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  • self-awareness

    Self, the “I” as experienced by an individual. In modern psychology the notion of the self has replaced earlier conceptions of the soul. The concept of the self has been a central feature of many personality theories, including those of Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Gordon W. Allport,

  • self-calibration

    radio telescope: Radio interferometry and aperture synthesis: …led to the concept of self-calibration, which uses the observed source as its own calibrator in order to remove errors in a radio image due to uncertainties in the response of individual antennas as well as small errors introduced by the propagation of radio signals through the terrestrial atmosphere. In…

  • self-care equipment

    Aids for activities of daily living (AADLs), products, devices, and equipment used in everyday functional activities by the disabled or the elderly. A form of assistive technology, aids for activities of daily living (AADLs) include a wide range of devices. Potential categories of equipment may

  • self-censorship
  • self-concept

    Personal identity, in metaphysics, the problem of the nature of the identity of persons and their persistence through time. One makes a judgment of personal identity whenever one says that a person existing at one time is the same as a person existing at another time: e.g., that the president of

  • Self-Condemned (book by Lewis)

    Wyndham Lewis: Lewis’s 1954 novel, Self-Condemned, is a fictionalized account of those years.

  • self-consciousness

    Self, the “I” as experienced by an individual. In modern psychology the notion of the self has replaced earlier conceptions of the soul. The concept of the self has been a central feature of many personality theories, including those of Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Gordon W. Allport,

  • self-consistent field method

    chemical bonding: Computational approaches to molecular structure: …computations are referred to as self-consistent field (SCF) procedures. Thus, a particular electronic distribution is proposed, and the distribution of the electrons is recalculated on the basis of this first approximation. The distribution is then calculated again on the basis of that improved description, and the process is continued until…

  • self-contained self-rescuer (safety device)

    coal mining: Health, safety, and environment: For example, the self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR) represents a significant development in raising a miner’s chances of survival and escape after an explosion, fire, or similar emergency contaminates the mine atmosphere with toxic gases. This lightweight, belt-wearable device is available worldwide and is mandated in several countries to be…

  • self-containment

    logistics: Power versus movement: …for forces in the field: self-containment, local supply, and supply from bases.

  • self-control model (economics)

    consumption: Alternatives to fully informed rationality: …have developed models showing that self-control problems have minor consequences if it is possible for consumers to make commitments that are difficult or troublesome to reverse—such as having an employer deduct a specified portion of an employee’s paycheck for retirement savings before the money is deposited the employee’s bank account…

  • self-cultivation (psychology)

    Self-actualization, in psychology, a concept regarding the process by which an individual reaches his or her full potential. It was originally introduced by Kurt Goldstein, a physician specializing in neuroanatomy and psychiatry in the early half of the 20th century. As conceived by Goldstein,

  • self-defense (law)

    Self-defense, in criminal law, justification for inflicting serious harm on another person on the ground that the harm was inflicted as a means of protecting oneself. In general, killing is not a criminal act when the killer reasonably believes that he is in imminent danger of losing his life from

  • Self-Defense Force (Japanese armed force)

    Self-Defense Force, Japan’s military after World War II. In Article 9 of Japan’s postwar constitution, the Japanese renounced war and pledged never to maintain land, sea, or air forces. The rearming of Japan in the 1950s was therefore cast in terms of self-defense. In 1950 a small military force

  • self-denial

    Asceticism, (from Greek askeō: “to exercise,” or “to train”), the practice of the denial of physical or psychological desires in order to attain a spiritual ideal or goal. Hardly any religion has been without at least traces or some features of asceticism. The origins of asceticism lie in man’s

  • Self-Denying Ordinance (England [1645])

    New Model Army: In April 1645, by the Self-Denying Ordinance, members of Parliament resigned all military and civil office and command acquired since November 1640. Sir Thomas Fairfax (afterward 3rd Baron Fairfax—the “younger” Fairfax) was appointed captain general of the New Model Army, with authority to appoint his senior officers. The army’s organization…

  • self-determination (political philosophy)

    Self-determination, the process by which a group of people, usually possessing a certain degree of national consciousness, form their own state and choose their own government. As a political principle, the idea of self-determination evolved at first as a by-product of the doctrine of nationalism,

  • self-directed care (health care)

    home care: Known as self-directed care (or direct funding), that approach allows individuals to tailor their care specifically to their needs and wishes. Self-directed care typically is organized and implemented within an allotted home-care budget that is provided by the funding agency.

