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  • Sechsel?uten festival (festival, Zurich, Switzerland)

    Zürich: The contemporary city: …has traditional annual festivals: the Sechsel?uten in April, with a guild procession and the ceremonial burning of a snowman, and the Knabenschiessen in September, a sharpshooting contest for young people. Along with these traditional festivals, there is the Zürich Carnival (Fasnacht) in late winter and the Street Parade in August,…

  • Sechten, Ludwig von (German engraver)

    Ludwig von Siegen, German painter, engraver, and the inventor of the mezzotint printing method. Siegen spent most of his early life in the services of the landgravine Amelia Elizabeth and the landgrave William of Hesse-Kassel. He lived in Amsterdam from 1641 to about 1644, when he was supposedly

  • Sechter, Simon (Austrian musician)

    Anton Bruckner: Life and career.: …counterpoint with the Viennese teacher Simon Sechter.

  • Sechuana Phonetic Reader (work by Plaatje)

    Solomon Tshekiso Plaatje: …Their European Equivalents (1916), the Sechuana Phonetic Reader (with the linguist Daniel Jones) in the same year, and the collection Bantu Folk-Tales and Poems at a later date. He also translated a number of Shakespeare’s plays into Tswana. His novel Mhudi (1930), a story of love and war, is set…

  • Sechuana Proverbs and Their European Equivalents (work by Plaatje)

    Solomon Tshekiso Plaatje: …poetry, Plaatje published his famous Sechuana Proverbs and Their European Equivalents (1916), the Sechuana Phonetic Reader (with the linguist Daniel Jones) in the same year, and the collection Bantu Folk-Tales and Poems at a later date. He also translated a number of Shakespeare’s plays into Tswana. His novel Mhudi (1930),…

  • Seck, Mansour (Senegalese musician)

    Baaba Maal: …was accompanied to Dakar by Mansour Seck, a griot (troubador-historian) and a longtime friend and musical mentor, and the two joined Asly Fouta, a 70-piece orchestra that toured West Africa in a celebration of Tukulor culture. The pair left the group in 1977, and in 1982 Maal was offered a…

  • Seclusion, Act of (Europe)

    William III: Early life: …Orange from power, and the Act of Seclusion (1654) debarred the prince of Orange and his descendants from holding office in the state.

  • secobarbital (pharmacology)

    sedative-hypnotic drug: …commonly prescribed kinds were phenobarbital, secobarbital (marketed under Seconal and other trade names), amobarbital (Amytal), and pentobarbital (Nembutal). When taken in high-enough doses, these drugs are capable of producing a deep unconsciousness that makes them useful as general anesthetics. In still higher doses, however, they depress the central nervous and…

  • Secombe, Sir Harry Donald (British actor and writer)

    Sir Harry Donald Secombe, British comedian, actor, and writer (born Sept. 8, 1921, Swansea, Wales—died April 11, 2001, Guildford, Surrey, Eng.), starred as the gullible Neddie Seagoon in the revolutionary 1950s radio program The Goon Show, a zany, satiric, anarchic series that became a cult f

  • Seconal (pharmacology)

    sedative-hypnotic drug: …commonly prescribed kinds were phenobarbital, secobarbital (marketed under Seconal and other trade names), amobarbital (Amytal), and pentobarbital (Nembutal). When taken in high-enough doses, these drugs are capable of producing a deep unconsciousness that makes them useful as general anesthetics. In still higher doses, however, they depress the central nervous and…

  • second (unit of time)

    Second, fundamental unit of time, now defined in terms of the radiation frequency at which atoms of the element cesium change from one state to another. The second was formerly defined as 1/86,400 of the mean solar day—i.e., the average period of rotation of the Earth on its axis relative to the

  • Second Act (film by Segal [2018])

    Jennifer Lopez: In Second Act (2018) she took a comedic turn as a woman who lands a covetable position at a Manhattan firm after her friends embellish her résumé. Lopez then joined a largely female cast in Hustlers (2019), about strippers who scheme against their wealthy clients.

