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  • Second Nun’s Tale, The (story by Chaucer)

    The Second Nun’s Tale, one of the 24 stories in The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. This religious tale exemplifies Chaucer’s mercurial shifts in tone and poetic style. Taken from the 13th-century compilation of lives of the saints, the Legenda aurea (Golden Legend) of Jacobus de Voragine,

  • Second Opium War (1856–1860)

    Opium Wars: The second Opium War: In the mid-1850s, while the Qing government was embroiled in trying to quell the Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), the British, seeking to extend their trading rights in China, found an excuse to renew hostilities. In early October 1856 some Chinese officials boarded the…

  • Second Order of St. Francis (religious order)

    Poor Clare, any member of the Franciscan Order of St. Clare, a Roman Catholic religious order of nuns founded by St. Clare of Assisi in 1212. The Poor Clares are considered the second of the three Franciscan orders. Because each convent of Poor Clares is largely autonomous, practices have varied

  • Second Overture on Russian Themes (work by Balakirev)

    Mily Balakirev: …ultimately became the symphonic poem Russia; he spent summer holidays in the Caucasus, gathering themes and inspiration for his brilliant piano fantasy Islamey (1869) and his symphonic poem Tamara (1867–82); he published the works of composer Mikhail Glinka and visited Prague to produce them; and for a time (1867–69) he…

  • Second Partition of Poland (Polish history)

    Partitions of Poland, (1772, 1793, 1795), three territorial divisions of Poland, perpetrated by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, by which Poland’s size was progressively reduced until, after the final partition, the state of Poland ceased to exist. The First Partition occurred after Russia became

  • Second Philippic (oration by Demosthenes)

    Demosthenes: Leader of the democratic faction: Demosthenes’ “Second Philippic,” in 344, retorted that he would never have agreed to the Peace of Philocrates if he had known that Philip would not honour his word; moreover, he asserted, Aeschines and others had lulled the Athenians into a false sense of security. The issue…

  • Second Philippine Commission (United States mission)

    William Howard Taft: Early political career: …serve as chairman of the Second Philippine Commission. Charged with organizing civil government in the islands following the Spanish-American War (1898), Taft displayed considerable talent as an executive and administrator. In 1901 he became the first civilian governor of the Philippines, concentrating in that post on the economic development of…

  • Second Piano Sonata (work by Ives)

    Charles Ives: His monumental Second Piano Sonata (subtitled Concord, Mass., 1840–60), which was written from 1909 to 1915 and first performed in 1938, echoes the spirit of the New England Transcendentalists in its four sections, “Emerson,” “Hawthorne,” “The Alcotts,” and “Thoreau.” It contains tone clusters, quotes Beethoven, and includes…

  • Second Pluvial Stage (geology)

    Africa: Pleistocene and Holocene developments: The Kamasian, or Second, Pluvial of the middle Pleistocene Epoch corresponds to the Mindel in Europe. A dry but not a desert climate is implied by the Kamasian-Kanjeran Interpluvial levels at Olduvai Gorge. The Kanjeran, or Third, Pluvial occurred during the middle Pleistocene and corresponds to…

  • second position (ballet)

    ballet position: In the second position, the feet are in a parallel line, separated by a distance of about 12 inches (30 cm) and both turned outward, with the weight equally divided between them. In second position en l’air (“in the air”), the weight is supported by one foot…

  • Second Prayer Book of Edward VI, The (liturgical work)

    Book of Common Prayer: …latter prevailed, and in 1552 The Second Prayer Book of Edward VI was introduced. The revision made great changes in its text and ceremonies, all in a Protestant direction. In 1553 the new Catholic queen, Mary, restored the old Latin liturgical books. After Elizabeth I became queen in 1558, the…

  • second premise (logic)

    history of logic: Syllogisms: …it occurs is called the minor premise. This way of describing major and minor terms conforms to Aristotle’s actual practice and was proposed as a definition by the 6th-century Greek commentator John Philoponus. But in one passage Aristotle put it differently: the minor term is said to be “included” in…

  • Second Rawlings Coup, 1981 (history of Ghana)

    Ghana: Series of coups: At the end of 1981, Rawlings decided that he and those who thought like him must take the lead in all walks of life, and he again overthrew the government. His second military coup established a Provisional National Defense Council as the supreme national government; at local levels, people’s…

