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  • screen (furniture)

    furniture: Fabrics: Screens or room dividers were often covered with textiles, partly to afford protection against direct radiant heat and partly to create cozy corners in large rooms. Framed screens were often covered with pieces of tapestry, with other woven materials, or with gilt leather.

  • Screen Actors Guild-American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (labour organization)

    Ed Asner: …was elected president of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) in 1981 and used his position, which he held until 1985, as a way to vocalize his political views. His most public agenda was his fight to hamper the U.S. government’s involvement in Central America, particularly in El Salvador, a position…

  • screen and roll (basketball play)

    John Stockton: …one of the most effective pick-and-roll combinations in NBA history. At 6 feet 1 inch (1.85 metres) tall, Stockton made up for his lack of height with his tenacious, high-energy play that was sometimes viewed as dirty by his opponents. A particularly energetic on-ball defender, he twice led the NBA…

  • screen fan (clothing accessory)

    fan: The rigid fan has a handle or stick with a rigid leaf, or mount. The folding fan is composed of sticks (the outer two called guards) held together at the handle end by a rivet or pin. On the sticks is mounted a leaf that is…

  • screen grid (electronics)

    Walter Schottky: He invented the screen-grid tube in 1915, and in 1919 he invented the tetrode, the first multigrid vacuum tube. In his book Thermodynamik (1929), he was one of the first to point out the existence of electron “holes” in the valence-band structure of semiconductors. In 1935 he noticed…

  • screen memory (psychology)

    Sigmund Freud: Screen memories: …he would later call a screen memory, or fantasy, hiding a primitive wish. That is, rather than stressing the corrupting initiative of adults in the etiology of neuroses, Freud concluded that the fantasies and yearnings of the child were at the root of later conflict.

  • screen painting (art)

    painting: Screen and fan painting: Folding screens and screen doors originated in China and Japan, probably during the 12th century (or possibly earlier), and screen painting continued as a traditional form into the 20th. They are in ink or gouache on plain or gilded paper and…

  • Screen Plays Inc. (American company)

    Stanley Kramer: Early life and production work: …the war, Kramer helped establish Screen Plays Inc., an independent production company. In 1948 its first motion picture, So This Is New York (directed by Richard Fleischer), was released. Kramer’s first success, Champion (directed by Mark Robson), followed in 1949. In dealing with the ruthlessness of an ambitious prizefighter and…

  • screen printing (textile industry)

    textile: Screen printing: Screen printing may be a hand operation or an automatic machine process. The cloth is first laid on a printing table, gummed in position or pinned to a back gray, and then the design is applied through a screen made of silk or…

  • screen veil (beekeeping)

    beekeeping: …them and had developed the screen veil as protection against stings. From the 17th to the 19th century, the key discoveries upon which modern beekeeping is founded were made. These included the mystery of the queen bee as the mother of nearly all the occupants of the hive, her curious…

  • screen, focusing (optics)

    technology of photography: Methods of focusing and framing: The ground-glass (now mostly grained plastic) screen is the most direct way of viewing the image for framing and for sharpness control. The screen localizes the image plane for observation. The image is also visible without a screen, but then the eye…

  • screen, projection (optics)

    Projection screen, surface on which the image from an optical projector is shown. Many materials are suitable for screens, the principal requirement being a high degree of reflectivity. The three most common types of screen are the mat white, the glass bead, and the lenticular. Mat white is a

  • screening (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Filtration and screening: In filtration, a porous material is used to separate particles of different sizes. If the pore sizes are highly uniform, separation can be fairly sensitive to the size of the particles, but the method is most commonly used to effect gross separations, as of…

  • screening (security process)

    security and protection system: Physical security.: Common synonyms are “screening” and “vetting.” The most common technique is the background investigation, which involves obtaining all relevant available data about a person’s past education, employment, and personal behaviour and making judgments concerning the individual’s likely future loyalty and honesty. Thus, the dossier and computerized national data…

  • screening (military)

    naval warfare: The study of trends: …information denial was accomplished by screening—that is, by flinging out an opposing line of ships and aircraft. Modern ways to confound the enemy’s scouting effort are keeping radio silence and jamming his radars, both of which deny him information. Third, enemy C2 can be confused by deceptive signals or decoy…

  • screeno (game of chance)

    bingo: …1930s, a variant (often called screeno) was played in motion-picture theatres, with one night in the week designated bank night, when patrons received free bingo cards with their admission tickets; prizes amounted to hundreds of dollars in cash or merchandise.