  • Second Advent (Christianity)

    Second Coming, in Christianity, the future return of Christ in glory, when it is understood that he will set up his kingdom, judge his enemies, and reward the faithful, living and dead. Early Christians believed the Advent to be imminent (see millennium), and most Christian theologians since then

  • Second Afrikaans Language Movement (South African literary movement)

    C. Louis Leipoldt: …a leading poet of the Second Afrikaans Language Movement.

  • Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets (Soviet history)

    Russia: The October (November) Revolution: …would attempt to disrupt the Second All-Russian Congress, scheduled to open on October 25 (November 7, New Style); they reacted by sending troops to take over key communications and transportation points of the city. Lenin, who had been in hiding, appeared on the scene to urge the Bolsheviks to press…

  • Second Amendment (United States Constitution)

    Second Amendment, amendment to the Constitution of the United States, adopted in 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights, that provided a constitutional check on congressional power under Article I Section 8 to organize, arm, and discipline the federal militia. The Second Amendment reads, “A well

  • Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–1880)

    Anglo-Afghan Wars: Second Anglo-Afghan War: In November 1875 British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli appointed Lord Lytton governor-general of India. Lytton during his service there was concerned primarily with India’s relations with Afghanistan. At the time of his appointment, Russian influence was growing in Afghanistan, and Lytton had…

  • second antennae (crustacean)

    malacostracan: Size range and diversity of structure: The outer branch of the second antennae (antennal squame), which is usually flat and bladelike for elevation and swimming balance, has two segments in stomatopods and some mysids and one segment in syncarids and eucarids; it may be small or lost entirely in amphipods, isopods, and other bottom-dwelling or subterranean…

  • Second Athenian Confederacy (ancient Greek history)

    Timotheus: …making Athens dominant in the Second Athenian League (established 378–377).

  • Second Athenian League (ancient Greek history)

    Timotheus: …making Athens dominant in the Second Athenian League (established 378–377).

  • Second Avenue (Swedish television series)

    Alicia Vikander: …drama Second Avenue (original title Andra Avenyn), in which she appeared (2007–08) as Jossan Tegebrandt Bj?rn. Her feature film debut in Till det som ?r vackert (2009; Pure) resulted in a Guldbagge Award for best actress.

  • Second Baku (region, Russia)

    Volga-Ural Petroleum and Gas Province, principal petroleum-producing region of Russia. Situated in the southern part of European Russia, it stretches from the west flank of the Ural Mountains to west of the Volga River. The largest fields are in Bashkortostan and Tatarstan and near Samara (Syzran f

  • Second Balkan War (European history)

    Treaty of Bucharest: 10, 1913, that ended the Second Balkan War (1913), in which Bulgaria was defeated by the combined forces of Serbia, Greece, and Romania. Bulgaria had unsuccessfully contested the distribution by its former allies of territory taken from the Turks during the First Balkan War (1912–13). According to the terms of…

  • Second Bank of the United States (American financial institution)

    Bank of the United States, central bank chartered in 1791 by the U.S. Congress at the urging of Alexander Hamilton and over the objections of Thomas Jefferson. The extended debate over its constitutionality contributed significantly to the evolution of pro- and antibank factions into the first

  • Second Barrier Treaty (European history [1713])

    Barrier Treaties: …aside by Britain, and a Second Barrier Treaty, less favourable commercially to the United Provinces, was signed (Jan. 29, 1713). It was confirmed by the treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt, and Baden (1713–14), which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. The details of the barrier were further modified by the…

  • second baseman (baseball)

    baseball: Infielders: The second baseman, who is typically positioned to the right of second base, does not require an exceptionally strong arm, but he does need as much range and agility as the shortstop. Together the shortstop and second baseman form the keystone of the defense, as both…

  • Second Battle of Moytura, The (Irish saga)

    satire: The satiric spirit: According to saga, when the Irish poet uttered a satire against his victim, three blisters would appear on the victim’s cheek, and the victim would die of shame. One story will…

  • Second Battle of Terceira (Spanish-Portuguese history)

    álvaro de Bazán, Marqués de Santa Cruz: Three years later, at the Second Battle of Terceira, Santa Cruz defeated a superior French naval squadron sent unofficially to support a rebellion in the Azores against Philip II, the Spanish king. His victory was marred, however, by his execution of all French prisoners despite the protests of his own…

  • Second Battle of the ?n?nü (Turkish history)

    Kemal Atatürk: The nationalist movement and the war for independence: …10, 1921, at the First Battle of the ?n?nü.