  • Second Reich (historical nation, Germany)

    German Empire, historical empire founded on January 18, 1871, in the wake of three short, successful wars by the North German state of Prussia. Within a seven-year span, Denmark, the Habsburg monarchy, and France had been vanquished. The empire had its origin not in an upwelling of nationalist

  • Second Republic (Lebanese history)

    Lebanon: Lebanon’s Second Republic (1990– ): The immediate challenges of Lebanon’s post-civil war period were to reconstruct the country’s social and economic infrastructure and to institutionalize the political reforms agreed to at ?ā?if. The

  • Second Republic (South Korean history)

    South Korea: The Second Republic: The Second Republic, which adopted a parliamentary cabinet system, lasted only nine months. A figurehead president was elected by both houses of the legislature, and power was shifted to the office of Prime Minister Chang My?n, who was elected by the lower house…

  • Second Republic (French history)

    Second Republic, (1848–52) French republic established after the Revolution of 1848 toppled the July monarchy of King Louis-Philippe. (The first French republic had been formed during the French Revolution.) The liberal republicans’ hopes of establishing an enduring democratic regime were soon

  • Second Republic (Spanish history)

    Spain: The Second Republic: The history of the Second Republic falls into four distinct phases: (1) the Provisional Government, which lasted until the religious issue forced its resignation in October 1931, (2) the governments of the Left Republicans and Socialists, which ruled from October 1931 and were…

  • Second Republic (Burundian history)

    Burundi: The First and Second republics: Discord and violence have marked Burundi since independence. Although bloodshed has not occurred on the scale seen in Rwanda, ethnic conflict has resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and hundreds of thousands of people being displaced from their homes. The first incident…

  • Second Republic (Madagascan history)

    Madagascar: The Second Republic: Ratsiraka was sworn in as president on January 4, 1976. He proceeded to solidify his political control and to continue the economic policies of the Ramanantsoa government, including the nationalization of banks, industries, and services such as the distribution of gasoline and movies,…

  • Second Republic (Austrian history)

    Austria: Second Republic: On April 27, 1945, former chancellor Karl Renner set up a provisional government composed of Social Democrats, Christian Socialists, and Communists and proclaimed the reestablishment of Austria as a democratic republic. The Western powers, afraid that the Renner government might be…

  • Second Revolution (Chinese history)

    China: Early power struggles: …Yuan, later known as the Second Revolution, but his military followers quickly suppressed it. Sun Yat-sen, one of the principal revolutionaries, fled to Japan. Yuan then coerced parliament into electing him formally to the presidency, and he was inaugurated on October 10, the second anniversary of the outbreak of the…

  • Second Riel Rebellion (Canadian history [1885])

    North-West Rebellion, violent insurgency in 1885 fought between the Canadian government and the Métis and their aboriginal allies, in regions of Canada later known as Saskatchewan and Alberta. The North-West Rebellion was triggered by rising concern and insecurity among the Métis about their land

  • Second Round, The (work by Peters)

    Lenrie Peters: Peters’s only novel, The Second Round (1965), is semiautobiographical in its story of the disillusionment and alienation of a young doctor returning from England to Freetown after completing his medical studies and finding his home unsettled and unsettling, the people there having rejected all traditional values without substituting…

  • Second Rule (work by Francis of Assisi)

    St. Francis of Assisi: The Franciscan rule: …of the rule—known as the Regula secunda (“Second Rule”), or Regula bullata (“Rule with a Bull”)—to Pope Honorius III, who approved it in the bull Solet annuere (“Accustomed to Grant”) on November 29, 1223. As the official rule of the order, Regula bullata enjoined the friars “to observe the holy…

  • Second Schleswig War (European history)

    German-Danish War, (1864), the second of two conflicts over the settlement of the Schleswig-Holstein question, a complex of problems arising from the relationship of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein to Denmark, to each other, and to the German Confederation. Involved in it were a disputed

  • Second Scots Confession (Protestantism)

    Scots Confession: The Second Scots Confession, also called the King’s Confession and the National Covenant (1581), was a supplement to the First Scots Confession. It was a strongly antipapal statement adopted by the king, council, and court and by all the Scottish people in 1581. It was also…

  • Second Scroll, The (work by Klein)

    A.M. Klein: …wrote about its creation in The Second Scroll (1951), a symbolic novel that carries overtones of the techniques of James Joyce, on whom Klein was an authority. The Rocking Chair and Other Poems (1948) departs from the Jewish frame of reference in describing the change wrought by industrialization on Quebec.