  • screenplay (filmmaking)

    Screenplay, written text that provides the basis for a film production. Screenplays usually include not only the dialogue spoken by the characters but also a shot-by-shot outline of the film’s action. Screenplays may be adapted from novels or stage plays or developed from original ideas suggested

  • screenprinting (art)

    stenciling: …fine print, it is called screenprinting (formerly serigraphy), and the product is called a screenprint.

  • Screens, The (work by Genet)

    Jean Genet: …Blacks), and Les Paravents (1961; The Screens), are large-scale, stylized dramas in the Expressionist manner, designed to shock and implicate an audience by revealing its hypocrisy and complicity. This “Theatre of Hatred” attempts to wrest the maximum dramatic power from a social or political situation without necessarily endorsing the political…

  • screensaver (software)

    After Dark: screensaver software created by the American software company Berkeley Systems in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The series later developed into a collection of games and gained a large cult following.

  • screw (machine component)

    Screw, in machine construction, a usually circular cylindrical member with a continuous helical rib, used either as a fastener or as a force and motion modifier. Although the Pythagorean philosopher Archytas of Tarentum (5th century bc) is the alleged inventor of the screw, the exact date of its

  • screw conveyor (mechanical device)

    conveyor: Screw conveyors consist of revolving shafts with continuous or broken spiral flighting that operates inside a casing. Powered by an electric motor and suitable gearing, the screw conveyor usually operates in one direction only to move fine bulk material such as meal, seed, and coal.

  • screw dislocation (crystallography)

    electrochemical reaction: Electrocrystallization: Mechanisms associated with screw dislocations, or twinning edges, can provide for a continuous growth of crystals. The screw dislocation mechanism, shown in Figure 3B, is made possible by a specific fault often found in the crystal lattice that may be called a dislocation originating from a shift of…

  • screw extruder (instrument)

    traditional ceramics: Plastic forming: In a commercial screw-type extruder, a screw auger continuously forces the plastic feed material through an orifice or die, resulting in simple shapes such as cylindrical rods and pipes, rectangular solid and hollow bars, and long plates. These shapes can be cut upon extrusion into shorter pieces for…

  • screw fastener (technology)

    washer: …used in conjunction with a screw fastener such as a bolt and nut and that usually serves either to keep the screw from loosening or to distribute the load from the nut or bolt head over a larger area. For load distribution, thin flat rings of soft steel are usual.

  • screw machine (lathe)

    machine tool: Turret lathes: …may be classified as either bar machines or chucking machines. Bar machines formerly were called screw machines, and they may be either hand controlled or automatic. A bar machine is designed for machining small threaded parts, bushings, and other small parts that can be created from bar stock fed through…

  • screw moss (plant)

    Screw moss, any member of the moss genus Tortula (subclass Bryidae), which form yellow-green or reddish brown cushions on walls, soil, rocks, trees, and sand dunes in the Northern Hemisphere. About 25 of the 144 species are native to North America; the best-known species in both North America and

  • screw pine (plant)

    Pandanus, (genus Pandanus), any of some 600 tropical species of Old World trees and shrubs of the screw pine family (Pandanaceae). Pandanus species typically have slender palmlike stems and produce from their trunks and stems aerial prop roots that are often huge; those, together with their

  • screw press (tool)

    fat and oil processing: Pressing machines: The Romans developed a screw press, described by Pliny, for the production of olive oil. Centuries ago, the Chinese employed the same series of operations followed in modern pressing mills—namely, bruising or grinding the seeds in stone mills, heating the meal in open pans, and then pressing out the…

  • screw propeller (nautical engineering)

