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  • Seminole (people)

    Seminole, North American Indian tribe of Creek origin who speak a Muskogean language. In the last half of the 18th century, migrants from the Creek towns of southern Georgia moved into northern Florida, the former territory of the Apalachee and Timucua. By about 1775 those migrants had begun to be

  • Seminole Freedmen (people)

    Black Seminoles, a group of free blacks and runaway slaves (maroons) that joined forces with the Seminole Indians in Florida from approximately 1700 through the 1850s. The Black Seminoles were celebrated for their bravery and tenacity during the three Seminole Wars. The Native American Seminoles

  • Seminole Maroons (people)

    Black Seminoles, a group of free blacks and runaway slaves (maroons) that joined forces with the Seminole Indians in Florida from approximately 1700 through the 1850s. The Black Seminoles were celebrated for their bravery and tenacity during the three Seminole Wars. The Native American Seminoles

  • Seminole War, First (United States history [1817–1818])

    First Seminole War, conflict between U.S. armed forces and the Seminole Indians of Florida that is generally dated to 1817–18 and that led Spain to cede Florida to the United States. The Seminoles were largely of Creek origin and lived in villages in northern Florida. The area was also home to a

  • Seminole War, Second (United States history [1835–1842])

    Second Seminole War, conflict (1835–42) that arose when the United States undertook to force the Seminole Indians to move from a reservation in central Florida to the Creek reservation west of the Mississippi River. It was the longest of the wars of Indian removal. Following the end of the First

  • Seminole Wars (United States history)

    Seminole Wars, (1817–18, 1835–42, 1855–58), three conflicts between the United States and the Seminole Indians of Florida in the period before the American Civil War, that ultimately resulted in the opening of the Seminole’s desirable land for white exploitation and settlement. The First Seminole

  • seminoma (pathology)

    testicular cancer: Types of testicular cancer: …which are broadly classified as seminomas or nonseminomas on the basis of their appearance and other characteristics. About 40 to 60 percent of testicular germ cell tumours are seminomas. These cancers tend to be slow-growing and respond well to treatment. Seminomas are derived from immature germ cells in the tissues…

  • seminomadism (pastoral society)

    Transhumance, form of pastoralism or nomadism organized around the migration of livestock between mountain pastures in warm seasons and lower altitudes the rest of the year. The seasonal migration may also occur between lower and upper latitudes (as in the movement of Siberian reindeer between the

  • semiology (study of signs)

    Semiotics, the study of signs and sign-using behaviour. It was defined by one of its founders, the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, as the study of “the life of signs within society.” Although the word was used in this sense in the 17th century by the English philosopher John Locke, the idea

  • Semionotidae (fish family)

    holostean: Extant groups: …years ago), belongs to the Semionotidae. Members of this family have small mouths and strong teeth, heavily ossified (that is, composed of true bone rather than cartilage) dermal bones, and hemiheterocercal tails. The body may be fusiform (tapered at both ends), as in Semionotus, or flat and disk-shaped, as in…

  • Semionotiformes (order of fishes)

    fish: Annotated classification: Order Semionotiformes (gar and fossil relatives) 3 (2 extinct and 1 living) families of widely divergent fishes; probably independent of the Amiiformes but with typical holostean characters; length to about 3 metres (roughly 10 feet). Late Permian to present. Infraclass Teleostei (advanced bony

  • semiotics (study of signs)

    Semiotics, the study of signs and sign-using behaviour. It was defined by one of its founders, the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, as the study of “the life of signs within society.” Although the word was used in this sense in the 17th century by the English philosopher John Locke, the idea

  • Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan)

    Semey, city, eastern Kazakhstan. It is a port on the Irtysh (Ertis) River where the latter emerges into the West Siberian Plain. It was founded as a Russian fort in 1718, 11 miles (18 km) downstream from the present site, near the ruins of a Buddhist monastery consisting of seven buildings, from

  • semipalmated goose (bird)

    Magpie goose, (Anseranas semipalmata), large unusual waterfowl of Australia and Papua New Guinea. Although classified by many ornithologists as the sole member of the subfamily Anseranatinae in family Anatidae (ducks, geese, and swans), it may merit recognition as a separate family in order

  • semipelagic trawl (fishing boat)

    commercial fishing: Dragged gear: …of mid-water trawl is the semipelagic trawl, originally invented in Iceland and now operated primarily by French fishermen. In this technique the otter boards remain in touch with the bottom but the trawl floats at some distance above it. Semipelagic trawls were constructed because fish often are concentrated at a…

  • semiperfect gas equation of state (chemistry and physics)

    absolute zero: Therefore, the ideal gas law is only an approximation to real gas behaviour. As such, however, it is extremely useful.