  • Second Servile War (Roman history [104–99 bc])

    Third Servile War: …Servile Wars (135–132 bce and 104–99 bce) had been fought. Spartacus hoped to reignite these rebellions and to bolster his forces by recruiting freed slaves to his cause. The pirates who had agreed to transport his army proved untrustworthy, however, and Spartacus quickly found himself trapped in Bruttium (modern Calabria).…

  • Second Severn Crossing (bridge, United Kingdom)

    Monmouthshire: …Crossing (completed 1996; renamed the Prince of Wales Bridge in 2018), and the Severn suspension bridge connect Monmouthshire and the rest of Wales to southern England. Including viaducts, the cable-stayed bridge extends more than 3 miles (5 km) and is the longest in Great Britain. Area present county, 329 square…

  • Second Sex, The (work by Beauvoir)

    Western philosophy: The existentialism of Jaspers and Sartre: In The Second Sex (1949), Simone de Beauvoir (1908–86), Sartre’s fellow philosopher and lifelong companion, attempted to mobilize the existentialist concept of freedom for the ends of modern feminism.

  • Second Shepherds’ Play (English mystery play)

    English literature: Middle English drama: …anonymous Wakefield Master, and his Second Shepherds’ Play is one of the masterpieces of medieval English literature. The morality plays were allegorical dramas depicting the progress of a single character, representing the whole of humankind, from the cradle to the grave and sometimes beyond. The other dramatis personae might include…

  • Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)

    Second Sino-Japanese War, (1937–45), conflict that broke out when China began a full-scale resistance to the expansion of Japanese influence in its territory (which had begun in 1931). The war, which remained undeclared until December 9, 1941, may be divided into three phases: a period of rapid

  • Second Sophistic school (Greco-Roman literary movement)

    Sophist: The Second Sophistic movement: It is a historical accident that the name “Sophist” came to be applied to the Second Sophistic movement. Greek literature underwent a period of eclipse during the 1st century bce and under the early Roman Empire. But Roman dominance did not prevent…

  • Second Stage, The (work by Friedan)

    Betty Friedan: …Women’s Movement and in 1981 The Second Stage, an assessment of the status of the women’s movement. The Fountain of Age (1993) addressed the psychology of old age and urged a revision of society’s view that aging means loss and depletion. Friedan’s other books include the memoir Life So Far…

  • Second Star of Africa (gem)

    Cullinan diamond: …imperial state crown, the 317-carat Cullinan II, sometimes called the Second Star of Africa.

  • Second String Quartet (work by Ives)

    Charles Ives: Ives conceived his Second String Quartet (1911–13; composition on second movement begun 1907) as a conversation, political argument, and reconciliation among four men; it is full of quotations from hymns, marches, and Beethoven, Brahms, and Tchaikovsky. His Variations on America (1891; additions before 1894) is the earliest polytonal…

  • Second String Quartet in F Sharp Minor, Opus 10 (work by Schoenberg)

    Arnold Schoenberg: Evolution from tonality: …the last movement of his Second String Quartet (1907–08). That work is innovative in another respect, too: it is the first string quartet to include a vocal part. The opening words of the Finale, “Ich fühle Luft von anderen Planeten” (“I feel air from another planet”), by the poet Stefan…

  • Second style (Roman art)

    Western painting: Pagan Roman paintings: …mural paintings of the so-called Second style, the aim of which was to deny the walls as solid surfaces confining the room space. This was sometimes done by covering the whole area of the walls with elaborate landscapes, in which depth, atmosphere, and light are rendered in a highly pictorial,…

  • Second Sunday of the Passion (Christianity)

    Palm Sunday, in the Christian tradition, the first day of Holy Week and the Sunday before Easter, commemorating Jesus Christ’s triumphal entry into Jerusalem. It is associated in many churches with the blessing and procession of palms (leaves of the date palm or twigs from locally available trees).