  • Second Boer War (British-South African history)

    South African War, war fought from October 11, 1899, to May 31, 1902, between Great Britain and the two Boer (Afrikaner) republics—the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State—resulting in British victory. Although it was the largest and most costly war in which the British

  • Second Book of Discipline (work by Melville)

    Scotland: James VI (1567–1625): …theorist, they demanded, in the Second Book of Discipline (1578), that the new church receive all the wealth of the old, that it be run by a hierarchy of courts rather than of bishops, and that the state leave the church alone but be prepared to take advice from it.…

  • second boundary value problem (mathematics)

    elliptic equation: …constant temperature distribution throughout (Neumann problem).

  • Second Bulgarian empire (historical empire, Europe)

    Bulgaria: The second Bulgarian empire: With the collapse of the first Bulgarian state, the Bulgarian church fell under the domination of Greek ecclesiastics who took control of the see of Ohrid and attempted to replace the Bulgarian Slavic liturgy with a Greek liturgy. Bulgarian culture was by…

  • second burial (death rite)

    burial: Second burial: Among many peoples, a period of waiting occurs between the first burial and a second burial that often coincides with the duration of decomposition. The origin of this practice is considered to be the different concept of death held by these peoples. In…

  • Second Burmese Empire (historical empire, Asia)

    Toungoo Dynasty: …reign is known as the Second Burmese Empire. King Minkyinyo (1486–1531) of Toungoo is usually considered the founder of the dynasty, but many authorities believe that the distinction of founder should be reserved for his son Tabinshwehti (1531–50), who more surely welded the empire together. Thus the dating of the…

  • Second Burmese War (British-Myanmar history)

    Anglo-Burmese Wars, (1824–26, 1852, 1885), three conflicts that collectively forced Burma (now Myanmar) into a vulnerable position from which it had to concede British hegemony in the region of the Bay of Bengal. The First Anglo-Burmese War arose from friction between Arakan in western Burma and

  • Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition (Antarctic history)

    Antarctica: Plant life: …microclimates was demonstrated by the second Byrd Antarctic Expedition (1933–35), which found that lichens in Marie Byrd Land grow preferentially on darker-coloured heat-absorbing rock.

  • Second Chance (film by Maté [1953])

    Rudolph Maté: Second Chance (1953) was a passable noir originally released in 3-D and starring Robert Mitchum, Linda Darnell, and Jack Palance. The Black Shield of Falworth (1954) featured real-life couple Curtis and Janet Leigh as a medieval knight and his highborn lady. Maté later made the…

  • Second City, The (American theatrical group)

    Chicago: The arts: The famed Second City, which for decades has been performing improvisational comedy in the Old Town neighbourhood, spawned spin-off groups and inspired similar companies elsewhere. Meanwhile, dance has become increasingly important in Chicago, with the Hubbard Street Dance Company offering contemporary performances, the River North Chicago Dance…

  • Second Coalition, War of the (European history)

    Austria: Conflicts with revolutionary France, 1790–1805: … (1792–97) and that of the Second Coalition (1799–1800), Austrian policy was guided by Franz Maria, Freiherr (baron) von Thugut, the only commoner to reach the rank of minister of foreign affairs in the history of the Habsburg monarchy. Thugut was an experienced diplomat and knew France very well, and he…

  • Second Coming (Christianity)

    Second Coming, in Christianity, the future return of Christ in glory, when it is understood that he will set up his kingdom, judge his enemies, and reward the faithful, living and dead. Early Christians believed the Advent to be imminent (see millennium), and most Christian theologians since then

  • Second Coming, The (poem by Yeats)

    The Second Coming, poem by William Butler Yeats, first printed in The Dial (November 1920) and published in his collection of verse entitled Michael Robartes and the Dancer (1921). Yeats believed that history is cyclical, and “The Second Coming”—a two-stanza poem in blank verse—with its imagery of

  • Second Coming, The (novel by Percy)

    Walker Percy: …wife-murderer in a mental institution; The Second Coming (1980); and The Thanatos Syndrome (1987). He also wrote such nonfiction as The Message in the Bottle (1975), a sophisticated philosophical treatment of semantics, and Lost in the Cosmos: The Last Self-Help Book (1985), an offbeat amalgam of a self-help-book parody and…

  • Second Common Reader, The (essays by Woolf)

    Virginia Woolf: Legacy: …Reader (1925) was followed by The Common Reader: Second Series (1932; also published as The Second Common Reader). She continued writing essays on reading and writing, women and history, and class and politics for the rest of her life. Many were collected after her death in volumes edited by Leonard…

  • Second Confession of Basel (religion)

    Helvetic Confession: The First Helvetic Confession (also called the Second Confession of Basel) was composed in 1536 by Heinrich Bullinger and other Swiss delegates, assisted by Martin Bucer of Strasbourg. It was the first Reformed creed of national authority, although it was sometimes criticized as being too Lutheran.

