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  • Scientific and Industrial Research, Council for (South African research organization)

    Pretoria: …Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, the country’s largest research organization.

  • Scientific and Industrial Research, Council of (Indian research and development organization)

    Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian research and development (R&D) organization. It was established as an autonomous body by the government of India in 1942 to promote scientific knowledge and boost industrialization and economic growth and is now one of the largest

  • scientific anthropology

    Lewis Henry Morgan: …and a principal founder of scientific anthropology, known especially for establishing the study of kinship systems and for his comprehensive theory of social evolution.

  • Scientific Autobiography, A (work by Rossi)

    Aldo Rossi: Rossi’s A Scientific Autobiography was published in 1981 (reissued 2010). In the 1980s and ’90s Rossi continued his search for a timeless architectural language in commissions such as the Hotel il Palazzo (1987–94) in Fukuoka, Japan, and the Bonnefanten Museum (1995) in Maastricht, Netherlands. Over time,…

  • scientific boxing (sport)

    James J. Corbett: …what came to be called scientific boxing.

  • Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (international organization)

    Antarctica: Post-IGY research: …in September 1957 organized the Special Committee on Antarctic Research, or SCAR. (In 1961 the word Scientific was substituted for Special.) The foundations for the committee were laid at its first meeting, in The Hague in 1958. SCAR, a politically independent body, coordinates not only research activities in Antarctica itself…

  • scientific creationism

    Creationism, the belief that the universe and the various forms of life were created by God out of nothing (ex nihilo). It is a response to modern evolutionary theory, which explains the emergence and diversity of life without recourse to the doctrine of God or any other divine power. Mainstream

  • Scientific Empiricism (philosophy)

    Logical positivism, a philosophical movement that arose in Vienna in the 1920s and was characterized by the view that scientific knowledge is the only kind of factual knowledge and that all traditional metaphysical doctrines are to be rejected as meaningless. A brief treatment of logical positivism

  • scientific fad (psychology)

    collective behaviour: Fads: First, the scientific fad begins with a new idea or a rediscovered idea—though not just any new idea will set off a fad. The new idea must be a “key invention,” one that opens up the possibility for a wide range of minor innovations. Discovery of a…

  • scientific history

    Karl Gotthard Lamprecht: …over the meaning of “scientific history.” While he put special emphasis on economic groups and mass movements in social history, his principal thesis was that history achieves scientific status not through exactitude of detail in particular instances but rather through the achievement of a general and philosophical synthesis arising…

  • scientific hypothesis

    Scientific hypothesis, an idea that proposes a tentative explanation about a phenomenon or a narrow set of phenomena observed in the natural world. The two primary features of a scientific hypothesis are falsifiability and testability, which are reflected in an “If…then” statement summarizing the

  • scientific illustration (art)

    drawing: Applied drawings: …to artistic standing are most illustrations serving scientific purposes, the aim of which is to record as objectively as possible the characteristic and typical features of a given phenomenon. The systematic drawings, used especially in the natural sciences to explain a system or a function, resemble plans; descriptive and naturalistic…

  • scientific literacy (knowledge)

    Let Science Be Our Guidepost: … in our children and elevating scientific proficiency among our citizens. I believe we must grow knowledgeable voters, those who will continue to implement good science policy.

  • scientific management (industry)

    Frederick W. Taylor: …known as the father of scientific management. His system of industrial management has influenced the development of virtually every country enjoying the benefits of modern industry.

  • scientific method

    Scientific method, mathematical and experimental technique employed in the sciences. More specifically, it is the technique used in the construction and testing of a scientific hypothesis. The process of observing, asking questions, and seeking answers through tests and experiments is not unique to

  • scientific modeling (science)

    Scientific modeling, the generation of a physical, conceptual, or mathematical representation of a real phenomenon that is difficult to observe directly. Scientific models are used to explain and predict the behaviour of real objects or systems and are used in a variety of scientific disciplines,

  • scientific observation (science)

    Rudolf Carnap: Career in Vienna and Prague: …of operational definitions, and “observation sentences,” whose truth can be checked by direct observation. Carnap stressed that usually such tests cannot provide strict proof or disproof but only more or less strong “confirmation” for an empirical statement.