  • Second Symphony (work by Rachmaninoff)

    Sergey Rachmaninoff: Major creative activity: Of these, the Symphony No. 2 is the most significant: it is a work of deep emotion and haunting thematic material. While touring, he was invited to become permanent conductor of the Boston Symphony, but he declined the offer and returned to Russia in February 1910.

  • Second Taranki War (Maori-New Zealand history [1863])

    Maori: Maori versus pakeha: The fighting resumed in the Second Taranaki War in April 1863 after Governor Grey built an attack road into the Waikato area and drove the Taranaki Maori from the Tataraimaka block. While fighting raged in Taranaki once again, the Waikato War began in July 1863, and the Waikato River region,…

  • Second Temple (Judaism)

    Temple of Jerusalem, either of two temples that were the centre of worship and national identity in ancient Israel. In the early years of the Israelite kingdom, the Ark of the Covenant was periodically moved about among several sanctuaries, especially those of Shechem and Shiloh. After King David’s

  • Second Thoughts (work by Butor)

    Michel Butor: …Modification (1957; Second Thoughts, or A Change of Heart), Butor perfected his experimental technique and was considered to have arrived at his full powers. The work won the Prix Renaudot.

  • Second Time Around, The (film by Sherman [1961])

    Vincent Sherman: Graylisting and later work: …the Blood (1961), Sherman directed The Second Time Around (1961), a pleasant western with Debbie Reynolds as a sheriff of a small Arizona town. The latter was Sherman’s last Hollywood film. His final feature, Cervantes (1967; also called Young Rebel), was a European film about the Spanish writer.

  • Second Treatise of Civil Government (work by Locke)

    John Locke: Oxford: …he would later expound in Two Treatises of Government (1689).

  • Second Treaty of Fort Laramie (United States-Native Americans [1868])

    Black Hills: …Sioux and Arapaho by the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868. However, after a U.S. military expedition under George A. Custer discovered gold in the Black Hills in 1874, thousands of white gold hunters and miners swarmed into the area the following year. Native American resistance to that influx…

  • Second Treaty of Partition (Europe [1699])

    War of the Spanish Succession: A second treaty, signed on June 11, 1699, by England and France and in March 1700 by the Dutch Republic, awarded Spain and the Spanish Netherlands and colonies to Archduke Charles, second son of the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I, and Naples, Sicily, and other Spanish…

  • Second Tree from the Corner, The (literary miscellanea by White)

    The Second Tree from the Corner, collection of literary miscellanea by E.B. White, published in 1954. Most of these essays, poems, and stories originally appeared in The New Yorker magazine, with which White was associated from 1927 to the end of his career. In this book White treats modernity and

  • Second Villmergen War (Swiss history)

    Toggenburg Succession: …reassert his traditional rights over Toggenburg in order to strengthen Swiss Catholicism provoked the leading Protestant confederates, Zürich and Bern, to undertake the Toggenburg (or Second Villmergen) War, in which they quickly defeated the Abbot’s five Catholic supporters, Luzern, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, and Zug. The final settlement, under which the…

  • Second War of Independence (British-South African history)

    South African War, war fought from October 11, 1899, to May 31, 1902, between Great Britain and the two Boer (Afrikaner) republics—the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State—resulting in British victory. Although it was the largest and most costly war in which the British

  • Second World War (1939–1945)

    World War II, conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during the years 1939–45. The principal belligerents were the Axis powers—Germany, Italy, and Japan—and the Allies—France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and, to a lesser extent, China. The war was in many

  • Second-Class Citizen (work by Emecheta)

    Buchi Emecheta: That work was followed by Second-Class Citizen (1974), and both were later included in the single volume Adah’s Story (1983). Those books introduce Emecheta’s three major themes: the quests for equal treatment, self-confidence, and dignity as a woman. Somewhat different in style is Emecheta’s novel Gwendolen (1989; also published as…

  • second-class mail

    postal system: United States: …established according to mail content: second-class consists of newspapers and magazines, third-class encompasses other printed matter and merchandise weighing less than one pound, and fourth-class mail is either merchandise or printed matter that weighs one pound or more. The addition of these classes allowed the post office to adopt more…

  • second-degree burn (injury)

    burn: The damage in a second-degree burn extends through the entire epidermis and part of the dermis. These injuries are characterized by redness and blisters. The deeper the burn the more prevalent the blisters, which increase in size during the hours immediately following the injury. Like first-degree burns, second-degree injuries…

  • second-generation computer (computing)

    computer: The IBM 360: …are commonly referred to as second-generation computers.