  • self-electro-optic effect device

    materials science: Optical switching: …the quantum-well self-electro-optic-effect device, or SEED. The key concept for this device is the use of quantum wells. These structures consist of many thin layers of two different semiconductor materials. Individual layers are typically 10 nanometres (about 40 atoms) thick, and 100 layers are used in a device about 1…

  • Self-Employed Women’s Association (Indian trade union)

    Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), trade union based in India that organized women for informal employment (work outside a traditional employer-employee relationship). The Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) was founded in 1972 by Indian lawyer and social activist Ela Bhatt and a small

  • self-esteem (psychology)

    Self-esteem, Sense of personal worth and ability that is fundamental to an individual’s identity. Family relationships during childhood are believed to play a crucial role in its development. Parents may foster self-esteem by expressing affection and support for the child as well as by helping the

  • self-excited generator (dynamo)

    electromagnetism: Development of electromagnetic technology: …until the principle of the self-excited generator was discovered in 1866. (A self-excited generator has stronger magnetic fields because it uses electromagnets powered by the generator itself.) In 1870 Zénobe Théophile Gramme, a Belgian manufacturer, built the first practical generator capable of producing a continuous current. It was soon found…

  • self-executing treaty (law)

    international law: International law and municipal law: …a treaty may be either self-executing or non-self-executing, depending upon whether domestic legislation must be enacted in order for the treaty to enter into force. In the United States, self-executing treaties apply directly as part of the supreme law of the land without the need for further action. Whether a…

  • self-fertilization

    Self-fertilization, fusion of male and female gametes (sex cells) produced by the same individual. Self-fertilization occurs in bisexual organisms, including most flowering plants, numerous protozoans, and many invertebrates. Autogamy, the production of gametes by the division of a single parent

  • self-fulfilling prophecy

    Self-fulfilling prophecy, process through which an originally false expectation leads to its own confirmation. In a self-fulfilling prophecy an individual’s expectations about another person or entity eventually result in the other person or entity acting in ways that confirm the expectations. A

  • self-governing territory (historical territory, South Africa)

    Bantustan, any of 10 former territories that were designated by the white-dominated government of South Africa as pseudo-national homelands for the country’s black African (classified by the government as Bantu) population during the mid- to late 20th century. The Bantustans were a major

  • self-heal (plant)

    Self-heal, (genus Prunella), genus of 13 species of low-growing perennials in the mint family (Lamiaceae), native to Eurasia and North America. Several species, especially common self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), large-flowered self-heal (P. grandiflora), and cutleaf self-heal (P. lacinata), were

  • self-healing (technology)
  • Self-Help (work by Smiles)

    Samuel Smiles: …known for his didactic work Self-Help (1859), which, with its successors, Character (1871), Thrift (1875), and Duty (1880), enshrined the basic Victorian values associated with the “gospel of work.”

  • Self-Help Alliance of the Physically Handicapped (German organization)

    Otto Perl: …author and cofounder of the Selbsthilfebund der K?rperbehinderten (Self-Help Alliance of the Physically Handicapped, or Otto Perl Alliance; 1919–31), the first emancipatory self-help organization representing the interests of the physically disabled in Germany.

  • Self-Help, with Illustrations of Character and Conduct (work by Smiles)

    Samuel Smiles: …known for his didactic work Self-Help (1859), which, with its successors, Character (1871), Thrift (1875), and Duty (1880), enshrined the basic Victorian values associated with the “gospel of work.”

  • self-hypnosis

    Autohypnosis, hypnosis that is self-induced. Though feasible and possibly productive of useful results, it is often a sterile procedure because the autohypnotist usually tries too hard to direct consciously the activities that he wishes to take place at the hypnotic level of awareness, thus n

  • self-immolation

    Godarpura: …1824, the scene of the self-immolation of religious devotees, who threw themselves from the high cliffs into the river. Pop. (2001) Omkareshwar, 6,616; (2011) Omkareshwar, 10,063.