  • scientific racism (racism)

    anti-Semitism: …the emergence of so-called “scientific racism” in the 19th century and is different in nature from earlier anti-Jewish prejudices.

  • scientific realism (philosophy)

    realism: Scientific realism and instrumentalism: The dispute between scientific realists and antirealists, though often associated with conflicting ontological attitudes toward the unobserved (and perhaps unobservable) entities ostensibly postulated by some scientific theories, primarily concerns the status of the theories themselves and what scientists should be seen…

  • scientific research

    Let Science Be Our Guidepost: …and meticulous path that sound scientific research must follow. Few people realize how many thousands of assays must be performed, how many years of animal studies and clinical trials must be successfully completed, and how many objective reviews must be passed before a new drug can be responsibly introduced to…

  • Scientific Research and Development, Office of (United States history)

    nuclear weapon: Producing a controlled chain reaction: …1941 President Roosevelt established the Office of Scientific Research and Development under the direction of the scientist Vannevar Bush, subsuming the National Defense Research Committee that had directed the nation’s mobilization effort to utilize science for weapon development the previous year.

  • Scientific Research, Council for (Spanish history)

    Spain: Academies and institutes: …institution for research is the Council for Scientific Research (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; CSIC), an autonomous public research organization based in Madrid and affiliated with the government Ministry of Education and Science. It was created in 1940 by the Franco regime to promote and manage research. Today there are…

  • Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution, drastic change in scientific thought that took place during the 16th and 17th centuries. A new view of nature emerged during the Scientific Revolution, replacing the Greek view that had dominated science for almost 2,000 years. Science became an autonomous discipline,

  • scientific satellite (instrument)

    spaceflight: Kinds of spacecraft: A scientific satellite or probe carries instruments to obtain data on magnetic fields, space radiation, Earth and its atmosphere, the Sun or other stars, planets and their moons, and other astronomical objects and phenomena. Applications spacecraft have utilitarian tasks, such as telecommunications, Earth observation, military reconnaissance,…

  • scientific socialism (social and political philosophy)

    communism: Communism after Marx: …Marxism, which he called “scientific socialism,” made Marxist theory more rigid and deterministic than Marx had intended. Thus, Marx’s historical materialism became a variant of philosophical materialism—i.e., the doctrine that only physical matter and its motions are real. According to Engels’s science of “dialectics,” everything—nature, history, even human thought—is…

  • Scientific Society (Urdu publication)

    Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: …was the foundation of the Scientific Society, which published translations of many educational texts and issued a bilingual journal—in Urdu and English.

  • Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO study)

    Edward U. Condon: …saucers, from which grew the Condon report, The Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (1969).

  • scientific theory

    Scientific theory, systematic ideational structure of broad scope, conceived by the human imagination, that encompasses a family of empirical (experiential) laws regarding regularities existing in objects and events, both observed and posited. A scientific theory is a structure suggested by these

  • scientific visualization

    Scientific visualization, Process of graphically displaying real or simulated scientific data. It is a vital procedure in the creative realization of scientific ideas, particularly in computer science. Basic visualization techniques include surface rendering, volume rendering, and animation.

  • Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (gay rights organization)

    gay rights movement: The beginning of the gay rights movement: …with the founding of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanit?res Komitee; WhK) in Berlin. Their first activity was a petition to call for the repeal of Paragraph 175 of the Imperial Penal Code (submitted 1898, 1922, and 1925). The committee published emancipation literature, sponsored rallies, and campaigned for legal reform throughout Germany,…

  • scientific-realist education

    education: Scientific-realist education: The scientific-realist education movement began in 1900 when édouard Claparède, then a doctor at the Psychological Laboratory of the University of Geneva, responded to an appeal from the women in charge of special schools for “backward” and “abnormal” children in Geneva. The experience…

  • Scientific-Research Institute 3 (Soviet institution)

    space exploration: Soviet Union: …which five years later became Scientific-Research Institute 3 (NII-3). In its early years the organization did not work directly on space technology, but ultimately it played a central role in Soviet rocket development.

