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  • seed (plant reproductive part)

    Seed, the characteristic reproductive body of both angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms (e.g., conifers, cycads, and ginkgos). Essentially, a seed consists of a miniature undeveloped plant (the embryo), which, alone or in the company of stored food for its early development after

  • Seed (film by Stahl [1931])

    John M. Stahl: Seed (1931) was a soap opera set in the world of publishing, with John Boles as a clerk who leaves his wife and children for an editor he hopes might publish his writings; Bette Davis appeared as one of the daughters. Next was Strictly Dishonorable…

  • seed (crystallography)

    crystal: Vapour growth: …growth of a crystal is seeding, in which a small piece of crystal of the proper structure and orientation, called a seed, is introduced into the container. The gas molecules find the seed a more favourable surface than the walls and preferentially deposit there. Once the molecule is on the…

  • SEED

    materials science: Optical switching: …the quantum-well self-electro-optic-effect device, or SEED. The key concept for this device is the use of quantum wells. These structures consist of many thin layers of two different semiconductor materials. Individual layers are typically 10 nanometres (about 40 atoms) thick, and 100 layers are used in a device about 1…

  • seed bank (conservation)

    Kew Gardens: In 1996 the seed bank endeavour grew to become the Millennium Seed Bank Project (later the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership) to mitigate the extinction of at-risk and useful plants through seed preservation. Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank is the largest wild plant seed bank in the world. By 2018…

  • Seed Banks—Preserving Crop Diversity

    On Feb. 26, 2008, the most ambitious Seed-bank facility ever constructed was inaugurated in Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean only about 1,000 km (620 mi) from the North Pole. The Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV), built by the Norwegian government into the side of a

  • seed beetle (insect)

    Seed beetle, (subfamily Bruchinae), any of some 1,350 species of beetles (insect order Coleoptera) whose larvae live in and feed on dried seeds. Seed beetles are oval or egg shaped, 1 to 10 mm (up to 25 inch) in length, and black or brown in colour. In adults the abdomen extends beyond the short

  • Seed Beneath the Snow, The (novel by Silone)

    Ignazio Silone: …seme sotto la neve (1940; The Seed Beneath the Snow, 1942), portray socialist heroes who try to help the peasants by sharing their sufferings in a Christian spirit. Pane e vino was dramatized in 1944 as Ed egli si nascose (London, And He Did Hide Himself, New York, And He…

  • seed bug (insect)

    Lygaeid bug, (family Lygaeidae), any of a group of insects in the true bug order, Heteroptera, that includes many important crop pests. There are between 3,000 and 5,000 species of lygaeid bugs, which vary from brown to brightly patterned with red, white, or black spots and bands. The large

  • Seed Cathedral (building, Shanghai, China)

    Expo Shanghai 2010: …a cubelike structure (the “Seed Cathedral”) 66 feet (20 metres) high that resembled a dandelion head and was composed of tens of thousands of long thin acrylic rods with plant seeds embedded into the end of each rod. Other notable pavilions included that of Australia, the reddish brown exterior…

  • seed coat (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Seeds: …integuments, which develop into a seed coat that is usually hard. They are enclosed in the ovary of a carpel and thus are protected from the elements and predators.

  • seed crystal (crystallography)

    crystal: Vapour growth: …growth of a crystal is seeding, in which a small piece of crystal of the proper structure and orientation, called a seed, is introduced into the container. The gas molecules find the seed a more favourable surface than the walls and preferentially deposit there. Once the molecule is on the…

  • seed dispersal (botany)

    “Flying” Trees: As in most tropical forests, the trees of Panama exhibit a variety of different adaptations to aid dispersal of their seeds. These adaptations involve substantial investment of the trees’ material, but they are worthwhile because seed dispersal increases both the seeds’ and the species’ chances…