    John Ericsson: …in 1836 he patented a screw propeller, first used in 1837 on the Francis B. Ogden, built in London. Capt. Robert F. Stockton, of the U.S. Navy, ordered a small iron vessel, the Robert F. Stockton, to be fitted by Ericsson with engines and screw; it reached New York City…

  • screw pump (device)

    pump: Positive displacement pumps.: In a screw pump, a helical screw rotor revolves in a fixed casing that is shaped so that cavities formed at the intake move toward the discharge as the screw rotates. As a cavity forms, a partial vacuum is created, which draws fluid into the pump. This…

  • screw thread (machine component)

    screw: …the 1st century ad, wooden screws were used in wine and olive-oil presses, and cutters (taps) for cutting internal threads were in use.

  • screw vise (carpentry)

    hand tool: Workbench and vise: …rest was replaced by a screw vise, at first quite small. This vise was like a hinge; one leaf or jaw was fastened to the bench, and the other was pulled up to clamp the workpiece and was tightened by the use of a nut and bolt passing through the…

  • screw-actuated lift (stage machinery)

    stagecraft: Lifts: The other type, the screw-actuated lift, is either electrically or hydraulically driven and is coupled to a vertical screw through a nut in which the upper end of the screw is connected to a portion of the stage floor.

  • screw-cutting lathe (tool)

    lathe: On a screwcutting lathe the motion of the cutting tool is accurately related to the rotation of the spindle by means of a lead screw that drives the carriage on which the cutting tool is mounted.

  • screw-pine order (plant order)

    Pandanales, diverse order of the monocotyledon (monocot) group, whose 1,345 species range from large arborescent plants of rainforests and coastal areas in the tropics to twining herbs and lianas, as well as minute, saprophytic herbs of the forest floor. The order is made up of five families:

  • screw-thread pitch gauge (measurement device)

    gauge: …of grooves and corners, and screw-thread pitch gauges, which are blades with triangular serrations spaced to correspond with various pitches, or numbers of threads per inch or per centimetre.

  • screw-type extruder (instrument)

    traditional ceramics: Plastic forming: In a commercial screw-type extruder, a screw auger continuously forces the plastic feed material through an orifice or die, resulting in simple shapes such as cylindrical rods and pipes, rectangular solid and hollow bars, and long plates. These shapes can be cut upon extrusion into shorter pieces for…

  • screwball (baseball)

    baseball: The pitching repertoire: …thrown by Christy Mathewson), the screwball (thrown by Carl Hubbell), or some other name applied by the pitcher himself. In both curves and reverse curves, the ball reaches the batter at a slower rate of speed than the fastball, and the deception is almost as much a result of the…

  • screwball comedy (entertainment)

    Elliott Nugent: …some to be the first screwball comedy. It was set during the Depression and centres on spoiled siblings who must find jobs after their mother loses the family fortune; it starred Claudette Colbert and Mary Boland. Nugent’s other early films include the melodrama If I Were Free (1933), with Irene…

  • screwdriver (alcoholic beverage)

    vodka: Popular vodka drinks include the screwdriver, made with orange juice; the bloody Mary, with tomato juice; vodka and tonic, a tall drink; and the vodka martini, with vodka substituted for gin.

  • screwdriver (tool)

    Screwdriver, tool, usually hand-operated, for turning screws with slotted heads. For screws with one straight diametral slot cut across the head, standard screwdrivers with flat blade tips and in a variety of sizes are used. Special screws with cross-shaped slots in their heads require a special

  • Screwfly Solution, The (novelette by Sheldon)

    James Tiptree, Jr.: …her most notable stories: “The Screwfly Solution” (1977; Nebula Award winner for best novelette), in which an alien influence that fuses the urges toward sex and violence causes men to kill all women and children, and “Your Faces, O My Sisters! Your Faces Filled of Light!” (1976), about a…

  • Screwtape Letters, The (novel by Lewis)

    The Screwtape Letters, epistolary novel by C.S. Lewis, published serially in 1941 in the Guardian, a weekly religious newspaper. The chapters were published as a book in 1942 and extended in The Screwtape Letters and Screwtape Proposes a Toast in 1961. Written in defense of Christian faith, this

