, and 20 million teenagers owned high-rise bicycles. Upon outgrowing them, however, the young consumers switched to 10-speeds, so named because…

  • Schwitters, Kurt (German artist)

    Kurt Schwitters, German Dada artist and poet, best known for his collages and relief constructions. Soon after World War I Schwitters was attracted by the emerging Dada school, a nihilistic literary and artistic movement dedicated to the destruction of existing aesthetic values. Denied membership

  • Schwob, Lucy Renée Mathilde (French writer, photographer, Surrealist, and performance artist)

    Claude Cahun, French writer, photographer, Surrealist, and performance artist who was largely written out of art history until the late 1980s, when her photographs were included in an exhibition of Surrealist photography in 1986. She is known for her self-portraits that portray her as ambiguously

  • Schwyz (Rhaeto-Romanic dialect)

    Swiss literature: …poems in the dialect of Schwyz. Almost every canton has its Mundartdichter, or local poet. There are vigorous novels in the Bernese dialect by the 20th-century writers Rudolf von Tavel and Simon Gfeller. Schaffhausen is represented in the novels of Albert B?chtold, and Joseph Reinhart wrote in the dialect of…

  • Schwyz (Switzerland)

    Schwyz, capital of Schwyz canton, central Switzerland, at the foot of the Grosser Mythen (6,230 feet [1,899 m]), just east of Lucerne and 3 miles (5 km) northeast of Brunnen, its port on Lake Lucerne. The traditional centre of the canton, its Bundesbriefarchiv (Federal Archives, 1936) houses the

  • Schwyz (canton, Switzerland)

    Schwyz, canton, central Switzerland, traversed by the valleys of the Muota and the Sihl. More than three-quarters of the canton is reckoned as productive (forests covering about 92 square miles [238 square km]), and about 25 square miles (65 square km) are occupied by lakes, chiefly parts of Lakes

  • Schwyzertütsch

    Swiss German language, collective name for the great variety of Alemannic (Upper German) dialects spoken in Switzerland north of the boundary between the Romance and Germanic languages, in Liechtenstein, in the Austrian province of Vorarlberg, and in parts of Baden-Württemberg in Germany and Alsace

  • sci-fi (literature and performance)

    Science fiction, a form of fiction that deals principally with the impact of actual or imagined science upon society or individuals. The term science fiction was popularized, if not invented, in the 1920s by one of the genre’s principal advocates, the American publisher Hugo Gernsback. The Hugo

  • Sciacca (Italy)

    Sciacca, town, southern Sicily, Italy, northwest of Agrigento. On the site of the Roman Thermae Selinuntinae, it has been, from antiquity, a health resort with hot sulfur springs. The coastal town has a modern appearance, but notable older structures include the town walls (1336; rebuilt c. 1550),

  • Sciadopityaceae (plant family)

    conifer: Annotated classification: Family Sciadopityaceae Umbrella pine (Sciadopitys verticillata) usually included in the Cupressaceae, but recent work confirms its isolation from that family; seed cones superficially resemble those of the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), but the equal-sized scales and bracts fused for only about two thirds of their length,…

  • Sciadopitys verticillata (tree)

    Umbrella pine, (Sciadopitys verticillata), coniferous evergreen tree native to Japan, the only member of the umbrella pine family (Sciadopityaceae). Historically, this genus was classified variously in Cupressaceae or Taxodiaceae, but subsequent studies confirmed its structural uniqueness. Although

  • Sciaenidae (fish)

    Drum, in biology, any of about 275 species of fishes of the family Sciaenidae (order Perciformes); drums are carnivorous, generally bottom-dwelling fishes. Most are marine, found along warm and tropical seashores. A number inhabit temperate or fresh waters. Most are noisemakers and can “vocalize”

  • Sciaenops ocellatus (fish)

    drum: …as corbina, whiting, weakfish, and channel bass. Many members of the family are food or game fishes. Among the better-known species are the channel bass, or red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), a large, reddish species of the western Atlantic Ocean; the white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) of the eastern Pacific; the freshwater…