  • seed dormancy (botany)

    soil seed bank: The role of seed dormancy: Seed dormancy and environmental constraints on germination influence various characteristics of soil seed banks. For example, seed dormancy determines how long a seed can remain viable in the soil. Factors such as embryo immaturity, chemical inhibitors, and physical constraints influence seed dormancy. Light…

  • seed drill

    Grain drill, machine for planting seed at a controlled depth and in specified amounts. The earliest known version, invented in Mesopotamia by 2000 bc, consisted of a wooden plow equipped with a seed hopper and a tube that conveyed the seed to the furrow. By the 17th century, metering systems were

  • seed fern (fossil plant)

    Seed fern, loose confederation of seed plants from the Carboniferous and Permian periods (about 360 to 250 million years ago). Some, such as Medullosa, grew as upright, unbranched woody trunks topped with a crown of large fernlike fronds; others, such as Callistophyton, were woody vines. All had

  • seed fungicide (chemistry)

    fungicide: Seed fungicides are applied as a protective covering before germination. Systemic fungicides, or chemotherapeutants, are applied to plants, where they become distributed throughout the tissue and act to eradicate existing disease or to protect against possible disease. In human and veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical fungicides are…

  • seed leaf (plant anatomy)

    Cotyledon, seed leaf within the embryo of a seed. Flowering plants whose embryos have a single cotyledon are grouped as monocots, or monocotyledonous plants; embryos with two cotyledons are grouped as dicots, or dicotyledonous plants. The number of cotyledons in the embryos of seeds of gymnosperms

  • seed pearl

    pearl: …= 14 carat) are called seed pearls. The largest naturally occurring pearls are the baroque pearls; one such pearl is known to have weighed 1,860 grains (121 grams [about 4.3 ounces]).

  • seed plant (biology)

    Spermatophyte, any of the flowering plants (angiosperms) and conifers and allies (gymnosperms). An earlier classification considered these plants subgroups of the Spermatophyta, a taxonomic unit no longer generally considered v

  • seed propagation (horticulture)

    propagation: Sexual propagation.: With crops that produce seed freely and come true closely enough for the purposes in view, growing from seed usually is the cheapest and most satisfactory method of plant propagation. Many types of seeds may be sown in open ground and, barring extreme…

  • seed rot (plant pathology)

    rot: Types of rot: Seed rot results in row skips and a poor, irregular stand; it is especially troublesome in cold, wet, heavy soils.

  • seed shrimp (crustacean)

    Mussel shrimp, any of a widely distributed group of crustaceans belonging to the subclass Ostracoda (class Crustacea) that resemble mussels in that the body is enclosed within a bivalved (two-valved) shell. Mussel shrimp differ from most other crustaceans in having a very short trunk that has lost

  • Seed, The (work by Vesaas)

    Tarjei Vesaas: …awareness mark his Kimen (1940; The Seed), which shows how hatred is stirred up by mass psychology, and Huset i m?rkret (1945; “House in Darkness”), a symbolic vision of the Nazi occupation of Norway. Fuglane (1957; The Birds), considered his greatest work (and later filmed), pleads for tolerance toward the…

  • Seedbed (performance piece by Acconci)

    Western painting: Body and performance art: His notorious Seedbed (1972) involved him masturbating under a ramp in a gallery. As he imagined the audience walking above him, his groans were relayed to them via a loudspeaker. The work both empowered him, insofar as he achieved gratification, and disempowered him, insofar as he was…

  • seedbed (cultivation)

    forestry: Artificial regeneration: Seedlings grown in raised seedbeds are removed from the nursery soil when large enough and are bare-rooted when planted in the field. Seedlings grown in individual containers have an intact root system encapsulated in a soil plug for planting. In either case, the system can be highly mechanized. To…

  • seedcorn maggot (insect larva)

    anthomyiid fly: The seedcorn maggot (D. platura) feeds on the seeds and seedlings of a variety of crops, including corn (maize), peas, and different types of beans. Damaged seeds either develop into weak plants or fail to sprout. This species has a short life cycle and produces three…