  • screwworm (insect)

    Screwworm, Any of several North and South American blowfly species named for the screwlike appearance of the larva’s body, which is ringed with small spines. Screwworms attack livestock and other animals, including humans. The true screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) and the secondary screwworm

  • Scriabin, Aleksandr (Russian composer)

    Aleksandr Scriabin, Russian composer of piano and orchestral music noted for its unusual harmonies through which the composer sought to explore musical symbolism. Scriabin was trained as a soldier at the Moscow Cadet School from 1882 to 1889 but studied music at the same time and took piano

  • Scriabin, Aleksandr Nikolayevich (Russian composer)

    Aleksandr Scriabin, Russian composer of piano and orchestral music noted for its unusual harmonies through which the composer sought to explore musical symbolism. Scriabin was trained as a soldier at the Moscow Cadet School from 1882 to 1889 but studied music at the same time and took piano

  • Scribble, Scribble (essays by Ephron)

    Nora Ephron: … (1970), Crazy Salad (1975), and Scribble, Scribble (1978)—and she began branching out into script writing.

  • Scribbled in the Dark (poetry by Simic)

    Charles Simic: Scribbled in the Dark was published in 2017. Simic received a Pulitzer Prize for poetry for The World Doesn’t End (1989). His other honours include the Wallace Stevens Award (2007) and the Frost Medal (2011).

  • scribe (writing)

    Ashurbanipal: Personality and significance.: At royal command, scribes searched out and collected or copied texts of every genre from temple libraries. These were added to the basic collection of tablets culled from Ashur, Calah, and Nineveh itself. The major group includes omen texts based on observations of events; on the behaviour and…

  • scribe (Judaism)

    Sofer, any of a group of Jewish scholars who interpreted and taught biblical law and ethics from about the 5th century bc to about 200 bc. Understood in this sense, the first of the soferim was the biblical prophet Ezra, even though the word previously designated an important administrator

  • Scribe, Augustin-Eugène (French dramatist)

    Eugène Scribe, French dramatist whose works dominated the Parisian stage for more than 30 years. Scribe began his career as a playwright by resurrecting the vaudeville, an obsolete form of short satirical comedy that used rhymed and sung couplets and featured musical interludes. He soon began

  • Scribe, Eugène (French dramatist)

    Eugène Scribe, French dramatist whose works dominated the Parisian stage for more than 30 years. Scribe began his career as a playwright by resurrecting the vaudeville, an obsolete form of short satirical comedy that used rhymed and sung couplets and featured musical interludes. He soon began

  • Scribes and Illuminators, Society of (English calligraphers)

    calligraphy: Revival of calligraphy (19th and 20th centuries): …their students, had organized the Society of Scribes and Illuminators, “zealously directed toward the production of books and documents” by hand and the advancement of the crafts of member scribes, gilders, and illuminators. The program of this London-based professional group, which continued in the 21st century, was conducted by means…

  • scribing (art)

    map: Scribing: In the negative engraving or scribing process, guide copy is printed on several sheets of plastic coated with an opaque paint, usually yellow. The scriber follows copy on the respective plates by engraving through the coating. Because arc light can pass only through the…

  • Scribleriad (work by Cambridge)

    Richard Owen Cambridge: …essayist and author of the Scribleriad.

  • Scriblerus Club (British literary club)

    Scriblerus Club, 18th-century British literary club whose founding members were the brilliant Tory wits Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay, Thomas Parnell, and John Arbuthnot. Its purpose was to ridicule pretentious erudition and scholarly jargon through the person of a fictitious literary

  • Scribner family (American publishers)

    Scribner family, family of American publishers whose firm, founded in 1846 and named Charles Scribner’s Sons from 1878, issued books and several periodicals. Charles Scribner (b. Feb. 21, 1821, New York, N.Y.—d. Aug. 26, 1871, Lucerne, Switz.) established the firm in partnership with Isaac D. Baker

  • Scribner’s Magazine (American magazine)