  • scialo, Lo (work by Pratolini)

    Vasco Pratolini: The second, Lo scialo (1960; “The Waste”), depicts the lassitude of the lower classes between 1902 and the mid-1920s preparatory to the Fascist takeover. The final volume, Allegoria e derisione (1966; “Allegory and Derision”), deals with the triumph and fall of Fascism, focusing on the moral and…

  • Sciascia, Leonardo (Italian author)

    Leonardo Sciascia, Italian writer noted for his metaphysical examinations of political corruption and arbitrary power. Sciascia studied at the Magistrale Institute in Caltanissetta. He held either clerical or teaching positions for much of his career, retiring to write full-time in 1968. His

  • sciatic nerve (anatomy)

    Sciatic nerve, largest and thickest nerve of the human body that is the principal continuation of all the roots of the sacral plexus. It emerges from the spinal cord in the lumbar portion of the spine and runs down through the buttocks and the back of the thigh; above the back of the knee it

  • sciatica (pathology)

    Sciatica, pain along the sciatic nerve, which runs from the lower back down the legs. Sciatica often develops following an unusual movement or exertion that places a strain on the lumbar portion of the spine, where the nerve has its roots, either immediately or after an interval of several hours to

  • Scicli (Italy)

    Scicli, town, southeastern Sicily, Italy. It lies south of Ragusa city. Scicli flourished under the Saracens and Normans but later declined and was heavily damaged by the earthquake of 1693. It was rebuilt on a regular pattern, and its principal buildings are in the Baroque style. Agriculture and

  • Scicolone, Sofia (Italian actress)

    Sophia Loren, Italian film actress who rose above her poverty-stricken origins in postwar Naples to become universally recognized as one of Italy’s most beautiful women and its most famous movie star. Before working in the cinema, Sofia Scicolone changed her last name to Lazzaro for work in the

  • Scicolone, Sofia Villani (Italian actress)

    Sophia Loren, Italian film actress who rose above her poverty-stricken origins in postwar Naples to become universally recognized as one of Italy’s most beautiful women and its most famous movie star. Before working in the cinema, Sofia Scicolone changed her last name to Lazzaro for work in the

  • SCID (pathology)

    human disease: Immune deficiencies: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a condition that arises from several different genetic defects, disrupts the functioning of both the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

  • Scidmore, Eliza Ruhamah (American writer and photographer)

    Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, American travel writer and photographer whose books and magazine articles often featured her perspective on travel and culture in Asia. She is perhaps best known as the person responsible for the planting of Japanese cherry trees in Washington, D.C. Scidmore attended Oberlin

  • science

    Science, any system of knowledge that is concerned with the physical world and its phenomena and that entails unbiased observations and systematic experimentation. In general, a science involves a pursuit of knowledge covering general truths or the operations of fundamental laws. Science is treated

  • Science and Charity (work by Picasso)

    Pablo Picasso: Early years: …in that year his painting Science and Charity, for which his father modeled for the doctor, was awarded an honourable mention in Madrid at the Fine Arts Exhibition.

  • Science and Civilisation in China (work by Needham)

    Joseph Needham: …and edited the landmark history Science and Civilisation in China, a comprehensive study of Chinese scientific development.

  • Science and Environment, Centre for (Indian organization)

    Anil Kumar Agarwal: …founder and director of the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), the leading environmental nongovernmental organization (NGO) in India. He also was an outspoken advocate for improving the environmental and social conditions that affected India’s impoverished citizens.