  • seedeater (bird)

    Seedeater, broadly, any songbird that lives chiefly on seeds and typically has a more or less strong conical bill for crushing them. In this sense, the term includes the sparrows, buntings, finches, grosbeaks, canaries, weavers, and waxbills. Seedeater also is the particular name of about 30

  • seeding (crystallography)

    crystal: Vapour growth: …growth of a crystal is seeding, in which a small piece of crystal of the proper structure and orientation, called a seed, is introduced into the container. The gas molecules find the seed a more favourable surface than the walls and preferentially deposit there. Once the molecule is on the…

  • seeding (agriculture)

    arboriculture: …plants may be propagated by seeding, grafting, layering, or cutting. In seeding, seeds are usually planted in either a commercial or home nursery in which intensive care can be given for several years until the plants are of a size suitable for transplanting on the desired site. In soil layering,…

  • seedless vascular plant (botany)

    Lower vascular plant, any of the spore-bearing vascular plants, including the ferns, club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts, horsetails, and whisk ferns. Once considered of the same evolutionary line, these plants were formerly placed in the single group Pteridophyta and were known as the ferns and

  • seedling (botany)

    germination: Seedling emergence: Active growth in the embryo, other than swelling resulting from imbibition, usually begins with the emergence of the primary root, known as the radicle, from the seed, although in some species (e.g., the coconut) the shoot, or plumule, emerges first. Early growth is…

  • Seeds in the Wind (fables by Soutar)

    William Soutar: His “bairn-rhymes” in Scots, Seeds in the Wind (1933), are beast fables that express a mature insight into the life of things viewed with the “innocent eye” of childhood. In Poems in Scots (1935) he developed the ballad style toward the objective expression of individual lyricism. During his last…

  • Seeds on Ice

    Explore other Botanize! episodes and learn more about the Svalbard Global Seed Vault. Melissa Petruzzello: Good day, listeners. Thanks for tuning in to Botanize! I’m your host, Melissa Petruzzello, Encyclop?dia Britannica’s plant and environmental science editor. So far in this series, we’ve talked

  • seedsnipe (bird)

    Seedsnipe, any of four species of South American birds comprising the family Thinocoridae (order Charadriiformes). The seedsnipe, related to such shorebirds as the gulls and terns, is adapted to a diet of seeds and greens. Seedsnipes are streaked birds with short, rounded tail and long wings. They

  • Seedtime on the Cumberland (work by Arnow)

    Harriette Arnow: …Plateau (in Kentucky and Tennessee): Seedtime on the Cumberland (1960) and The Flowering of the Cumberland (1963).

  • Seeger, Mike (American musician)

    Mike Seeger, American folk musician (born Aug. 15, 1933, New York, N.Y.—died Aug. 7, 2009, Lexington, Va.), collected and performed traditional American music from the 1920s and ’30s and was a major influence in the folk music revival of the 1960s and later. Seeger was a member of a prominent

  • Seeger, Peggy (American singer and musician)

    Pete Seeger: …New Lost City Ramblers; sister Peggy, a singer and multi-instrumentalist, became one of the driving forces behind the British folk music revival with Ewan McColl, her partner in life and in music making). As a solo performer, he was still a victim of blacklisting, especially after his 1961 conviction for…

  • Seeger, Pete (American singer)

    Pete Seeger, singer who sustained the folk music tradition and who was one of the principal inspirations for younger performers in the folk revival of the 1960s. Seeger was born to a musically gifted family. His father was the influential musicologist Charles Seeger, and his mother, Constance, was

  • Seeger, Peter (American singer)

    Pete Seeger, singer who sustained the folk music tradition and who was one of the principal inspirations for younger performers in the folk revival of the 1960s. Seeger was born to a musically gifted family. His father was the influential musicologist Charles Seeger, and his mother, Constance, was