  • self-incompatibility (plant pathology)

    angiosperm: Pollination: …developed a chemical system of self-incompatibility. The most common type is sporophytic self-incompatibility, in which the secretions of the stigmatic tissue or the transmitting tissue prevent the germination or growth of incompatible pollen. A second type, gametophytic self-incompatibility, involves the inability of the gametes from the same parent plant to…

  • self-incrimination (law)

    Self-incrimination, in law, the giving of evidence that might tend to expose the witness to punishment for crime. The term is generally used in relation to the privilege of refusing to give such evidence. In some continental European countries (Germany, for example, but not France), a person

  • self-inductance (physics)

    electromagnetism: Self-inductance and mutual inductance: The self-inductance of a circuit is used to describe the reaction of the circuit to a changing current in the circuit, while the mutual inductance with respect to a second circuit describes the reaction to a changing current in the second…

  • self-induction (physics)

    electromagnetism: Self-inductance and mutual inductance: The self-inductance of a circuit is used to describe the reaction of the circuit to a changing current in the circuit, while the mutual inductance with respect to a second circuit describes the reaction to a changing current in the second…

  • self-ionization

    ammonia: Physical properties of ammonia: Ammonia also self-ionizes, although less so than does water. 2NH3 ? NH4+ + NH2?

  • self-liquidating transaction (finance)

    acceptance: This is known as a self-liquidating transaction, and this characteristic has given trade acceptances excellent credit standing (with consequent widespread use) in many countries. The acceptance market therefore provides investors with a means of employing temporarily excess funds for short periods of time with a minimum of risk.

  • self-management, socialist (Yugoslavian policy)

    Edvard Kardelj: …of a theory known as socialist self-management, which served as the basis of Yugoslavia’s political and economic system and distinguished it from the Soviet system. In foreign affairs he pioneered the concept of nonalignment for Yugoslavia between the West and the Soviet Union.

  • self-mastery (philosophy)

    libertarianism: Historical origins: … developed the concept of “self-mastery” (dominium)—later called “self-propriety,” “property in one’s person,” or “self-ownership”—and showed how it could be the foundation of a system of individual rights (see below Libertarian philosophy). In response to the growth of royal absolutism in early modern Europe, early libertarians, particularly those in the…

  • self-modification (computer science)

    computer: Machine language: …they would be capable of self-modification. Konrad Zuse had looked upon this possibility as “making a contract with the Devil” because of the potential for abuse, and he had chosen not to implement it in his machines. But self-modification was essential for achieving a true general-purpose machine.

  • self-mortification (religion)

    monasticism: Redemption: …may involve forms of self-mortification. The practice of self-mortification, which intensifies or stabilizes the austerities required of the monastic, is found in all monastic traditions. Whether the autocentric or the vicarious aspect of the quest is emphasized depends entirely on the doctrinal framework within which the monastic functions. In…

  • self-mutilation (behaviour and psychology)

    metabolic disease: Purine and pyrimidine disorders: …feature is the occurrence of self-mutilation. Intellectual disability is also common. Most individuals with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome excrete a large amount of uric acid in their urine, leading to gout, kidney stones, and possible kidney failure. A high fluid intake and the drug allopurinol are helpful

  • self-ownership (philosophy)

    libertarianism: Historical origins: … developed the concept of “self-mastery” (dominium)—later called “self-propriety,” “property in one’s person,” or “self-ownership”—and showed how it could be the foundation of a system of individual rights (see below Libertarian philosophy). In response to the growth of royal absolutism in early modern Europe, early libertarians, particularly those in the…

  • self-perception theory (psychology)

    motivation: Self-perception theory: Cognitive dissonance approaches have not gone unchallenged. An alternative approach, known as self-perception theory, suggests that all individuals analyze their own behaviour much as an outside observer might and, as a result of these observations, make judgments about why they are motivated to…

  • self-pollination

    pollination: Types: self-pollination and cross-pollination: An egg cell in an ovule of a flower may be fertilized by a sperm cell derived from a pollen grain produced by that same flower or by another flower on the same plant, in either of which two cases fertilization is…