  • Second Congress (Soviet history)

    Vladimir Lenin: Formation of a revolutionary party: The organizing committee of the Second Congress decided to convene the congress in Brussels in 1903, but police pressure forced it to transfer to London.

  • second contact (astronomy)

    eclipse: Solar eclipse phenomena: …vanish at the moment of second contact, when totality begins. This is the climax of the eclipse. The reddish prominences and chromosphere of the Sun, around the Moon’s limb, can now be seen. The brighter planets and stars become visible in the sky. White coronal streamers extend from the Sun…

  • Second Continental Congress (American history)

    Continental Congress, in the period of the American Revolution, the body of delegates who spoke and acted collectively for the people of the colony-states that later became the United States of America. The term most specifically refers to the bodies that met in 1774 and 1775–81 and respectively

  • Second Corps (United States Army)

    North Africa campaigns: Rommel’s final offensive in Africa: The U.S. II Corps (which included a French division) was the immediate target of the German attack. The offensive was launched on a front 90 miles (145 km) wide but was focused on the three mountain passes near Gafsa, Fā?i?, and Fondouk. Those passageways were so…

  • Second Council of the Lateran ([1139])

    Second Lateran Council, (1139), the 10th ecumenical council, convoked by Pope Innocent II. The council was convened to condemn as schismatics the followers of Arnold of Brescia, a vigorous reformer and opponent of the temporal power of the pope, and to end the schism created by the election of

  • second cranial nerve (anatomy)

    Optic nerve, second cranial nerve, which carries sensory nerve impulses from the more than one million ganglion cells of the retina toward the visual centres in the brain. The vast majority of optic nerve fibres convey information regarding central vision. The optic nerve begins at the optic disk,

  • Second Crossing (British Columbia, Canada)

    Revelstoke, city, southeastern British Columbia, Canada. It lies in a scenic region along the Columbia River between the Monashee and Selkirk mountains, 392 miles (631 km) northeast of Vancouver. Originally called Second Crossing, the site—overlooked by Mount Revelstoke (6,375 feet [1,943 metres]

  • Second Crusade (European history)

    Crusades: The Second Crusade: It had long been apparent that Edessa was vulnerable, but its loss came as a shock to Eastern and Western Christians. Urgent pleas for aid soon reached Europe, and in 1145 Pope Eugenius III issued a formal Crusade bull, Quantum praedecessores (“How Much…

  • Second Defense of the English People by John Milton, Englishman, in Reply to an Infamous Book Entitled Cry of the King’s Blood, The (work by Milton)

    John Milton: Antimonarchical tracts: Milton’s refutation in Latin, The Second Defense of the English People by John Milton, Englishman, in Reply to an Infamous Book Entitled “Cry of the King’s Blood” (1654), contains many autobiographical passages intended to counteract the polemic’s vitriolic attacks on his personal life. Milton also mounts an eloquent, idealistic,…

  • second degree (law)

    Principal in the second degree, person who assists another in the commission of a crime and is present when the crime is being committed but does not actually participate in the crime. For example, an individual standing guard at the door during the armed robbery of a service station would be

  • second derivative (mathematics)

    analysis: Higher-order derivatives: …leading in particular to the second derivative f″ of the function f, which is just the derivative of the derivative f′. The second derivative often has a useful physical interpretation. For example, if f(t) is the position of an object at time t, then f′(t) is its speed at time…

  • Second Directorate of the National Defense Staff (French intelligence agency)

    intelligence: France: …French intelligence agency is the Second Directorate of the National Defense Staff, which combines, to some degree, formerly separate army, navy, and air force agencies. Charged with gathering foreign military intelligence for the French general staff, it is no doubt influenced by the traditions and doctrines of the French army’s…

  • Second Discours (work by Rousseau)

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Major works of political philosophy: …sur l’origine de l’inegalité (1755; Discourse on the Origin of Inequality) by distinguishing two kinds of inequality, natural and artificial, the first arising from differences in strength, intelligence, and so forth, the second from the conventions that govern societies. It is the inequalities of the latter sort that he set…