  • second-generation free-trade area (economics)

    economic integration: Second-generation free-trade area: In a second-generation free-trade area, the basic nature of simple free trade is expanded to include trade in non-goods such as services. Where a simple free-trade area need only address the question of tariffs and quotas, the trade in services and a…

  • second-generation language (computer language)

    Assembly language, Type of low-level computer programming language consisting mostly of symbolic equivalents of a particular computer’s machine language. Computers produced by different manufacturers have different machine languages and require different assemblers and assembly languages. Some

  • second-generation peacekeeping (UN)

    United Nations: Peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peace building: …the civilian population was suffering, “second-generation” peacekeeping was developed to achieve multiple political and social objectives. Unlike first-generation peacekeeping, second-generation peacekeeping often involves civilian experts and relief specialists as well as soldiers. Another difference between second-generation and first-generation peacekeeping is that soldiers in some second-generation missions are authorized to employ…

  • second-language instruction (education)

    foreign-language instruction: The term second language refers to a language in which instruction in other school subjects is carried on or that serves as a common language for speakers of diverse language groups, as English does in India or French in Guinea. Second-language instruction begins early, often in primary…

  • second-order beat (acoustics)

    sound: Beats: Second-order beats occur between the two notes of a mistuned octave, and binaural beats involve beating between tones presented separately to the two ears, so that they do not mix physically.

  • second-order differential equation (mathematics)

    difference equation: …those in which, for example, second-order differences are involved. A second-order difference is defined as

  • second-order logic

    formal logic: Higher-order predicate calculi: In particular, in the second-order predicate calculus, quantification is permitted over both individual and predicate variables; hence, wffs such as (??)(?x)?x can be formed. This last formula, since it contains no free variables of any kind, expresses a determinate proposition—namely, the proposition that every property has at least one…

  • second-order phase transition (physics)

    Kenneth Geddes Wilson: …of matter called continuous, or second-order, phase transitions.

  • second-order predicate calculus

    formal logic: Higher-order predicate calculi: In particular, in the second-order predicate calculus, quantification is permitted over both individual and predicate variables; hence, wffs such as (??)(?x)?x can be formed. This last formula, since it contains no free variables of any kind, expresses a determinate proposition—namely, the proposition that every property has at least one…

  • second-sight trick (conjuring)

    Pinetti: …the 1780s, he introduced the second-sight trick (the apparent transference of thought from the magician to his assistant), automata, and escape tricks, including chain releases and escape from the “thumb tie.” He used elaborate stage apparatus and draped tables, with trapdoors operated by offstage assistants.

  • Second-Story Sunlight (painting by Hopper)

    Edward Hopper: Such late paintings as Second-Story Sunlight (1960) are distinguished by extremely subtle spatial relationships and an even greater mastery of light than is seen in his work of the 1920s.

  • second-strike capability (nuclear warfare)

    Secure second strike, the ability, after being struck by a nuclear attack, to strike back with nuclear weapons and cause massive damage to the enemy. Secure second strike capability was seen as a key nuclear deterrent during the Cold War. The strategy also partially explained the extraordinarily

  • second-wave feminism

    feminism: The second wave of feminism: The women’s movement of the 1960s and ’70s, the so-called “second wave” of feminism, represented a seemingly abrupt break with the tranquil suburban life pictured in American popular culture. Yet the roots of the new rebellion were buried in the frustrations…

  • seconda prattica (music)

    Baroque music: …for sacred music, while the stile moderno, or nuove musiche—with its emphasis on solo voice, polarity of the melody and the bass line, and interest in expressive harmony—developed for secular usage. The expanded vocabulary allowed for a clearer distinction between sacred and secular music as well as between vocal and…

  • Secondary (geology)

    geochronology: Classification of stratified rocks: …an intermediate category, or the Secondary (Fl?tzgebirge), composed of layered or stratified rocks containing fossils, and (3) a final or successionally youngest sequence of alluvial and related unconsolidated sediments (Angeschwemmtgebirge) thought to represent the most recent record of the Earth’s history.