  • Seegers, Hercules Pieterszoon (Dutch artist)

    Hercules Seghers, Dutch painter and etcher of stark, fantastic landscapes. Seghers studied with Gillis van Coninxloo in Amsterdam and was influenced by the work of Adam Elsheimer. Seghers’s style contrasts strongly with the main aspects of the Dutch output of that period; most of his works would

  • Seehofer, Horst (German politician)

    Angela Merkel: The migrant crisis and softening support: Horst Seehofer, Merkel’s interior minister and the head of the CSU, tendered his provisional resignation in June 2018 in a battle over Merkel’s immigration policy. The split threatened to topple the German government, but Merkel once again demonstrated her mastery of compromise, and Seehofer rescinded…

  • seeing (astronomy)

    Seeing, in astronomy, sharpness of a telescopic image. Seeing is dependent upon the degree of turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere for a given telescope. Scintillation, the “twinkling” of stars to the unaided eye, is a commonly known result of turbulence in the higher reaches of the atmosphere.

  • Seeing Eye dog

    Guide dog, dog that is professionally trained to guide, protect, or aid its master. Systematic training of guide dogs originated in Germany during World War I to aid blinded veterans. Seeing Eye dog, a moniker often used synonymously with guide dog, refers to a guide dog trained by The Seeing Eye,

  • Seeing Eye, Inc., The (American guide dog training school)

    Dorothy Leib Harrison Wood Eustis: …to the United States, incorporated The Seeing Eye, Inc., and established a training school for dogs and owners in Nashville. The school settled permanently in Whippany, New Jersey, in 1932.

  • Seeing Through the Sun (poetry by Hogan)

    Linda Hogan: …books—including the volumes of poetry Seeing Through the Sun (1985), Savings (1988), and Dark. Sweet. (2014) and the novels Mean Spirit (1990), Solar Storms (1995), and People of the Whale (2008)—address ecological issues and the dispossession of Native Americans. Hogan also wrote the essay collection

  • Seeing Voices (work by Sacks)

    Oliver Sacks: In Seeing Voices (1989), he explored the ways in which sign language not only provides the deaf with a means of communication but also serves as the foundation for a discrete culture. In An Anthropologist on Mars (1995), he documented the lives of seven patients living…

  • seeing-as (philosophy)

    Christianity: Faith and reason: upon Ludwig Wittgenstein’s concept of seeing-as (Philosophical Investigations, 1953). Wittgenstein pointed to the epistemological significance of puzzle pictures, such as the ambiguous “duck-rabbit” that can be seen either as a duck’s head facing one way or a rabbit’s head facing another way. The enlarged concept of experiencing-as (developed by the…

  • Seeiso, Constantine Bereng (king of Lesotho)

    Moshoeshoe II, the first king of Lesotho, who struggled to define the monarchy as he was twice sent into exile and was once deposed. He was educated locally at Roma College, Maseru, and in Great Britain at Ampleforth College and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. The descendant and namesake of

  • Seekers (Protestantism)

    Seeker, member of any of numerous small groups of separatist Puritans in 16th-century England who sought new prophets to reveal God’s true church. Seekers subscribed to the principles of Caspar Schwenckfeld of Lower Silesia, Sebastian Franck of Swabia, Dirck Coornhert of the Netherlands, and other

  • Seekonk River (river, United States)

    Seekonk River, navigable stream about 5 miles (8 km) long formed by the widened Blackstone River at Pawtucket, R.I., U.S. The Seekonk joins the Providence River at Providence city; it is the most northerly point of Narragansett Bay tidewater. Seekonk is an Indian name possibly meaning “At the

  • Seelandian Stage (paleontology)

    Selandian Stage, division of Paleocene rocks, representing all rocks deposited worldwide during the Selandian Age (61.6 million to 59.2 million years ago) of the Paleogene Period (66 million to 23 million years ago). The Selandian Stage is named for marine strata in the Seeland region of Denmark.