    Edward Bok: …24) became advertising manager of Scribner’s Magazine. In 1886 he established the Bok Syndicate Press, for which he developed, as a regular newspaper feature, a full page of reading material for women. The striking success of the “Bok page” led to his elevation to the editorship of the Ladies’ Home…

  • Scribner, Belding (physician)

    Belding Hibbard Scribner, American physician (born Jan. 18, 1921, Chicago, Ill.—died June 19, 2003, Seattle, Wash.), revolutionized kidney dialysis by creating in 1960 the Scribner shunt, a device that allowed patients to receive long-term dialysis. Sewn into arteries and veins, the shunt e

  • Scribner, Charles (American publisher)

    Scribner family: Charles Scribner (b. Feb. 21, 1821, New York, N.Y.—d. Aug. 26, 1871, Lucerne, Switz.) established the firm in partnership with Isaac D. Baker (d. 1850) in New York City. The Baker and Scribner list initially comprised philosophical and theological (mainly Presbyterian) books. Near the end…

  • Scribner, Charles, Jr. (American publisher)

    Charles Scribner, Jr., U.S. publisher who was head, 1952-84, of the Charles Scribner’s Sons book publishing company, which had been founded by his great-grandfather, and personal editor of Ernest Hemingway’s works (b. July 13, 1921--d. Nov. 11,

  • scrim (fabric)

    gauze: …used for flags and decorations; scrim, made of cotton and used for curtains; and tobacco cloth, used as shade covering for tobacco plants. The main differences between them are in the finishing (for example, cheesecloth that is bleached and stiffened may be called scrim) and in the quality of the…

  • scrimmage (sports)

    gridiron football: Walter Camp and the creation of American football: …altogether in favour of a scrimmage, which awarded possession of the ball to one of the two teams. It was then put in play by heeling it out. (Snapping the ball with the hand became legal in 1890, though snapping with the foot continued as an option until 1913.) The…

  • scrimshaw (sculpture)

    Scrimshaw, the decoration of bone or ivory objects, such as whale’s teeth or walrus tusks, with fanciful designs. The designs, executed by whale fishermen of American and Anglo-American origin, were carved with either a jackknife or a sail needle and then emphasized with black pigments, commonly

  • Scrimshaw, Nevin Stewart (American nutritionist)

    Nevin Stewart Scrimshaw, American nutritionist (born Jan. 20, 1918, Milwaukee, Wis.—died Feb. 8, 2013, Plymouth, N.H.), developed a number of inexpensive formulas to provide nutrients for protein-deficient and malnourished children in less-developed countries. While working in Guatemala during the

  • Scripps Canyon (submarine canyon, Pacific Ocean)

    Scripps Canyon, shallow submarine canyon in the Pacific off La Jolla, Calif.; it is the best studied of all submarine canyons by virtue of its proximity to Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for which it was named. The canyon’s shallow tributary valleys head very close to shore in water only 40

  • Scripps College (college, Claremont, California, United States)

    Claremont Colleges: …five undergraduate schools (Pomona College, Scripps College, Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, and Pitzer College) and two graduate schools (Claremont Graduate University and the Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Sciences). The campuses are adjacent to one another, and many facilities are shared, including the consortium’s main library, the

  • Scripps Howard National Spelling Bee (American spelling bee)

    National Spelling Bee, spelling bee held annually in the Washington, D.C., area that serves as the culmination of a series of local and regional bees contested by students (mostly American) in grades below the high-school level. It is administered on a not-for-profit basis by the E.W. Scripps

  • Scripps Institution of Oceanography (research centre, La Jolla, California, United States)

    Ellen Browning Scripps: …is now known as the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. She made large gifts to Knox College and to the Bishops School in La Jolla. With Edward she founded the Scripps Memorial Hospital (later the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation) in La Jolla. She also established Scripps College for Women, which…

  • Scripps National Spelling Bee (American spelling bee)

    National Spelling Bee, spelling bee held annually in the Washington, D.C., area that serves as the culmination of a series of local and regional bees contested by students (mostly American) in grades below the high-school level. It is administered on a not-for-profit basis by the E.W. Scripps