  • Science and Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research

    At the end of 1998, almost simultaneously, one team of Researchers announced that it had isolated human embryonic stem (ES) cells and another announced that it had isolated human embryonic germ (EG) cells. These announcements gave rise both to the promise of great medical benefits and to

  • Science and Health (work by Eddy)

    Mary Baker Eddy: The process of discovery: …publication of her major work, Science and Health, which she regarded as spiritually inspired. And it was in this major work that Eddy eventually included the basic tenets of the church:

  • Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (work by Eddy)

    Mary Baker Eddy: The process of discovery: …publication of her major work, Science and Health, which she regarded as spiritually inspired. And it was in this major work that Eddy eventually included the basic tenets of the church:

  • Science and Human Values (work by Bronowski)

    Jacob Bronowski: … (1951) and the highly praised Science and Human Values (1956; rev. ed. 1965). In these books Bronowski examined aspects of science in nontechnical language and made a case for his view that science needs an ethos in order to function. In The Identity of Man (1965) he sought to present…

  • Science and Industry, Museum of (museum, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Museum of Science and Industry, science museum opened in Chicago, Illinois, U.S., in 1933 by the philanthropist-founder Julius Rosenwald, chairman of Sears, Roebuck, and Company. He had seen the Deutsches Museum in Munich and wished to locate a similarly interactive museum in the United States. He

  • Science and Religion (work by Rolston III)

    Holmes Rolston III: In his book Science and Religion (1987), he wrote that “science is here to stay, and the religion that is divorced from science today will leave no offspring tomorrow.” His other major works included Environmental Ethics (1988), Philosophy Gone Wild (1989), and Genes, Genesis and God (1999); the…

  • Science and Religion (essay by Bushnell)

    Horace Bushnell: An essay on “Science and Religion” (1868) shows his resistance to Darwinian evolutionary theory. His moderate and cautious views on social issues are recorded in A Discourse on the Slavery Question (1839); The Census and Slavery (1860); and Women’s Suffrage: The Reform Against Nature (1869).

  • Science and Religion Forum (international organization)

    Arthur Peacocke: He also founded the Science and Religion Forum (1972) and the Society of Ordained Scientists (1985).

  • Science and Survival (work by Commoner)

    Barry Commoner: …such works as his classic Science and Survival (1966) made him one of the foremost environmentalist spokesmen of his time. He was a third-party candidate for U.S. president in 1980.

  • science and technology museum (cultural institution)

    museum: Science and technology museums: Museums of science and technology are concerned with the development and application of scientific ideas and instrumentation. Like museums of natural science and natural history, science museums have their origins in the Enlightenment. Some of them developed from the collections of…

  • Science and Technology Satellite (South Korean satellite series)

    Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT), any of a series of South Korean satellites, of which STSAT-2C was the first launched into orbit by South Korea. The first satellite in the series, STSAT-1, was launched by a Kosmos rocket from Plestek, Russia, on September 25, 2003. The second satellite in

  • Science and Technology, Directorate of (United States government)

    Central Intelligence Agency: Organization and responsibilities: The Directorate of Science and Technology is responsible for keeping the agency abreast of scientific and technological advances, for carrying out technical operations (e.g., coordinating intelligence from reconnaissance satellites), and for supervising the monitoring of foreign media. During the Cold War, material gathered from aerial reconnaissance…

  • Science and the Modern World (work by Whitehead)

    Alfred North Whitehead: Career in the United States: …earliest writing about God) as Science and the Modern World. In it he dramatically described what had long engaged his meditation; namely, the rise, triumph, and impact of “scientific materialism”—i.e., the view that nature consists of nothing else but matter in motion, or a flux of purely physical energy. He…

  • Science and the Unseen World (work by Eddington)

    Arthur Eddington: Early life: In Science and the Unseen World (1929) he declared that the world’s meaning could not be discovered from science but must be sought through apprehension of spiritual reality. He expressed this belief in other philosophical books: The Nature of the Physical World (1928), New Pathways of…

  • science centre (museum)

    museum: Science and technology museums: Performing a similar function are science centres where science is demonstrated but where there is not normally a responsibility for collecting and conserving historical apparatus. A pioneer in this field is the Ontario Science Centre in Toronto.