  • secondary abdominal pregnancy (medicine)

    pregnancy: Ectopic pregnancy: …is referred to as a secondary abdominal pregnancy. Primary abdominal pregnancies, in which the fertilized egg attaches to an abdominal organ, and ovarian pregnancies are rarer still.

  • secondary alcohol (chemical compound)

    ketone: Reactions of ketones: Secondary alcohols are easily oxidized to ketones (R2CHOH → R2CO). The reaction can be halted at the ketone stage because ketones are generally resistant to further oxidation. Oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone can be accomplished by many oxidizing agents, most often chromic acid…

  • secondary alkyl halide (chemical compound)

    organohalogen compound: Structure and physical properties: …I) are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary according to the degree of substitution at the carbon to which the halogen is attached. In a primary alkyl halide, the carbon that bears the halogen is directly bonded to one other carbon, in a secondary alkyl halide to two, and in…

  • secondary amine (chemical compound)

    amine: Amines are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary depending on whether one, two, or three of the hydrogen atoms of ammonia have been replaced by organic groups. In chemical notation these three classes are represented as RNH2, R2NH, and R3N, respectively. A fourth category consists of quaternary ammonium compounds, which…

  • secondary atmosphere (atmospheric science)

    evolution of the atmosphere: Secondary atmosphere: The atmosphere that developed after primordial gases had been lost or had failed to accumulate is termed secondary. Although the chemical composition of the atmosphere has changed significantly in the billions of years since its origin, the inventory of volatile elements on which…

  • secondary attack rate (pathology)

    influenza pandemic (H1N1) of 2009: Symptoms and transmission: …which is known as the secondary attack rate, was higher for H1N1 flu than for seasonal influenza. (The typical secondary attack rate of seasonal influenza is between 5 and 15 percent.)

  • secondary battery

    battery: Storage batteries: In contrast to primary cells, which are discharged once and then discarded, storage batteries can be supplied with direct current (DC) of the correct polarity and recharged to or near their original energy content and power capability—i.e., they can repeatedly store electrical energy.…

  • secondary butyl alcohol (chemical compound)

    butyl alcohol: …structures: normal (n-) butyl alcohol, secondary (sec-) butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, and tertiary (t-) butyl alcohol.

  • secondary carbon footprint (conservation and ecology)

    carbon footprint: Carbon footprint calculation: …carbon footprint is called the “secondary” carbon footprint, representing carbon emissions associated with the consumption of goods and services. The secondary footprint includes carbon emissions emitted by food production. It can be used to account for diets that contain higher proportions of meat, which requires a greater amount of energy…

  • secondary care

    medicine: Levels of health care: …to the second tier (secondary health care, or the referral services) for the opinion of a consultant with specialized knowledge or for X-ray examinations and special tests. Secondary health care often requires the technology offered by a local or regional hospital. Increasingly, however, the radiological and laboratory services provided…

  • secondary cell wall (plant anatomy)

    cell: Mechanical properties of wall layers: …an additional layer, called the secondary wall. The middle lamella serves as a cementing layer between the primary walls of adjacent cells. The primary wall is the cellulose-containing layer laid down by cells that are dividing and growing. To allow for cell wall expansion during growth, primary walls are thinner…

  • secondary cellulose acetate (chemical compound)

    cellulose acetate: …a secondary cellulose acetate, or cellulose diacetate. Diacetate can be dissolved by cheaper solvents such as acetone for dry-spinning into fibres. With a lower melting temperature (230 °C [445 °F]) than triacetate, diacetate in flake form can be mixed with appropriate plasticizers into powders for molding solid objects, and it…

  • secondary clarifier (sanitation engineering)

    wastewater treatment: Trickling filter: Settling tanks, called secondary clarifiers, follow the trickling filters. These clarifiers remove microbes that are washed off the rocks by the flow of wastewater. Two or more trickling filters may be connected in series, and sewage can be recirculated in order to increase treatment efficiencies.

  • secondary combustion (waste disposal)

    solid-waste management: Furnace operation: In secondary combustion, the remaining unburned gases and particulates are oxidized, eliminating odours and reducing the amount of fly ash in the exhaust. When the refuse is very moist, auxiliary gas or fuel oil is sometimes burned to start the primary combustion.