  • scientism (philosophy and social science)

    existentialism: Nature of existentialist thought and manner: …any form of objectivism or scientism, since those approaches stress the crass reality of external fact. Third, existentialism is opposed to any form of necessitarianism; for existence is constituted by possibilities from among which the individual may choose and through which he can project himself. And, finally, with respect to…

  • Scientology (international movement)

    Scientology, international movement that emerged in the 1950s in response to the thought of L. Ron Hubbard (in full Lafayette Ronald Hubbard; b. March 13, 1911, Tilden, Nebraska, U.S.—d. January 24, 1986, San Luis Obispo, California), a writer who introduced his ideas to the general public in

  • scienza della legislazione, La (work by Filangieri)

    Gaetano Filangieri: …La scienza della legislazione (The Science of Legislation) is considered one of the most important works of the Enlightenment. His ideas were a precursor of modern constitutionalism, and he may have influenced Benjamin Franklin and the writing of the Constitution of the United States.

  • Scienza nuova (work by Vico)

    Giambattista Vico: Period of the Scienza nuova: The outline of the work that he planned to call Scienza nuova first appeared in 1720–21 in a two-volume legal treatise on the “Universal Law.” The outline was written in Latin and appeared in a chapter entitled “Nova Scientia Tentatur” (“The New Science…

  • Scieszka, Jon (American writer and educator)

    Jon Scieszka, American children’s author and educator perhaps best known for his book The Stinky Cheese Man, and Other Fairly Stupid Tales (1992). Scieszka, an avid reader in his youth, said that he found such schoolroom staples as the Dick and Jane readers—a series of illustrated books presenting

  • Scilla (plant)

    Squill, (genus Scilla), genus of about 100 species of bulbous plants (family Asparagaceae, formerly Hyacinthaceae) native to temperate Eurasia. Some spring-flowering species are cultivated as garden ornamentals. Siberian squill (Scilla siberica) has escaped cultivation and is considered an invasive

  • Scillitan Martyrs (Christian martyrs)

    Scillitan Martyrs, 12 North African Christians from Scilla (or Scillium) in Numidia who were tried in Carthage under the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. The Acts of their martyrdom is the earliest authentic document on Christianity in North Africa and represents the earliest specimen of Christian

  • Scilly Isles (islands, England, United Kingdom)

    Isles of Scilly, group of about 50 small islands and many more islets lying southwest of Cornwall, England, 25 to 36 miles (40 to 58 km) off Land’s End. Administratively, the islands are a distinct unit within England, though they form a part of the historic county of Cornwall. Because their

  • Scilly, Isles of (islands, England, United Kingdom)

    Isles of Scilly, group of about 50 small islands and many more islets lying southwest of Cornwall, England, 25 to 36 miles (40 to 58 km) off Land’s End. Administratively, the islands are a distinct unit within England, though they form a part of the historic county of Cornwall. Because their

  • scimitar (weapon)

    sword: The Turkish scimitar was modified in the West to the cavalry sabre. At the other extreme of Asia, the Japanese developed a long-bladed, slightly curved version with a two-handed grip, with which an elaborate dueling cult, as well as ancestor worship, became associated.

  • scimitar-babbler (bird)

    Scimitar-babbler, any of about 12 species of songbirds of the babbler family Timaliidae (order Passeriformes), which have long, curved bills used for uncovering insects in ground litter. Scimitar-babblers are 18 to 28 cm (7 to 11 inches) in length, with fairly long tails. Their plumage is mostly

  • scimitar-horned oryx (mammal)

    oryx: The scimitar-horned oryx (O. dammah), 120 cm (47 inches) tall and weighing 200 kg (440 pounds), is mostly white except for the reddish brown neck and chest. The horns are long and straight in the gemsbok and the Arabian oryx. Females’ horns are thinner but as…

  • Scincidae (lizard)

    Skink, (family Scincidae), any of about 1,275 species of lizards, mostly secretive ground dwellers or burrowers, that are represented throughout most of the world but are especially diverse in Southeast Asia and its associated islands, the deserts of Australia, and the temperate regions of North

  • Scincus (lizard)

    skink: Sand skinks (Scincus), also called sandfish, run across and “swim” through windblown sand aided by fringes of scales on their toes. Their countersunk lower jaw, scales that partially cover the ear openings, specialized nasal openings, and fringes on the eyelids allow them to move through…