  • Seeley, H. G. (British paleontologist)

    dinosaur: Reconstruction and classification: …1887 by his fellow Englishman H.G. Seeley, who noticed that all dinosaurs possessed one of two distinctive pelvic designs, one like that of birds and the other like that of reptiles. Accordingly, he divided the dinosaurs into the orders Ornithischia (having a birdlike pelvis) and Saurischia (having a reptilian pelvis).…

  • Seelye, Sarah Emma Evelyn (American Civil War soldier)

    Sarah Edmonds, American soldier who fought, disguised as a man, in the Civil War. Sarah Edmonson received scant education as a child, and sometime in the 1850s she ran away from home. For a time she was an itinerant seller of Bibles, dressing as a man and using the name Frank Thompson. She

  • Seeman, Nadrian (American biochemist)

    DNA computing: Biochemistry-based information technology: American biochemist Nadrian Seeman was an early pioneer of DNA-based nanotechnology, which originally used this particular molecule purely as a nanoscale “scaffold” for the manipulation and control of other molecules. American computer scientist Erik Winfree worked with Seeman to show how two-dimensional “sheets” of DNA-based “tiles” (effectively…

  • seep (geology)

    spring: …perceptible current is called a seep. Wells are holes excavated to bring water and other underground fluids to the surface.

  • seepage (geology)

    Seepage, in soil engineering, movement of water in soils, often a critical problem in building foundations. Seepage depends on several factors, including permeability of the soil and the pressure gradient, essentially the combination of forces acting on water through gravity and other factors.

  • SEER (United States program)

    cancer: Statistical records: …survival, and mortality is the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute. SEER was established in 1973 in order to facilitate the collection and publication of data from population-based cancer registries in the United States. The figures are updated every year and are…

  • seer (religion)

    Divination, the practice of determining the hidden significance or cause of events, sometimes foretelling the future, by various natural, psychological, and other techniques. Found in all civilizations, both ancient and modern, it is encountered most frequently in contemporary mass society in the

  • Seer of Prevorst. Disclosures About the Inner Life of Men and the Projection of a Spiritworld into Ours, The (work by Kerner)

    Justinus Andreas Christian Kerner: …Geisterwelt in die unsere (1829; The Seer of Prevorst. Disclosures About the Inner Life of Men and the Projection of a Spiritworld into Ours).

  • seerfish (fish genus)

    mackerel: …species, among them: the barred Spanish mackerel (S. commerson), an Indo-Pacific fish said to weigh up to 45 kg (100 pounds); the king mackerel, or kingfish (S. cavalla), a western Atlantic fish about 170 cm long and weighing 36 kg or more; and the cero, or painted mackerel (S. regalis),…

  • Seers, Eugène (French-Canadian poet)

    Eugène Seers, French Canadian poet and critic who is regarded as the first major literary critic of Quebec. While a member of the religious order Congrégation de Très Saint-Sacrement, he wrote religious poetry, short stories, and critical articles, especially on the poetry of émile Nelligan. Seers

  • Seeta (film [1934])

    Prithviraj Kapoor: …with the even more successful Seeta, a film in which he played Rama, opposite Durga Khote in the title role. His most popular New Theatres film was Vidyapati (1937), Bose’s impressively mounted chronicle of the life of the court poet of the kingdom of Mithila (the area of ancient Videha,…

  • Sef dynasty (African history)

    Kanem-Bornu: …trading empire ruled by the Sef (Sayf) dynasty that controlled the area around Lake Chad from the 9th to the 19th century. Its territory at various times included what is now southern Chad, northern Cameroon, northeastern Nigeria, eastern Niger, and southern Libya.