  • Scripps, Edward Willis (American publisher)

    Edward Willis Scripps, newspaper publisher who, after founding his first paper in 1878, organized the first major chain of newspapers in the United States and later (1907) established the United Press. From 1872 Edward was employed by his half brother James Edmund Scripps (1835–1906) on newspapers

  • Scripps, Ellen Browning (American publisher and philanthropist)

    Ellen Browning Scripps, English-born American journalist, publisher, and philanthropist whose personal fortune, accrued from investments in her family’s newspaper enterprises, allowed her to make considerable contributions to educational, public recreational, and medical institutions. Scripps moved

  • Scripps-Howard (American newspaper chain)

    The Commercial Appeal: It was acquired by the Scripps–Howard group in 1936.

  • Scripps-McRae League (American newspaper chain)

    The Commercial Appeal: It was acquired by the Scripps–Howard group in 1936.

  • script (communications)

    writing: Writing as a system of signs: A writing system may be defined as any conventional system of marks or signs that represents the utterances of a language. Writing renders language visible; while speech is ephemeral, writing is concrete and, by comparison, permanent. Both speaking and writing depend upon the underlying structures of…

  • script (literature)

    Script, in motion pictures, the written text of a film. The nature of scripts varies from those that give only a brief outline of the action to detailed shooting scripts, in which every action, gesture, and implication is explicitly stated. Frequently, scripts are not in chronological order but in

  • script (computer science)

    computer programming language: Web scripting: …server contains small programs called scripts that take information from the browser system or provide it for display. A simple script might ask the reader’s name, determine the Internet address of the system that the reader uses, and print a greeting. Scripts may be written in any programming language, but,…

  • scripting language

    Computer scripting language, a “little” computer language intended to solve relatively small programming problems that do not require the overhead of data declarations and other features needed to make large programs manageable. Scripting languages are used for writing operating system utilities,

  • scriptorium (writing room)

    Scriptorium, writing room set aside in monastic communities for the use of scribes engaged in copying manuscripts. Scriptoria were an important feature of the Middle Ages, most characteristically of Benedictine establishments because of St. Benedict’s support of literary activities. All who worked

  • Scriptorum illustrium majoris Britanniae catalogus (work by Bale)

    John Bale: …Writers”); the revised and much-expanded Scriptorum illustrium majoris Britanniae catalogus (1557–59, reprinted 1977; “Catalogue of Great Britain’s Illustrious Writers”); and an autograph notebook, first published in 1902 by R.L. Poole and M. Bateson as Index Britanniae Scriptorum Quos Collegit J. Baleus (“Index of Britain’s Writers Collected by J. Bale”). Though…

  • scripture (religious literature)

    Scripture, the revered texts, or Holy Writ, of the world’s religions. Scriptures comprise a large part of the literature of the world. They vary greatly in form, volume, age, and degree of sacredness; but their common attribute is that their words are regarded by the devout as sacred. Sacred words

  • Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity (work by Clarke)

    Samuel Clarke: …and prolonged controversy with his Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity (1712), which led many of his opponents to accuse him of Arianism, the belief that Christ is neither fully man nor fully God.

  • scripture, inspiration of

    biblical literature: Types of biblical hermeneutics: …from this axiom of biblical inspiration: whereas some have argued that the interpretation must always be literal, or as literal as possible (since “God always means what he says”), others have treated it as self-evident that words of divine origin must always have some profounder “spiritual” meaning than that which…

  • scripture, sacred (religious literature)

    Scripture, the revered texts, or Holy Writ, of the world’s religions. Scriptures comprise a large part of the literature of the world. They vary greatly in form, volume, age, and degree of sacredness; but their common attribute is that their words are regarded by the devout as sacred. Sacred words

  • scrive board (platform)

    ship construction: The lines plan and fairing: …of boards called a “scrive board” showing the length and shape of all frames and beams. Wood templates were then prepared from the scrive board and steel plates marked off and cut to size.