  • Scindapsus aureus (plant species, Epipremnum aureum)

    Pothos, (Epipremnum aureum), hardy indoor foliage plant of the arum family (Araceae) native to southeastern Asia. It resembles, and thus is often confused with, the common philodendron. Pothos is an evergreen plant with thick, waxy, green, heart-shaped leaves with splashes of yellow. As a

  • Scindia family (Indian rulers)

    Sindhia family, Maratha ruling family of Gwalior, which for a time in the 18th century dominated the politics of northern India. The dynasty was founded by Ranoji Sindhia, who in 1726 was put in charge of the Malwa region by the peshwa (chief minister of the Maratha state). By his death in 1750,

  • Scindia, Madhavrao (Indian politician)

    Madhavrao Scindia, Indian Hindu prince and politician (born March 10, 1945, Bombay [now Mumbai], India—died Sept. 30, 2001, Mainpur, India), succeeded (1961) his father as maharaja of the ancient princely state of Gwalior (which was absorbed by independent India in 1948 and incorporated into the m

  • Scindia, Vasundhara Raje (Indian politician)

    Vasundhara Raje, Indian politician and government official, who rose to become a senior leader in the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). She twice served (2003–08 and 2013–18) as the chief minister (head of government) of Rajasthan state in northwestern India. Raje was born into the wealthy Scindia

  • scintillation (astronomy)

    seeing: Scintillation, the “twinkling” of stars to the unaided eye, is a commonly known result of turbulence in the higher reaches of the atmosphere. Poor seeing in telescopes is more a result of turbulence in the lower atmosphere. This turbulence sets a limit on the features…

  • scintillation counter (instrument)

    Scintillation counter, radiation detector that is triggered by a flash of light (or scintillation) produced when ionizing radiation traverses certain solid or liquid substances (phosphors), among which are thallium-activated sodium iodide, zinc sulfide, and organic compounds such as anthracene

  • scintillation crystal

    mass spectrometry: Daly detector: …high negative potential to a scintillation crystal mounted on a photomultiplier at ground potential. The electrons generate a light signal in the scintillation crystal that is amplified by the photomultiplier. The output is then treated just as the output of an electron multiplier. The advantage of this more complicated device…

  • scintillation detector (instrument)

    Scintillation counter, radiation detector that is triggered by a flash of light (or scintillation) produced when ionizing radiation traverses certain solid or liquid substances (phosphors), among which are thallium-activated sodium iodide, zinc sulfide, and organic compounds such as anthracene

  • scintillation efficiency (physics)

    radiation measurement: Scintillators: …fraction is given the name scintillation efficiency and ranges from about 3 to 15 percent for common scintillation materials. The photon energy (or the wavelength of the light) is distributed over an emission spectrum that is characteristic of the particular scintillation material.

  • scintillator (physics)

    quantum mechanics: The electron: wave or particle?: …electrons; the most common are scintillators. When an electron passes through a scintillating material, such as sodium iodide, the material produces a light flash which gives a voltage pulse that can be amplified and recorded. The pattern of electrons recorded by each detector is the same as that predicted for…

  • scintillometer (device)

    Earth exploration: Radioactive methods: …in most cases with a scintillometer, a photoconversion device containing a crystal of sodium iodide that emits a photon (minute packet of electromagnetic radiation) when struck by a gamma ray. The photon, whose intensity is proportional to the energy of the gamma ray, causes an adjacent photocathode to emit electrons,…

  • Scioli, Daniel (Argentine politician)

    Cristina Fernández de Kirchner: Her handpicked successor, Daniel Scioli, the former governor of Buenos Aires province, was thought to be something of a shoo-in, but he only narrowly won the first round of voting in October and failed to gain the 45 percent of the vote necessary to prevent a runoff election.…

  • Sciomyzidae (insect)

    Marsh fly, (family Sciomyzidae), any member of a family of insects in the fly order, Diptera, in which the parasitic larvae are known to prey on slugs, snails, and other mollusks. These medium-sized flies occur worldwide. There are about 600 known species, each associated with certain types of

  • scion grafting (horticulture)
  • Scion IQ concept car (automobile)