  • secondary cooling zone (metallurgy)

    steel: Tundish, mold, and secondary zone: The key control parameter of continuous casting is matching the flow of liquid steel into the mold with the withdrawal speed of the strand out of the mold. The control of flow rates is accomplished by the tundish, a small, refractory-lined distributer that…

  • secondary demyelination (pathology)

    Schwann cell: …are also damaged, producing “secondary demyelination.”

  • secondary distribution (economics)

    security: Trading procedures: A secondary distribution of stock resembles the underwriting of a new issue, the block being handled by a selling group or syndicate off the floor after trading hours, at a price regulated by the exchange. In an exchange distribution a member firm accumulates the necessary buy…

  • secondary dysmenorrhea (pathology)

    dysmenorrhea: Secondary dysmenorrhea is much less common. It can be caused by genital obstructions, pelvic inflammation or degeneration, abnormal uterine wall separation or development (i.e., endometriosis), chronic infection of the uterus, polyps or tumours, or weakness of the muscles that support the uterus. Often the pain…

  • secondary education

    Secondary education, the second stage traditionally found in formal education, beginning about age 11 to 13 and ending usually at age 15 to 18. The dichotomy between elementary education and secondary education has gradually become less marked, not only in curricula but also in organization. The

  • secondary elaboration (psychology)

    dream: Psychoanalytic interpretations: …further observed a process called secondary elaboration, which occurs when people wake and try to remember dreams. They may recall inaccurately in a process of elaboration and rationalization and provide “the dream, a smooth facade, (or by omission) display rents and cracks.” This waking activity he called “secondary revision.”

  • secondary electron

    electron tube: Secondary emission: …the emitted electrons are designated secondary. The amount of secondary emission depends on the properties of the material and the energy and angle of incidence of the primary electrons. Material properties are characterized by the secondary-emission ratio, defined as the number of secondary electrons emitted per primary electron. Typically, the…

  • secondary electron emission (physics)

    Secondary emission, ejection of electrons from a solid that is bombarded by a beam of charged particles. Some electrons within the surface of a material are given enough energy to break free from the attractive force holding them to the surface by a transfer of kinetic energy from the bombarding

  • secondary emission (physics)

    Secondary emission, ejection of electrons from a solid that is bombarded by a beam of charged particles. Some electrons within the surface of a material are given enough energy to break free from the attractive force holding them to the surface by a transfer of kinetic energy from the bombarding

  • secondary emission coefficient (physics)

    electricity: Secondary electron emission: …electrons is known as the secondary emission coefficient. For low-incident energies (below about one electron volt), the primary electrons tend to be reflected and the secondary emission coefficient is near unity. With increasing energy, the coefficient at first falls and then at about 10 electron volts begins to rise again,…

  • secondary emission ratio (physics)

    electricity: Secondary electron emission: …electrons is known as the secondary emission coefficient. For low-incident energies (below about one electron volt), the primary electrons tend to be reflected and the secondary emission coefficient is near unity. With increasing energy, the coefficient at first falls and then at about 10 electron volts begins to rise again,…

  • secondary ending (linguistics)

    Indo-European languages: Verbal inflection: ) Verbs with secondary endings were unmarked for tense and mood but were normally used as past indicatives (e.g., *H1és-t ‘he was,’ *gwhén-t ‘he slew’) and to fill out gaps in the imperative paradigm (e.g., *H1és-te or *H1s-té ‘you [plural] were,’ but also ‘be [plural]’; *gwhén-te or *gwhn?-té…

  • secondary enrichment (geology)

    mineral deposit: Secondary enrichment: An especially important class of residual deposit is formed by both the removal of valueless material in solution and the solution and redeposition of valuable ore minerals. Because solution and redeposition can produce highly enriched deposits, the process is known as a secondary…

  • secondary enuresis (pathology)

    enuresis: …continence has never been achieved), secondary (when continence was achieved for at least one year and then lost), nocturnal (occurring only during sleep), or diurnal (occurring during waking hours). The most prevalent form is nocturnal enuresis (also called bed-wetting and usually of the primary type), and the disorder occurs more…

  • secondary explosive (chemical reaction)

    explosive: Types of chemical explosives: …into two categories, primary and secondary. Primary explosives detonate by ignition from some source such as flame, spark, impact, or other means that will produce heat of sufficient magnitude. Secondary explosives require a detonator and, in some cases, a supplementary booster. A few explosives can be both primary and secondary…

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