  • Second Duma (Russian assembly)

    Duma: The first two Dumas were elected indirectly (except in five large cities) by a system that gave undue representation to the peasantry, which the government expected to be conservative. The Dumas were, nevertheless, dominated by liberal and socialist opposition groups that demanded extensive reforms. Both Dumas were…

  • Second Dynasty of Isin (Babylonian history)

    history of Mesopotamia: Babylonia under the 2nd dynasty of Isin: …to be known as the 2nd dynasty of Isin. His successors were often forced to continue the fighting. The most famous king of the dynasty was Nebuchadrezzar I (Nabu-kudurri-u?ur; c. 1119–c. 1098). He fought mainly against Elam, which had conquered and ravaged a large part of Babylonia. His first attack…

  • Second Dynasty of the Sealand (Babylonian history)

    history of Mesopotamia: Babylonia under the 2nd dynasty of Isin: …the era known as the 2nd dynasty of the Sealand (c. 1020–c. 1000), which included three usurpers. The first of these had the Kassitic name of Simbar-Shihu (or Simbar-Shipak; (c. 1020–c. 1003).

  • Second Empire (French history)

    Second Empire, (1852–70) period in France under the rule of Emperor Napoleon III (the original empire having been that of Napoleon I). In its early years (1852–59), the empire was authoritarian but enjoyed economic growth and pursued a favourable foreign policy. Liberal reforms were gradually

  • Second Empire Baroque style (architecture)

    Second Empire style, architectural style that was dominant internationally during the second half of the 19th century. Developing from a tendency of architects of the second quarter of the 19th century to use architectural schemes drawn from the periods of the Italian Renaissance, Louis XIV, and

  • Second Empire style (architecture)

    Second Empire style, architectural style that was dominant internationally during the second half of the 19th century. Developing from a tendency of architects of the second quarter of the 19th century to use architectural schemes drawn from the periods of the Italian Renaissance, Louis XIV, and

  • Second Fiddle (film by Lanfield [1939])

    Sidney Lanfield: Films of the 1930s: Second Fiddle (1939) was another popular musical comedy starring Henie; she played a skating teacher who is discovered by a public relations agent (Tyrone Power) during a casting search. Lanfield closed out the decade with Swanee River (1939), a biopic of songwriter Stephen Foster, though…

  • second figure (syllogistic)

    history of logic: Syllogisms: …both α and γ (second figure), or else both α and γ are predicated of β (third figure). All syllogisms must fall into one or another of these figures.

  • Second Five-Year Plan (Soviet economics)

    Soviet Union: Industrialization, 1929–34: …period (including that of the Second Five-Year Plan, slightly less strongly stressing heavy industry, which now followed) was only about 3.5 percent per annum, about the same as that of Germany over the same span of time. Nevertheless, during this period a number of important industrial enterprises were completed, though…

  • Second Fleet Act (Germany [1900])

    Alfred von Tirpitz: Early career and rise to power: …a high-seas battle fleet, Tirpitz’s Second Fleet Act of 1900 laid down an ambitious program—to build a larger and more modern oceangoing fleet—that the navy was never able to practically fulfill. This law set 1917 as the year of completion for an active navy of 2 flagships, 36 battleships, 11…

  • Second Foundation (work by Asimov)

    Isaac Asimov: …Foundation and Empire (1952), and Second Foundation (1953). The trilogy won a special Hugo Award in 1966 for best science-fiction series of all time.

  • second generation cellular system (telecommunications)

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: …are known as the “second generation” (2G). Since the introduction of 2G cell phones, various enhancements have been made in order to provide data services and applications such as Internet browsing, two-way text messaging, still-image transmission, and mobile access by personal computers. One of the most successful applications of…

  • Second Great Awakening (religious movement, United States)

    Second Great Awakening, Protestant religious revival in the United States from about 1795 to 1835. During this revival, meetings were held in small towns and large cities throughout the country, and the unique frontier institution known as the camp meeting began. Many churches experienced a great

  • second harmonic mode (physics)

    sound: Fundamentals and harmonics: … = 2 and called the second harmonic, the string vibrates in two sections, so that the string is one full wavelength long. Because the wavelength of the second harmonic is one-half that of the fundamental, its frequency is twice that of the fundamental. Similarly, the frequency of the third harmonic…

  • Second Helping (album by Lynyrd Skynyrd)

    Lynyrd Skynyrd: …Young’s derisive “Southern Man,” opened Second Helping (1974) and established the group as Southern rock stalwarts. In 1977, as Skynyrd’s success was increasing, a plane carrying the band crashed in Gillsburg, Mississippi, killing singer Van Zant and guitarist Gaines. The group disbanded.