  • self-portrait

    Latin American art: Latin American themes: …still commissioned, the genre of self-portraits by native-born painters also emerged, leading to works that reveal a more informal, human quality. A fine example of this tradition is a pastel (an informal, spontaneous medium much favoured by Rococo artists) self-portrait by José Luis Rodríguez de Alconedo from 1810. He depicted…

  • Self-Portrait (photography book by Friedlander)

    Lee Friedlander: Self-Portrait was his first publication. Printed in 1970 by the photographer’s own firm, Haywire Press, the photo book included nearly 50 images of the artist represented as a shadow or a reflection, or occasionally as visible in person. By inserting himself into photographs in indirect…

  • Self-Portrait as Bacchus (painting by Caravaggio)

    Caravaggio: First apprenticeships in Rome: Pucci, Cesari, and Petrigiani: …Self-Portrait as Bacchus (also called Sick Bacchus). Both were expropriated from Cesari by Scipione Borghese, the papal nephew, in the early 1600s and have remained in the Borghese collection ever since. They are subtle and bittersweet works, the first perhaps inspired by the divine longing of the Bridegroom in the…

  • Self-Portrait at the Age of 34 (painting by Rembrandt)

    Rembrandt van Rijn: Growing fame: …is wearing in his famous 1640 self-portrait presumably referred to Albrecht Dürer, a fellow great peintre-graveur whom Rembrandt greatly admired and tried to emulate.

  • Self-Portrait Wearing a Velvet Dress (painting by Kahlo)

    Frida Kahlo: Childhood and bus accident: …one of her early paintings, Self-Portrait Wearing a Velvet Dress (1926), Kahlo painted a regal waist-length portrait of herself against a dark background with roiling stylized waves. Although the painting is fairly abstract, Kahlo’s soft modeling of her face shows her interest in realism. The stoic gaze so prevalent in…

  • Self-Portrait with a Camellia (painting by Modersohn-Becker)

    Paula Modersohn-Becker: …her mature paintings, such as Self-Portrait with a Camellia (1907), she combined a lyrical naturalism with broad areas of simplified colour reminiscent of Gauguin and Cézanne. Because she was more interested in the expression of her inner feelings than in an accurate portrayal of reality, she is frequently associated with…

  • Self-Portrait with Monocle (work by Schmidt-Rottluff)

    Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: …of this mature work is Self-Portrait with Monocle (1910). Like the other Brücke artists, Schmidt-Rottluff had also begun to explore the expressive potential of the woodcut medium. In 1911 Schmidt-Rottluff, with his fellow Die Brücke members, moved to Berlin, where he painted works with more angular, geometric forms and distorted…

  • Self-Portrait: The Inn of the Dawn Horse (painting by Carrington)

    Leonora Carrington: …two years, including her well-known Self-Portrait: The Inn of the Dawn Horse (1937–38), which shows her with a wild mane of hair in a room with a rocking horse floating behind her, a hyena at her feet, and a white horse galloping away outside the window. Images of the horse…

  • self-potential method (prospecting)

    Earth exploration: Electrical and electromagnetic methods: The self-potential method relies on the oxidation of the upper surface of metallic sulfide minerals by downward-percolating groundwater to become a natural battery; current flows through the ore body and back through the surrounding groundwater, which acts as the electrolyte. Measuring the natural voltage differences (usually…

  • Self-Promotion Spells Success!

    Not too many years prior to 2012, the notion that one could achieve success and even stardom in the creative industries through self-promotion was unrealistic. The way the system generally worked was that the writers, musicians, and other “talent” who created works of art and entertainment were at

  • self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: High-temperature synthesis: In a reaction known as self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), highly reactive metal particles ignite in contact with boron, carbon, nitrogen, and silica to form boride, carbide, nitride, and silicide ceramics. Since the reactions are extremely exothermic (heat-producing), the reaction fronts propagate rapidly through the precursor powders. Usually, the ultimate particle…

  • self-propelled gun

    armoured vehicle: Fully tracked carriers: …armoured carriers, light tanks, and self-propelled guns were built with aluminum armour. Within 30 years the United States had produced more than 76,000 M113 APCs and their derivatives, making them the most numerous armoured vehicles outside the Soviet bloc. M113 carriers were used extensively in the Vietnam War, often as…

  • Self-Propelled Underwater Research Vehicle

    undersea exploration: Measurements of ocean currents: One such system, called a Self-Propelled Underwater Research Vehicle (SPURV), manoeuvres below the surface of the sea in response to acoustic signals from the research vessel. It can be used to produce horizontal as well as vertical profiles of various physical properties.