  • Scrivener family (American publishers)

    Scribner family, family of American publishers whose firm, founded in 1846 and named Charles Scribner’s Sons from 1878, issued books and several periodicals. Charles Scribner (b. Feb. 21, 1821, New York, N.Y.—d. Aug. 26, 1871, Lucerne, Switz.) established the firm in partnership with Isaac D. Baker

  • scrod (fish terminology)

    Scrod, Young fish (as a cod or haddock), especially one split and boned for cooking. The origin of the term is not known for certain, but it is thought to come from an Old Dutch word meaning “to shred.” It seems to have first been used around

  • Scroffa, Camilio (Italian poet)

    Italian literature: Poetry: …name from a work by Camillo Scroffa, a poet who wrote Petrarchan parodies in a combination of Latin words and Italian form and syntax. Macaronic poetry, on the other hand, which refers to the Rabelaisian preoccupation of the characters with eating, especially macaroni, is a term given to verse consisting…

  • scrofula (disease)

    Scrofula, formerly tuberculosis, the terms “scrofulous,” “strumous,” and “tuberculous” being nearly interchangeable in the past, before the real nature of the disease was understood. The particular characteristics associated with scrofula have varied at different periods, but essentially what was

  • Scroggs, Sir William (English chief justice)

    Sir William Scroggs, controversial lord chief justice of England (1678–81), who presided over the trials of those accused of complicity in the Popish Plot of 1678 to put the Roman Catholic James, duke of York (later James II), on the throne. Allegedly the son of a butcher, but probably the child of

  • scroll (written work)

    biblical literature: Types of writing materials and methods: Scrolls were made by gluing together papyrus sheets (made from the pith of the papyrus reed) or by sewing together parchment leaves (made from treated and scraped animal skins); they were written in columns and read by shifting the roll backward and forward from some…

  • scroll (violin family)

    stringed instrument: Morphology: …of the head is the scroll, again a typical embellishment of the violin, its austere purity of line and curve being both the challenge and the sign manual of the master instrument maker. The front face of the neck is flat, and to this is glued the curved fingerboard, which…

  • Scroll of the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (ancient manuscript)

    Dead Sea Scrolls: Discovery and description: Found also was a Scroll of the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, possibly of Essene authorship. A similar manuscript was found in Cave 4 at Qumrān.

  • scroll painting (art)

    Scroll painting, art form practiced primarily in East Asia. The two dominant types may be illustrated by the Chinese landscape scroll, which is that culture’s greatest contribution to the history of painting, and the Japanese narrative scroll, which developed the storytelling potential of painting.

  • scroll saw (tool)

    saw: The power jigsaw, or scroll saw, does mechanically the same irregular cutting as the hand coping saw. The straight, narrow blade is mounted vertically between a pulsating lower shaft and a reciprocating upper shaft, which together move the blade rapidly up and down. Power hacksaws, driven by…

  • Scrolls of Frolicking Animals (hand scroll by Toba)

    Toba Sōjō: …“History of Mount Shigi” and “Scrolls of Frolicking Animals.” The “History of Mount Shigi” consists of illustrations of miracles and is notable for its lifelike crowds of people in action. In the “Scrolls of Frolicking Animals” the artist used a new technique of free-line ink drawing against a white background…

  • scrollwork (architecture)

    Scrollwork, in architecture and furniture design, use of curved elements suggesting such shapes as a sea wave, a vine, or a scroll of paper partly unrolled. In Classical architecture the main example is the volutes or spiral scrolls of an Ionic capital, which also appear less prominently in the

  • Scrooge (film by Hurst [1951])

    A Christmas Carol, British dramatic film, released in 1951, that is widely considered the best adaptation of Charles Dickens’s classic tale of the same name. It is a perennial favourite at Christmastime, when it is frequently broadcast on television. Dickens’s timeless tale depicts the life of

  • Scrooge, Ebenezer (fictional character)

    Ebenezer Scrooge, fictional character, the miserly protagonist of Charles Dickens’s A Christmas Carol (1843). Despite his transformation at the end of the story, the character is remembered as the embittered miser and not as the reformed sinner, and “Scrooge” has entered the English language as a

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