    Toyota Motor Corporation: …with the launch of its Scion brand (2003) and unveiling the world’s first luxury hybrid vehicle, the Lexus RX 400h (2005). However, the company subsequently faced significant financial challenges: plummeting sales stemming from the global financial crisis of 2008 as well as an international safety recall of more than eight…

  • Scioto Company (American pioneers)

    Gallipolis: …founded in 1790 by the Scioto Company for Royalists fleeing the French Revolution who had been deceived by agents of the company into purchasing land certificates that were worthless. The company later, however, financed a settlement at the site, and some French moved there. The name means “City of the…

  • Scioto River (river, United States)

    Scioto River, river rising in Auglaize county, west-central Ohio, U.S., and flowing southeast past Columbus, Circleville, and Chillicothe, joining the Ohio River at Portsmouth after a course of some 230 miles (370 km). Griggs (built 1908) and O’Shaughnessy (1925) dams, both near Columbus, impound

  • Sciotoville Bridge (bridge, Ohio, United States)

    Othmar Herman Ammann: …and the Ohio River Bridge, Sciotoville, Ohio.

  • Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus, Publius Cornelius (Roman general)

    Scipio Africanus the Younger, Roman general famed both for his exploits during the Third Punic War (149–146 bc) and for his subjugation of Spain (134–133 bc). He received the name Africanus and celebrated a triumph in Rome after his destruction of Carthage (146 bc). He acquired the (unofficial)

  • Scipio Africanus (Roman general)

    Scipio Africanus, Roman general noted for his victory over the Carthaginian leader Hannibal in the great Battle of Zama (202 bce), ending the Second Punic War. For his victory he won the surname Africanus (201 bce). Publius Cornelius Scipio was born into one of the great patrician families in Rome;

  • Scipio Africanus Major (Roman general)

    Scipio Africanus, Roman general noted for his victory over the Carthaginian leader Hannibal in the great Battle of Zama (202 bce), ending the Second Punic War. For his victory he won the surname Africanus (201 bce). Publius Cornelius Scipio was born into one of the great patrician families in Rome;

  • Scipio Africanus Minor (Roman general)

    Scipio Africanus the Younger, Roman general famed both for his exploits during the Third Punic War (149–146 bc) and for his subjugation of Spain (134–133 bc). He received the name Africanus and celebrated a triumph in Rome after his destruction of Carthage (146 bc). He acquired the (unofficial)

  • Scipio Africanus the Elder (Roman general)

    Scipio Africanus, Roman general noted for his victory over the Carthaginian leader Hannibal in the great Battle of Zama (202 bce), ending the Second Punic War. For his victory he won the surname Africanus (201 bce). Publius Cornelius Scipio was born into one of the great patrician families in Rome;

  • Scipio Africanus the Younger (Roman general)

    Scipio Africanus the Younger, Roman general famed both for his exploits during the Third Punic War (149–146 bc) and for his subjugation of Spain (134–133 bc). He received the name Africanus and celebrated a triumph in Rome after his destruction of Carthage (146 bc). He acquired the (unofficial)

  • Scipio Calvus, Gnaeus Cornelius (Roman general and consul)

    Publius Cornelius Scipio: …bc he and his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus (consul in 222 bc) were proconsuls (provincial governors) and commanders of the Roman expeditionary force in Spain. Publius was the father of Scipio Africanus the Elder.

  • Scipio Nasica Serapio, Publius Cornelius (Roman consul)

    Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus: …traditional allocation of funds, but Scipio Nasica, an elderly senator from the Scipionic faction, succeeded in limiting these to a derisory sum. Tiberius countered by a second outrageous proposal, of which he failed to see the implication. The king of Pergamum, a city in Anatolia, on his death in 134…

  • Scipio, Lucius (Roman military leader)

    Marcus Porcius Cato: He then attacked Lucius Scipio and Scipio Africanus the Elder and broke their political influence. This success was followed by his election to the censorship in 184, again with Flaccus as his colleague. (The censors were twin magistrates who acted as census takers, assessors, and inspectors of morals…

  • Scipio, Publius Cornelius (Roman general [died 211 bce])

    Publius Cornelius Scipio, Roman general, consul in 218 bc; from 217 to 211 bc he and his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus (consul in 222 bc) were proconsuls (provincial governors) and commanders of the Roman expeditionary force in Spain. Publius was the father of Scipio Africanus the Elder.