  • self-propriety (philosophy)

    libertarianism: Historical origins: … developed the concept of “self-mastery” (dominium)—later called “self-propriety,” “property in one’s person,” or “self-ownership”—and showed how it could be the foundation of a system of individual rights (see below Libertarian philosophy). In response to the growth of royal absolutism in early modern Europe, early libertarians, particularly those in the…

  • self-realization (psychology)

    Self-actualization, in psychology, a concept regarding the process by which an individual reaches his or her full potential. It was originally introduced by Kurt Goldstein, a physician specializing in neuroanatomy and psychiatry in the early half of the 20th century. As conceived by Goldstein,

  • Self-Realization Fellowship (spiritual society)

    Self-Realization Fellowship, spiritual society founded in the United States by Paramahansa Yogananda (1893–1952), a teacher of yoga, who was one of the first Indian spiritual teachers to reside permanently in the West. His lecturing and teaching led to the chartering of the fellowship in 1935,

  • self-reference (psychology)

    paranoia: …is an exaggerated tendency to self-reference—i.e., to systematically misinterpret remarks, gestures, and acts of others as intentional slights or as signs of derision and contempt directed at oneself. Self-reference becomes paranoid delusion when one persists in believing oneself to be the target of hostile actions or insinuations, perpetrated by some…

  • Self-Reliance (essay by Emerson)

    Self-Reliance, essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson, published in the first volume of his collected Essays (1841). Developed from his journals and from a series of lectures he gave in the winter of 1836–37, it exhorts the reader to consistently obey “the aboriginal self,” or inner law, regardless of

  • self-reliant policy (New Zealand ethnic group)

    Sir Frederick Aloysius Weld: …New Zealand (1864–65), whose “self-reliant” policy was that the colony have full responsibility for the conduct of all Maori affairs, including the settlement of difficulties without help from the crown.

  • self-report questionnaire (psychology)

    personality assessment: Self-report tests: The success that attended the use of convenient intelligence tests in providing reliable, quantitative (numerical) indexes of individual ability has stimulated interest in the possibility of devising similar tests for measuring personality. Procedures now available vary in the degree to which they achieve…

  • self-report study (law)

    crime: Measurement of crime: …some criminologists favour is the self-report study, in which a representative sample of individuals is asked, under assurances of confidentiality, whether they have committed any offenses of a particular kind. This type of research is subject to some of the same difficulties as the victim survey—the researcher has no means…

  • self-rising flour (foodstuff)

    flour: …bleached, with very fine texture; self-rising flour, refined and bleached, with added leavening and salt; and enriched flour, refined and bleached, with added nutrients.

  • self-similarity (geometry)

    fractal: …fractals possess the property of self-similarity, at least approximately, if not exactly. A self-similar object is one whose component parts resemble the whole. This reiteration of details or patterns occurs at progressively smaller scales and can, in the case of purely abstract entities, continue indefinitely, so that each part of…

  • Self-Strengthening Movement (Chinese history)

    China: The Self-Strengthening Movement: Upon the Xianfeng emperor’s death at Chengde in 1861, his antiforeign entourage entered Beijing and seized power, but Cixi, mother of the newly enthroned boy emperor Zaichun (reigned as the Tongzhi emperor, 1861–74/75), and Prince Gong succeeded in crushing their opponents by a…

  • self-sufficiency (economics)

    Autarky, an economic system of self-sufficiency and limited trade. A country is said to be in a complete state of autarky if it has a closed economy, which means that it does not engage in international trade with any other country. Historically, societies have utilized different levels of autarky.