  • Second Helvetic Confession (Protestant confession)

    Helvetic Confession: …document became known as the Second Helvetic Confession and was published in 1566 as the official creed of the Swiss cantons. It was also adopted in the Palatinate and was recognized in Scotland (1566), Hungary (1567), France (1571), and Poland (1578). Also favourably received in Holland and England, it was…

  • Second Idea (physics)

    Andrey Sakharov: …credits Ginzburg for the “Second Idea.” In 1949 Ginzburg published reports proposing substituting lithium deuteride for the liquid deuterium. When bombarded with neutrons, the lithium yields tritium, which when fused with the deuterium generates a greater release of energy.

  • Second Indochina War (1954–1975)

    Vietnam War, (1954–75), a protracted conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam and its allies in South Vietnam, known as the Viet Cong, against the government of South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. Called the “American War” in Vietnam (or, in full, the “War

  • Second Industrial Revolution (history)

    history of Europe: The second industrial revolution: As during the previous half century, much of the framework for Europe’s history following 1850 was set by rapidly changing social and economic patterns, which extended to virtually the entire continent. In western Europe, shifts were less dramatic than they had been…

  • Second Intermediate period (Egyptian history)

    ancient Egypt: The Second Intermediate period: The increasing competition for power in Egypt and Nubia crystallized in the formation of two new dynasties: the 15th, called the Hyksos (c. 1630–c. 1523 bce), with its capital at Avaris (Tell el-Dab?a) in the delta, and the 17th (c. 1630–1540 bce),…

  • Second International Congress of Mathematics (Paris, France [1900])

    history of logic: Other 19th-century logicians: …Congress of Philosophy and the Second International Congress of Mathematics held consecutively in Paris in August 1900. The overlap between the two congresses was extensive and fortunate for the future of logic and philosophy. Peano, Alessandro Padoa, Burali-Forti, Schr?der, Cantor, Dedekind, Frege, Felix Klein, Ladd Franklin (Peirce’s student), Coutourat, and…

  • Second International Polar Year ([1932-1933])

    Antarctica: IGY and the Antarctic Treaty: In 1932–33 the Second International Polar Year took place, with 34 nations participating, but no Antarctic expeditions were mounted.

  • second intifadah (Israeli–Palestinian history)

    intifadah: The second intifadah: The second intifadah was much more violent than the first. During the approximately five-year uprising, more than 4,300 fatalities were registered, and again the ratio of Palestinian to Israeli deaths was slightly more than 3 to 1.

  • Second Isaiah (biblical literature)

    Deutero-Isaiah, section of the Old Testament Book of Isaiah (chapters 40–55) that is later in origin than the preceding chapters, though not as late as the following chapters. See Isaiah, Book

  • Second Isaiah: A New Interpretation, The (work by Torrey)

    Charles Cutler Torrey: In The Second Isaiah: A New Interpretation (1928), he argued that Isa. 34–35 and 40–66 should be dated c. 400 bc. His Pseudo-Ezekiel and the Original Prophecy (1930) presents his theory that the canonical book of Ezekiel is a revision of a 3rd-century pseudepigraphon. In The…

  • Second Jewish Commonwealth

    biblical literature: Textual criticism: …the closing generations of the Second Jewish Commonwealth (c. 450 bc–c. ad 135), at least three types of Hebrew text: (1) the ancestor of the Masoretic text, (2) the Hebrew basis of the Septuagint version, and (3) a popular text of the Pentateuch akin to the Samaritan edition. A comparative…

  • Second Kamchatka Expedition (Russian exploration)

    Great Northern Expedition, (1733–42), in Russian history, the continuation of an enterprise initially conceived by the emperor Peter I the Great to map the northern sea route to the East. The expedition mapped a large section of the Arctic coast of Siberia and stimulated Siberian merchants to