  • Scipio, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius (Roman politician)

    Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio, Roman politician, a leading supporter of his son-in-law Pompey the Great in the power struggle between Pompey and Julius Caesar. The son of Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, Metellus was adopted by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, the son of Metellus

  • Scipione, Francesco (Italian dramatist)

    Francesco Scipione, marchese di Maffei, Italian dramatist, archaeologist, and scholar who, in his verse tragedy Merope, attempted to introduce Greek and French classical simplicity into Italian drama and thus prepared the way for the dramatic tragedies of Vittorio Alfieri and the librettos of

  • scire facias (legal procedure)

    letters patent: …by the procedure known as scire facias, an action brought against the patentee in the name of the crown with the fiat of the attorney general.

  • Sciron (Greek mythology)

    Theseus: …cliff he flung the wicked Sciron, who had kicked his guests into the sea while they were washing his feet. Later he slew Procrustes, who fitted all comers to his iron bed by hacking or racking them to the right length. In Megara Theseus killed Cercyon, who forced strangers to…

  • Scirpus (plant)

    Bulrush, Any of the annual or perennial grasslike plants constituting the genus Scirpus, especially S. lacustris, in the sedge family, that bear solitary or much-clustered spikelets. Bulrushes grow in wet locations, including ponds, marshes, and lakes. Their stems are often used to weave strong

  • Scirpus californicus (plant)

    Lake Titicaca: …on floating mats of dried totora (a reedlike papyrus that grows in dense brakes in the marshy shallows). From the totora, the Uru and other lake dwellers make their famed balsas—boats fashioned of bundles of dried reeds lashed together that resemble the crescent-shaped papyrus craft pictured on ancient Egyptian monuments.

  • Scirtidae (insect)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Scirtidae, or Helodidae (marsh beetles) Small, oval; on vegetation in swampy places; aquatic larvae; about 600 species; widely distributed; example Scirtes. Superfamily Staphylinoidea Very large group; antennae with last 3 segments rarely club-shaped; outer skeleton rarely very hard, shiny; wing veins M (media) and Cu (cubitus) not connected;…

  • Scirtoidea (insect superfamily)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Superfamily Scirtoidea Antennae typically long and multisegmented; body sclerotized; contains some of the most primitive polyphagans. Family Clambidae (fringed-wing beetles) Small, hairy; in decaying plant material; about 30 species; worldwide distribution; sometimes placed in Staphylinoidea. Family

  • scission (chemistry)

    ether: Cleavage: Ethers are good solvents partly because they are not very reactive. Most ethers can be cleaved, however, by hydrobromic acid (HBr) to give alkyl bromides or by hydroiodic acid (HI) to give alkyl iodides.

  • scission point (physics)

    nuclear fission: Structure and stability of nuclear matter: …at some point, S (the scission point), the nucleus breaks in two. Qualitatively, at least, the fission process is thus seen to be a consequence of the Coulomb repulsion between protons. Further discussion of the potential energy in fission is provided below.

  • scission point model (physics)

    nuclear fission: Nuclear models and nuclear fission: …the scission point (the so-called scission-point models of fission) is whether the system remains long enough at this point on the steep decline of the potential-energy surface for a quasi-equilibrium condition to be established. There is some evidence that such a condition may indeed prevail, but it is not clearly…

  • scissors (tool)

    Scissors, cutting instrument consisting of a pair of opposed metal blades that meet and cut when the handles at their ends are brought together. The term shears sometimes denotes large-size scissors. Modern instruments are of two types: the more usual pivoted blades have a rivet or screw

  • scissors assault bridge

    military bridge: …during World War II, the scissors assault bridge was introduced; a folding bridge, consisting of a pair of solid-girder-supported deck sections, hinged at their juncture, was carried to the riverbank by a tank; opening out in an inverted V, it flattened into a level crossing. Modern refinements of basic types…

  • scissors chair

    Scissors chair, chair supported by two crossed and curved supports either at the sides or at the back and front. Because of its basic simplicity, it is one of the oldest forms of chair or stool, with examples reaching back to the 2nd millennium bc. The seat, which was originally made of leather or