  • self-synchronous motor drive (electrical engineering)

    electric motor: Reluctance motors: …system is known as a self-synchronous motor drive. It can operate over a wide and controlled speed range.

  • self-tapping screw (machine component)

    screw: Self-tapping screws form or cut mating threads in such materials as metals, plastics, glass fibre, asbestos, and resin-impregnated plywood when driven or screwed into drilled or cored (cast) holes. The self-tapping screw in the Figure forms threads by displacing material adjacent to a pilot hole…

  • self-winding watch

    watch: Mechanical watches: The first patent on the self-winding pocket watch was taken out in London in 1780. An English invention patented in 1924, the self-winding wristwatch by Louis Recordon, contains a swinging weight pivoted at the centre of the movement, coupled to the barrel arbor through reduction wheels and gears. A more…

  • selfheal (plant)

    Self-heal, (genus Prunella), genus of 13 species of low-growing perennials in the mint family (Lamiaceae), native to Eurasia and North America. Several species, especially common self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), large-flowered self-heal (P. grandiflora), and cutleaf self-heal (P. lacinata), were

  • selfing

    Self-fertilization, fusion of male and female gametes (sex cells) produced by the same individual. Self-fertilization occurs in bisexual organisms, including most flowering plants, numerous protozoans, and many invertebrates. Autogamy, the production of gametes by the division of a single parent

  • selfish behaviour (behaviour)

    animal social behaviour: The ultimate causes of social behaviour: …sacrifice and the recipient benefits), selfishness (the actor benefits at the expense of the recipient), and spite (the actor hurts the recipient and both pay a cost). Mutualistic associations pose no serious evolutionary difficulty since both individuals derive benefits that exceed what they would achieve on their own. In general,…

  • Selfish Gene, The (work by Dawkins)

    Richard Dawkins: …he published his first book, The Selfish Gene, in which he tried to rectify what he maintained was a widespread misunderstanding of Darwinism. Dawkins argued that natural selection takes place at the genetic rather than the species or individual level, as was often assumed. Genes, he maintained, use the bodies…

  • selfishness (behaviour)

    animal social behaviour: The ultimate causes of social behaviour: …sacrifice and the recipient benefits), selfishness (the actor benefits at the expense of the recipient), and spite (the actor hurts the recipient and both pay a cost). Mutualistic associations pose no serious evolutionary difficulty since both individuals derive benefits that exceed what they would achieve on their own. In general,…

  • selfmate (chess)

    chess: Heterodox problems: Another is the selfmate, in which White moves first and forces Black—who is not cooperating—to deliver mate in the specified number of moves. (See the composition.) In a retractor problem the player given the task begins by taking back a move and replacing it with another move, with…

  • Selfridge and Company, Ltd. (British company)

    Harry Gordon Selfridge: …tea broker, and in 1908 Selfridge and Company, Ltd., was registered (with £900,000 capital) to complete the project. The store opened in 1909 with a floor area of 42,000 square feet, which later was doubled.

  • Selfridge, Harry Gordon (British merchant)

    Harry Gordon Selfridge, founder of Selfridges department store in London. The son of a small storekeeper in Wisconsin, Selfridge at age 21 joined the wholesale-retail firm of Field, Leiter and Company (later Marshall Field and Company) in Chicago, where he worked for 25 years and became a junior

  • Selfridge, Thomas E. (American officer)

    Aerial Experiment Association: …the AEA propulsion expert; and Thomas E. Selfridge, an officer in the U.S. Army.

  • Selgovae (people)

    Dumfriesshire: …of the region were called Selgovae by the Romans, who built many forts in Annandale. There are traces of Roman roads, and at Birrens there is a well-preserved Roman camp. Many Roman artifacts have been found. Upon the withdrawal of the Romans in the 5th century ad, the Selgovae were…

  • Seli River (river, Sierra Leone)

    Rokel River, river rising in the Guinea Highlands in north central Sierra Leone, West Africa. It drains a 4,100-sq-mi (10,620-sq-km) basin on its 250-mi (400-km) southwesterly course toward the Atlantic, and empties into the estuary of the Sierra Leone River (q.v.). Smallholder tobacco growing a