  • second law of thermodynamics

    thermodynamics: The second law of thermodynamics: The first law of thermodynamics asserts that energy must be conserved in any process involving the exchange of heat and work between a system and its surroundings. A machine that violated the first law would be called a perpetual motion machine of…

  • Second Life (Internet life-simulation network)

    Second Life, life-simulation network on the Internet created in 2003 by the American company Linden Research, Inc. Second Life allows users to create and manage the lives of avatars they create in an advanced social setting with other online “Residents.” Although it parallels a video game in some

  • Second Look (work by Snow)

    C.P. Snow: …Revolution (1959) and its sequel, Second Look (1964), constitute Snow’s most widely known—and widely attacked—position. He argued that practitioners of either of the two disciplines know little, if anything, about the other and that communication is difficult, if not impossible, between them. Snow thus called attention to a breach in…

  • Second Manassas, Battle of (American Civil War [1862])

    Second Battle of Bull Run, (August 29–30, 1862), in the American Civil War, the second of two engagements fought at a small stream named Bull Run, near Manassas in northern Virginia. (Civil War battles often had one name in the North, which was usually associated with a prominent nearby physical

  • Second Marriage (novel by Barthelme)

    Frederick Barthelme: …protagonist of his humorous novel Second Marriage (1984) is a man whose second wife kicks him out of their home in order to make room for his first wife. Similarly, his novel Tracer (1985) presents a disheartened male and two women to whom he is attached.

  • second maxillae (crustacean)

    malacostracan: Size range and diversity of structure: The first and second maxillae are short, with variable numbers of inner biting plates (endites) and often with outer lobes (epipodites), but the palps are short or lacking.

  • Second Mediterranean Entente (European history)

    20th-century international relations: The era of the great powers: …an Anglo-Austro-Italian combination called the Second Mediterranean Entente, which blocked Russian ambitions in Bulgaria while Bismarck himself concluded a Reinsurance Treaty with St. Petersburg in 1887. Once more the Eastern Question had been defused and Germany’s alliances preserved.

  • Second Memoir on Babylon (work by Rich)

    Claudius James Rich: …Babylon (1815) and expanded in Second Memoir on Babylon (1818).

  • second messenger (biology)

    Second messenger, molecule inside cells that acts to transmit signals from a receptor to a target. The term second messenger was coined upon the discovery of these substances in order to distinguish them from hormones and other molecules that function outside the cell as “first messengers” in the

  • Second Missouri Compromise (United States [1821])

    Missouri Compromise: …called upon to formulate the Second Missouri Compromise. On March 2, 1821, Congress stipulated that Missouri could not gain admission to the Union until it agreed that the exclusionary clause would never be interpreted in such a way as to abridge the privileges and immunities of U.S. citizens. Missouri so…

  • second model Brown Bess (firearm)

    small arm: Standardized patterns and parts: …muskets, and in 1768 the Short Land musket, with a 42-inch barrel, became standard. Known as the second model Brown Bess, the Short Land became one of the basic weapons used in the American Revolution (1775–83). It was succeeded in 1797 by the “India Pattern,” with a 39-inch barrel. During…

  • Second Moroccan Crisis (European history)

    Agadir Incident, event involving a German attempt to challenge French rights in Morocco by sending the gunboat Panther to Agadir in July 1911. The action incited the Second Moroccan Crisis (see Moroccan

  • Second Mrs. Tanqueray, The (play by Pinero)

    Sir Arthur Wing Pinero: …The Profligate (1889) and—most sensationally—in The Second Mrs. Tanqueray (1893), which established Pinero as an important playwright. This was the first of several plays depicting women battling with their situation in society. These plays not only created good parts for actresses but also demanded sympathy for women, who were judged…

  • Second New Deal (United States history)

    United States presidential election of 1936: Political atmosphere: …required, Roosevelt introduced a “Second New Deal” in 1935 that included the Social Security Act and the Works Progress Administration. In addition, the Democratic Congress also passed a major tax revision—labeled by its opponents as a “soak-the-rich” tax—that raised tax rates for persons with large incomes and for large…

  • Second Northern War (Europe [1700–1721])

    Second Northern War, (1700–21), military conflict in which Russia, Denmark-Norway, and Saxony-Poland challenged the supremacy of Sweden in the Baltic area. The war resulted in the decline of Swedish influence and the emergence of Russia as a major power in that region. Sweden’s expansion in the

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