  • science fiction (literature and performance)

    Science fiction, a form of fiction that deals principally with the impact of actual or imagined science upon society or individuals. The term science fiction was popularized, if not invented, in the 1920s by one of the genre’s principal advocates, the American publisher Hugo Gernsback. The Hugo

  • Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (American organization)

    Nebula Award: …annual awards presented by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA). Although the SFWA is open to writers, editors, illustrators, agents, and others, only “active members” (published writers) are eligible to vote for the awards, which are currently given for best novel, novella, novelette, short story, and script.…

  • Science Museum (museum, London, United Kingdom)

    Science Museum, museum that is the headquarters of Britain’s National Museum of Science and Industry and is one of the greatest museums of science and technology in the world. It is located in South Kensington, London, near the Natural History Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The Science

  • science museum (cultural institution)

    museum: Science and technology museums: Museums of science and technology are concerned with the development and application of scientific ideas and instrumentation. Like museums of natural science and natural history, science museums have their origins in the Enlightenment. Some of them developed from the collections of…

  • Science Museum of Victoria (museum, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia)

    museum: Other national and regional museums: …Victoria in 1861 and the Science Museum of Victoria in 1870. In Cairo the Egyptian Museum was established in 1858. These all followed the European model, and even in South America art collections tended to be predominately of European origin, to the neglect of indigenous works of art.

  • Science of English Verse, The (work by Lanier)

    prosody: The 18th century: …poet Sidney Lanier in his Science of English Verse, 1880.) Steele’s method is highly personal, depending on an idiosyncratic assigning of such musical qualities as pitch and duration to syllabic values; but he recognized that a prosodic theory must take into account not merely metre but “all properties or accidents…

  • Science of Ethics (work by Stephen)

    Sir Leslie Stephen: …contribution to the rationalist tradition, Science of Ethics (1882), attempted to wed evolutionary theory to ethics, and An Agnostic’s Apology appeared in 1893. Stephen’s most enduring legacy, however, is the Dictionary of National Biography, which he edited from 1882 to 1891; he edited the first 26 volumes and contributed 378…

  • Science of Judaism (German Jewish movement)

    Judaism: Developments in scholarship: …of scholars dedicated to the Wissenschaft des Judentums (“science of Judaism”).

  • Science of Legislation, The (work by Filangieri)

    Gaetano Filangieri: …La scienza della legislazione (The Science of Legislation) is considered one of the most important works of the Enlightenment. His ideas were a precursor of modern constitutionalism, and he may have influenced Benjamin Franklin and the writing of the Constitution of the United States.

  • Science of Life, The (work by Wells)

    H.G. Wells: Middle and late works: …of History (1920; revised 1931), The Science of Life (1931), cowritten with Julian Huxley and G.P. Wells (his elder son by his second wife), and The Work, Wealth, and Happiness of Mankind (1932). At the same time he continued to publish works of fiction, in which his gifts of narrative…

  • Science of Logic (work by Hegel)

    history of logic: Other 18th-century logicians: …refers early in his massive Science of Logic (1812–16) to the centuries of work in logic since Aristotle as a mere preoccupation with “technical manipulations.” He took issue with the claim that one could separate the “logical form” of a judgment from its substance—and thus with the very possibility of…

  • Science of Mind (American magazine)

    Religious Science: …United Church publishes the magazine Science of Mind.

  • Science of Mind, The (book by Holmes)

    Religious Science: In 1926 Holmes’s major work, The Science of Mind, was published. In 1927 he established the Institute of Religious Science and Philosophy in Los Angeles to teach his principles. Some of the graduates established churches based on Holmes’s teachings, and in 1949 he reluctantly agreed to the establishment of a…

  • Science of the Cross, The (work by Stein)

    Edith Stein: …Joannes a Cruce: Kreuzeswissenschaft (1950; The Science of the Cross), a phenomenological study of St. John of the Cross.