  • scissors crisis (Soviet history)

    Soviet Union: The NEP and the defeat of the Left: …in 1923 as the “scissors crisis,” from the shape of the graph of (comparatively) high industrial and low agricultural prices. The original “scissors crisis” was a short-lived phenomenon, owing mainly to the government’s setting prices of agricultural goods too low, and it disappeared when this was remedied. But the…

  • scissors maneuver (aerial maneuver)

    air warfare: Air superiority: The scissors maneuver acquired a vertical variation, in which two fighters would execute a series of climbing turns or barrel rolls, each with the aim of slipping behind the plane that climbed too fast. Speed—usually the greatest asset of the fighter—could easily become a liability, and…

  • Scito te ipsum (work by Abelard)

    Peter Abelard: Final years: …also wrote a book called Ethica or Scito te ipsum (“Know Thyself”), a short masterpiece in which he analyzed the notion of sin and reached the drastic conclusion that human actions do not make a man better or worse in the sight of God, for deeds are in themselves neither…

  • Sciuravida (rodent suborder)

    rodent: Evolution and classification: Suborder Sciuravida 1 extant family, 4 extinct families containing 51 genera. Early Eocene to present. Family Ctenodactylidae (gundis) 5 species in 4 genera, 16 extinct genera. Early Oligocene to Early Pliocene in Asia, Oligocene to Pleistocene in the Mediterranean, and Middle Miocene to present in Africa.…

  • Sciuridae (rodent)

    Squirrel, (family Sciuridae), generally, any of the 50 genera and 268 species of rodents whose common name is derived from the Greek skiouros, meaning “shade tail,” which describes one of the most conspicuous and recognizable features of these small mammals. These distinctive animals occupy a range

  • Sciurillus pusillus (rodent)

    squirrel: General features: …squirrels are the smallest: the neotropical pygmy squirrel (Sciurillus pusillus) of the Amazon Basin weighs 33 to 45 grams (1 to 1.5 ounces), with a body 9 to 12 cm long and an equally long tail; but the African pygmy squirrel (Myosciurus pumilio) of the West African tropical forests is…

  • Sciuromorpha (rodent suborder)

    rodent: Evolution and classification: hazel, and fat dormice) Suborder Sciuromorpha (squirrel-like rodents) 3 extant (living) families, 7 extinct families containing 89 genera. The extinct families Alagomyidae and Ischyromyidae include the earliest-known fossil rodents. Family Sciuridae (squirrels) 272 species in 51 genera. 25 extinct genera.

  • Sciurus (rodent)

    squirrel: Natural history: …red squirrels (genus Tamiasciurus) and Sciurus species of temperate climates will stalk, kill, and eat other squirrels, mice, and adult birds and rabbits for food, but such predation in tropical tree squirrels seems rare.

  • Sciurus carolinensis (rodent)

    squirrel: The North American gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) has adapted to urban and suburban areas where it is regarded as aesthetic or as a minor annoyance. In northern Europe the red squirrel (S. vulgaris) is valued for its soft, thick fur. Villagers in tropical forests keep squirrels…

  • Sciurus granatensis (rodent)

    squirrel: Natural history: Certain species, such as the red-tailed squirrel (S. granatensis) of the American tropics and the African pygmy squirrel, are active from ground to canopy. In the United States, the Eastern fox squirrel (S. niger) runs along the ground from tree to tree, but others, including the Eastern gray squirrel (S.…

  • Sciurus igniventris (rodent)

    squirrel: Natural history: … (Rubrisciurus rubriventer) and the northern Amazon red squirrel (Sciurus igniventris), nest at middle levels but travel and forage low in the understory or on the ground. The African palm squirrels (genus Epixerus) are long-legged runners that forage only on the ground. Certain species, such as the red-tailed squirrel (S. granatensis)…

  • Sciurus niger (rodent)

    squirrel: Natural history: In the United States, the Eastern fox squirrel (S. niger) runs along the ground from tree to tree, but others, including the Eastern gray squirrel (S. carolinensis), prefer to travel through the treetops and regularly cross rivers by swimming with the head up and tail flat on the water’s surface.…

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