  • selichot (Judaism)

    Selihoth, (“pardons”), in Jewish liturgy, penitential prayers originally composed for Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) and for fast days but subsequently incorporated into other services. Selihoth have become an indispensable part of the Jewish liturgical services that precede Rosh Hashana (New

  • ?elichov, Gulf of (gulf, Sea of Okhotsk)

    Gulf of Shelikhov, gulf lying off far eastern Russia, a northward extension of the Sea of Okhotsk lying between the Siberian mainland on the west and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east. The gulf extends northward for 420 miles (670 km) and has a maximum width of 185 miles (300 km). The average

  • Selig, Allan H. (American sports executive)

    Bud Selig, American businessman who served as the de facto (1992–98) and official (1998–2015) commissioner of Major League Baseball (MLB). After earning a bachelor’s degree in history and political science from the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1956, Selig served two years in the military

  • Selig, Bud (American sports executive)

    Bud Selig, American businessman who served as the de facto (1992–98) and official (1998–2015) commissioner of Major League Baseball (MLB). After earning a bachelor’s degree in history and political science from the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1956, Selig served two years in the military

  • Seligenstadt (Germany)

    Western architecture: Carolingian period: …Saints Marcellinus and Peter at Seligenstadt (830–840) only the three-aisle nave on pillars is original. In the style of the great basilicas of Rome, this church had a hall-shaped, wide transept with a semicircular apse adjoining it. Some churches, such as Centula (Saint-Riquier, France), which is known only through pictures,…

  • Seligman, C. G. (British anthropologist)

    C.G. Seligman, a pioneer in British anthropology who conducted significant field research in Melanesia, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and, most importantly, the Nilotic Sudan. Although educated as a physician, in 1898 Seligman joined the Cambridge University expedition to the Torres Strait (between New

  • Seligman, Charles Gabriel (British anthropologist)

    C.G. Seligman, a pioneer in British anthropology who conducted significant field research in Melanesia, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and, most importantly, the Nilotic Sudan. Although educated as a physician, in 1898 Seligman joined the Cambridge University expedition to the Torres Strait (between New

  • Seligman, Edwin Robert Anderson (American economist)

    Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman, American economist and educator, an expert on taxation. Seligman was the son of a New York banker and had the distinction of being tutored by Horatio Alger. He was educated at Columbia University (Ph.D., 1885) and in Germany and France. Seligman served as professor

  • Seligman, Martin E. P. (American psychologist)

    learned helplessness: …and developed by American psychologist Martin E.P. Seligman at the University of Pennsylvania in the late 1960s and ’70s. While conducting experimental research on classical conditioning, Seligman inadvertently discovered that dogs that had received unavoidable electric shocks failed to take action in subsequent situations—even those in which escape or avoidance…

  • Seligmann, Jacques (French art dealer)

    art market: The rise of the antique: …supplied by the likes of Jacques Seligmann, the great Parisian dealer whose clients included industrialist Henry Clay Frick, financier John Pierpont Morgan, and merchant S.H. Kress.

  • selihot (Judaism)

    Selihoth, (“pardons”), in Jewish liturgy, penitential prayers originally composed for Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) and for fast days but subsequently incorporated into other services. Selihoth have become an indispensable part of the Jewish liturgical services that precede Rosh Hashana (New

  • seli?ot (Judaism)

    Selihoth, (“pardons”), in Jewish liturgy, penitential prayers originally composed for Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) and for fast days but subsequently incorporated into other services. Selihoth have become an indispensable part of the Jewish liturgical services that precede Rosh Hashana (New

  • selihoth (Judaism)

    Selihoth, (“pardons”), in Jewish liturgy, penitential prayers originally composed for Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) and for fast days but subsequently incorporated into other services. Selihoth have become an indispensable part of the Jewish liturgical services that precede Rosh Hashana (New

  • Selim I (Ottoman sultan)

    Selim I, Ottoman sultan (1512–20) who extended the empire to Syria, the Hejaz, and Egypt and raised the Ottomans to leadership of the Muslim world. Selim came to the throne in the wake of civil strife in which he, his brother, and their father, Bayezid II, had been involved. Selim eliminated all p

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