  • Science, Boston Museum of (museum, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Museum of Science, major American museum of science and technology, founded in 1830 in Boston, Massachusetts, as the Boston Society of Natural History. The society moved to permanent quarters in 1864, when it became known as the New England Museum of Natural History. Having outgrown its original

  • Science, Department of (government organization, Australia)

    Australian External Territories: The commonwealth Department of Science is responsible for the administration of Australia’s Antarctic interests as well as Heard Island and McDonald Islands and oversees the annual relief operations of Australia’s scientific bases in Antarctica.

  • science, history of

    History of science, the development of science over time. On the simplest level, science is knowledge of the world of nature. There are many regularities in nature that humankind has had to recognize for survival since the emergence of Homo sapiens as a species. The Sun and the Moon periodically

  • Science, Museum of (museum, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Museum of Science, major American museum of science and technology, founded in 1830 in Boston, Massachusetts, as the Boston Society of Natural History. The society moved to permanent quarters in 1864, when it became known as the New England Museum of Natural History. Having outgrown its original

  • science, philosophy of

    Philosophy of science, the study, from a philosophical perspective, of the elements of scientific inquiry. This article discusses metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical issues related to the practice and goals of modern science. For treatment of philosophical issues raised by the problems and

  • science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (education curriculum)

    STEM, field and curriculum centred on education in the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The STEM acronym was introduced in 2001 by scientific administrators at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). The organization previously used the acronym SMET when

  • science-fiction programs

    "Star Trek," the show whose mission was "to boldly go where no man has gone before," celebrated its 30th anniversary in 1996. First televised in 1966, the series ran for only three seasons before it was canceled, yet it generated an unprecedented cult following. Revived in syndication in the late

  • Science: The Glorious Entertainment (work by Barzun)

    Jacques Barzun: A related work is Science: The Glorious Entertainment (1964), in which he criticizes what he considers to be an overestimation of scientific thought.

  • Sciences and Arts, Academy of (Russian organization)

    Academy of Sciences, highest scientific society and principal coordinating body for research in natural and social sciences, technology, and production in Russia. The organization was established in St. Petersburg, Russia, on February 8 (January 28, Old Style), 1724. Membership in the academy is by

  • Sciences, Academy of (Russian organization)

    Academy of Sciences, highest scientific society and principal coordinating body for research in natural and social sciences, technology, and production in Russia. The organization was established in St. Petersburg, Russia, on February 8 (January 28, Old Style), 1724. Membership in the academy is by

  • Sciences, Academy of (German organization)

    Berlin: Education and science: The Academy of Sciences, founded as the Electoral Prince of Brandenburg Society in 1700, was the primary research organization of the GDR. The academy was phased out in 1991, and its research institutes were either integrated into existing research organizations and universities or dissolved; only its…

  • Sciences, Academy of (French organization)

    Academy of Sciences, institution established in Paris in 1666 under the patronage of Louis XIV to advise the French government on scientific matters. This advisory role has been largely taken over by other bodies, but the academy is still an important representative of French science on the

  • Sciences, Russian Academy of (Russian organization)

    Academy of Sciences, highest scientific society and principal coordinating body for research in natural and social sciences, technology, and production in Russia. The organization was established in St. Petersburg, Russia, on February 8 (January 28, Old Style), 1724. Membership in the academy is by

  • scientific academy

    Italy: Culture and society: …fostered scientific exchange by establishing scientific academies—the Roman Accademia dei Lincei (founded in 1603), the Florentine Accademia del Cimento (1657), and the Neapolitan Accademia degli Investiganti (1665). In fields such as drama (both tragedy and comedy), music (both religious and secular), art history, rhetoric, and political theory, Italians of the…

  • Scientific American (American publication)

    Scientific American, American monthly magazine interpreting scientific developments to lay readers, the most highly regarded of its genre. It was founded in New York City in 1845 by Rufus Porter, a New England inventor, as a weekly newspaper describing new inventions. He sold it in 1846 to another

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