  • Sefardi (people)

    Sephardi, member or descendant of the Jews who lived in Spain and Portugal from at least the later centuries of the Roman Empire until their persecution and mass expulsion from those countries in the last decades of the 15th century. The Sephardim initially fled to North Africa and other parts of

  • Sefardic Judaism (people)

    Sephardi, member or descendant of the Jews who lived in Spain and Portugal from at least the later centuries of the Roman Empire until their persecution and mass expulsion from those countries in the last decades of the 15th century. The Sephardim initially fled to North Africa and other parts of

  • Sefardic language

    Ladino language, Romance language spoken by Sephardic Jews living mostly in Israel, the Balkans, North Africa, Greece, and Turkey. Ladino is very nearly extinct in many of these areas. A very archaic form of Castilian Spanish mixed somewhat with Hebrew elements (as well as Aramaic, Arabic, Turkish,

  • Sefardic script

    calligraphy: Old Hebrew: …was the Early Sefardic (Spharadic), with examples dating between 600 and 1200 ce. The Classic Sefardic hand appears between 1100 and 1600 ce. The Ashkenazic style of Hebrew writing exhibits French and German Gothic overtones of the so-called black-letter styles (see below Latin-alphabet handwriting: The black-letter, or Gothic, style…

  • Sefardim (people)

    Sephardi, member or descendant of the Jews who lived in Spain and Portugal from at least the later centuries of the Roman Empire until their persecution and mass expulsion from those countries in the last decades of the 15th century. The Sephardim initially fled to North Africa and other parts of

  • Sefer Eldad (work by Eldad)

    Eldad ben Mahli ha-Dani: His Hebrew narrative, Sefer Eldad, established his reputation as a philologist whom leading medieval Jewish grammarians and lexicographers quoted as an authority on linguistic difficulties. It appeared in several languages and in widely deviating versions. The first edition was published at the Italian city of Mantua in 1480.

  • Sefer ha-agadah (Jewish literary collection)

    Haim Na?man Bialik: Ravnitzky) and edited Sefer ha-agadah (1907/08–1910/11; The Book of Legends), a collection of traditional Jewish homilies and legends. He also edited the poems of the medieval poet and philosopher Ibn Gabirol and began a popular modern commentary on the Mishna (the codification of Jewish oral laws).

  • Sefer ha-bahir (Jewish text)

    Sefer ha-bahir, (Hebrew: “Book of Brightness”), largely symbolic commentary on the Old Testament, the basic motif of which is the mystical significance of the shapes and sounds of the Hebrew alphabet. The influence of the Bahir on the development of Kabbala (esoteric Jewish mysticism) was profound

  • Sefer ha-Ba?ur [Bokher] (work by Levita)

    Elijah Bokher Levita: …on Hebrew grammar, Levita produced Sefer ha-Ba?ur [Bokher] (1518; “Book of Ba?ur”), which was widely used and went into many editions. About the same time, he published a table of paradigms and an annotated dictionary of irregular word forms found in the Bible. A work on phonetics and various aspects…

  • Sefer ha-Berit (work by Kimhi)

    Joseph Kimhi: Kimhi’s work on Jewish apologetics, Sefer ha-Berit (“Book of the Covenant”), is important for its historical information on the position of the Jews in Provence. He also established himself as a poet of considerable merit and was frequently quoted by later generations. His Shekel hakodesh (“The Holy Shekel”) was published…

  • Sefer ha-emuna ha-rama (work by Ibn Daud)

    Abraham ben David Halevi ibn Daud: …for his major philosophic work, Sefer ha-emuna ha-rama (“Book of Sublime Faith”), extant only in Hebrew and German translations.

  • Sefer ha-emunot we-ha-de?ot (work by Sa?adia ben Joseph)

    Judaism: Sa?adia ben Joseph: …Kitāb al-amānāt wa al-i?tiqādāt (Beliefs and Opinions), is modeled on similar Mu?tazilite treatises and on the Mu?tazilite classification of theological subject matter known as the Five Principles.

  • Sefer ha-galui (work by Kimhi)

    Joseph Kimhi: Another work, Sefer ha-galui (“Book of the Demonstration”), dealing with lexicography and questions of exegesis, served as a vehicle for criticizing the work of Jacob ben Meir Tam, the leading Talmudic scholar of the time. Among his critical commentaries on various books of the Old Testament, those…

  • Sefer ha-gevulim (work by Israeli)

    Isaac ben Solomon Israeli: Of his philosophical writings, Kitāb al-?udūd (Hebrew: Sefer ha-gevulim, “The Book of Definitions”) is best known. Beginning with a discussion of Aristotle’s four types of inquiry, Israeli goes on to present 56 definitions, including definitions of wisdom, intellect, soul, nature, reason, love, locomotion, and time. Others of his philosophical…

  • Sefer ha-Halakhot (work by Alfasi)

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: …compendium of legal discussions, the Sefer ha-Halakhot of Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi. He also engaged in commerce during this period.

  • Sefer ha-hekkesh ha-yashar (work by Levi ben Gershom)

    Levi ben Gershom: …Islāmic philosopher Averro?s, Levi wrote Sefer ha-hekkesh ha-yashar (1319; Latin Liber syllogismi recti; “Book of Proper Analogy”), criticizing several arguments of Aristotle; he also wrote commentaries on the works of both philosophers.

  • Sefer Ha-ikkarim (work by Albo)

    Joseph Albo: …classic work of Jewish dogmatics, Sefer ha-?iqqarim (1485; “Book of Principles”).

  • Sefer ha-kabbala (work by Ibn Daud)

    Abraham ben David Halevi ibn Daud: …esteemed today for his history Sefer ha-kabbala (“Book of Tradition”) than for his major philosophic work, Sefer ha-emuna ha-rama (“Book of Sublime Faith”), extant only in Hebrew and German translations.

  • Sefer ha-Kuzari (work by Judah ha-Levi)

    Judah ha-Levi: …Zion, and the Sefer ha-Kuzari (“Book of the Khazar”), presenting his philosophy of Judaism in dialogue form.

  • Sefer ha-ma?alot (work by Ibn Falaquera)

    Ibn Falaquera: …end of the 15th century; Sefer ha-ma?alot (“Book of Degrees”), which advocates the Neoplatonic ideal of the contemplative life; a commentary on Maimonides’ Guide under the title More ha-more (“Guide of the Guide”); and an abstract of Ibn Gabirol’s influential Fons vitae in Hebrew.

  • Sefer ha-mispar (work by Levi ben Gershom)

    Levi ben Gershom: …Levi wrote his first work, Sefer ha-mispar (“Book of the Number”), dealing with arithmetical operations, including extraction of roots. In De sinibus, chordis et arcubus (1342; “On Sines, Chords, and Arcs”) he presented an original derivation of the sine theorem for plane triangles and tables of sines calculated to five…

  • Sefer ha-mitzwot (work by Anan ben David)

    Anan ben David: …code of his order, the Sefer ha-mitzwot (“Book of Precepts”). Its unifying principle is its rejection of much of the Talmud and of the rabbinate, which based its authority on the Talmud. Only the Bible is held to be valid, but it is interpreted with an unusual mixture of freedom…

  • Sefer ha-razim (ancient document)

    Judaism: Early stages to the 6th century ce: …in pagan material, is the Sefer ha-razim, the “Treatise on Mysteries,” which was discovered in 1963.)

  • Sefer ha-ru?ah ve-ha-nefesh (work by Israeli)

    Isaac ben Solomon Israeli: …of his philosophical works include Sefer ha-ru?a? ve-ha-nefesh (“Treatise on Spirit and Soul”), probably part of a larger exegetical effort, and Kitāb al-jawāhir (“Book of Substances”).

  • Sefer ha-shirim (work by Idelsohn)

    Abraham Zevi Idelsohn: … (1929); Jewish Liturgy (1932); and Sefer ha-shirim, 2 vol. (1913–22; “Book of Songs”), the first Hebrew songbook published in Palestine.

  • Sefer ha-shorashim (work by Kimhi)

    David Kimhi: …appeared as a separate work, Sefer ha-shorashim (“Book of the Roots”). (The grammar, edited and translated by William Chomsky, was published in 1933; 2nd ed. 1952.) His work differed from previous grammars in its comprehensive treatment of verbs and covered all the rules of conjugation, punctuation, and accent. Distinguished also…

  • Sefer ha-temuna (Hebrew work)

    Sefer ha-temuna, (Hebrew: “Book of the Image”), anonymous work in Hebrew that imbues the letters of the Hebrew alphabet with a mystical significance and claims that there are invisible parts of the Torah. The book first appeared in Spain in the 13th century. The Sefer ha-temuna advances the notion

  • Sefer ha-?urim (work by Asher)

    Talmud and Midrash: Codes: (2) The Sefer ha-?urim (“Book of Rows,” or “ Parts”), by Jacob ben Asher (14th century), the son of Asher ben Jehiel, introduced new groupings, dividing subject matter into four major categories (?urim) reminiscent of the Mishnaic orders; it includes only laws applicable after the destruction of…

  • Sefer ha-yarea? (work by Astruc of Lunel)

    Astruc of Lunel: …derived from his polemical work Sefer ha-yarea? (“The Book of the Moon”), the title of which refers to the town of Lunel (French lune, meaning “moon”).

  • Sefer ha-yashar (work by Tam)

    Jacob ben Meir Tam: Tam’s major legal work is Sefer ha-yashar (first published in 1811 in Vienna; “Book of the Righteous”). It contains explanations of 30 tractates of the Talmud, as well as responsa (authoritative answers to questions about Jewish law). He also wrote religious poetry, some of which was later incorporated into the…

  • Sefer ha-zikhronot (work by Levita)

    Elijah Bokher Levita: …that he considered his masterpiece, Sefer ha-zikhronot (“Book of Memoirs”), a Masoretic, or Hebrew biblical, concordance. Though never published, the manuscript brought him offers of professorships from church prelates, princes, and the king of France, Francis I. He declined all of them, however. Another Masoretic work, Massarot ha-massarot (1538; “Tradition…

  • Sefer ha-zikkaron (work by Kimhi)

    Joseph Kimhi: His comprehensive grammatical text, Sefer ha-zikkaron (“Book of Remembrance”), introduced a classification of verb stems for Hebrew that remains in use. Another work, Sefer ha-galui (“Book of the Demonstration”), dealing with lexicography and questions of exegesis, served as a vehicle for criticizing the work of Jacob ben Meir Tam,…

  • Sefer ha-zohar (Jewish literature)

    Sefer ha-zohar , (Hebrew: “Book of Splendour”), 13th-century book, mostly in Aramaic, that is the classic text of esoteric Jewish mysticism, or Kabbala. Though esoteric mysticism was taught by Jews as early as the 1st century ad, the Zohar gave new life and impetus to mystical speculations through

  • Sefer ha-?iqqarim (work by Albo)

    Joseph Albo: …classic work of Jewish dogmatics, Sefer ha-?iqqarim (1485; “Book of Principles”).

  • Sefer ?asidim (Hebrew religious work)

    Sefer ?asidim, (Hebrew: “Book of the Pious”), a highly valuable account of the day-to-day religious life of medieval German Jews known as ?asidim (“Pious Ones”). The authentic ?asid is described in terms of asceticism, humility, serenity, altruism, and strict ethical behaviour. Though the work is n

  • Sefer meturgeman (work by Levita)

    Elijah Bokher Levita: Sefer meturgeman (1541; “A Translator’s Book”) was the first dictionary of the Targums, or Aramaic books of the Hebrew Bible. His lexicon Tishbi (1542) explained much of the Mishnaic Hebrew language and was a supplement to two important earlier dictionaries.

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