  • semipermeable membrane

    cardiovascular disease: Diseases of the capillaries: The capillaries are freely permeable to water and small molecules but ordinarily are not highly permeable to proteins and other materials. In some pathological situations, such as in certain allergic states (e.g., hives) or because of local injury, as in burns, there may be local areas of permeability, with…

  • semiplosive (phonetics)

    Affricate, a consonant sound that begins as a stop (sound with complete obstruction of the breath stream) and concludes with a fricative (sound with incomplete closure and a sound of friction). Examples of affricates are the ch sound in English chair, which may be represented phonetically as a t

  • semipolar bond (chemistry)

    acid–base reaction: Reactions of Lewis acids: …bond is termed semipolar or coordinate, as in the reaction of boron trifluoride with ammonia:

  • semiporcelain (pottery)

    Ironstone china, type of stoneware introduced in England early in the 19th century by Staffordshire potters who sought to develop a porcelain substitute that could be mass-produced. The result of their experiments was a dense, hard, durable stoneware that came to be known by several names—e.g.,

  • semiprecious stone

    jewelry: The properties of gems: Among the semiprecious stones used in jewelry are amethyst, garnet, aquamarine, amber, jade, turquoise, opal, lapis lazuli, and malachite. Matrix jewelry is cut from a stone such as opal or turquoise and the surrounding natural material,

  • Semiramide (opera by Rossini)

    Gioachino Rossini: Italian period: …crown his Italian career with Semiramide (1823). The old-fashioned Venetians, however, did not understand the astonishing work, his longest and most ambitious, and so he resolved not to write another note for his countrymen. Following his resolution, he decided to leave Italy.

  • Semiramis (queen of Assyria)

    Sammu-ramat, Assyrian queen who became a legendary heroine. Sammu-ramat was the mother of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari III (reigned 810–783 bc). Her stela (memorial stone shaft) has been found at Ashur, while an inscription at Calah (Nimrūd) shows her to have been dominant there after the death o

  • Sémiramis (play by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Later travels: …apparition of a ghost, for Sémiramis (1748), but his public was not captivated. His enemies compared him with Prosper Jolyot, sieur de Crébillon, who was preeminent among French writers of tragedy at this time. Though Voltaire used the same subjects as his rival (Oreste, Sémiramis), the Parisian audience preferred the…

  • Semirechye (historical region, Central Asia)

    history of Central Asia: …hence its Russian name of Semirechye.

  • semiregular polyhedron (mathematics)

    Archimedes: His works: …of refraction; on the 13 semiregular (Archimedean) polyhedra (those bodies bounded by regular polygons, not necessarily all of the same type, that can be inscribed in a sphere); and the “Cattle Problem” (preserved in a Greek epigram), which poses a problem in indeterminate analysis, with eight unknowns. In addition to…

  • semirhyme (poetry)

    rhyme: …is sometimes softened by using trailing rhyme, or semirhyme, in which one of the two words trails an additional unstressed syllable behind it (trail / failure). Other types of rhyme include eye rhyme, in which syllables are identical in spelling but are pronounced differently (cough / slough), and pararhyme, first…

  • semirigid airship (aircraft)

    airship: …have been built: nonrigids (blimps), semirigids, and rigids. All three types have four principal parts: a cigar-shaped bag, or balloon, that is filled with a lighter-than-air gas; a car or gondola that is slung beneath the balloon and holds the crew and passengers; engines that drive propellers; and horizontal and…

  • semisedentary society (sociology)

    history of Latin America: Types of Western Hemisphere societies: …indigenous peoples may be called semisedentary. They lacked the permanent-site agriculture and the fixed borders of the sedentary peoples and were apparently far less numerous, but they had shifting agriculture and sizable, if frequently moving, settlements. They were found above all in relatively temperate forested areas. The third category that…

  • Semisopochnoi Volcano (volcano, Alaska, United States)

    Rat Islands: Semisopochnoi Volcano, which rises to 4,005 feet (1,221 metres), has erupted several times since the 18th century, and the region continues to be seismically active.

  • semispecies (biology)

    species: Speciation: At the second stage are incipient species, or semispecies; individuals of these groups rarely interbreed, and all their male offspring are sterile. Natural selection separates incipient species into sibling species, which do not mate at all but which in morphology, or structure and form, are nearly indistinguishable. Sibling species then…

  • semispinalis muscle

    Semispinalis muscle, any of the deep muscles just to either side of the spine that arise from the transverse processes (side projections) of the lower vertebrae and reach upward across several vertebrae to insert at the spines of vertebrae farther up, except for the upper segment (semispinalis

  • semisterile (genetics)

    radiation: Damage to chromosomes: …in this way is termed semisterile. Because the number of his descendants is correspondingly lower than normal, such chromosome structural changes tend to die out in successive generations.

  • semisubmersible platform
  • semisubmersible vessel
  • semisynthetic penicillin (drug)

    penicillin: …of mold fermentation) and the semisynthetic penicillins (those in which the structure of a chemical substance—6-aminopenicillanic acid—found in all penicillins is altered in various ways). Because it is possible to change the characteristics of the antibiotic, different types of penicillin are produced for different therapeutic purposes.

  • Semite (people)

    Semite, member of a people speaking any of a group of related languages presumably derived from a common language, Semitic (see Semitic languages). The term came to include Arabs, Akkadians, Canaanites, Hebrews, some Ethiopians, and Aramaean tribes. Mesopotamia, the western coast of the

  • Semitic alphabet, North

    North Semitic alphabet, the earliest fully developed alphabetic writing system. It was used in Syria as early as the 11th century bc and is probably ancestral, either directly or indirectly, to all subsequent alphabetic scripts, with the possible exception of those scripts classified as South

  • Semitic alphabet, South

    South Semitic alphabet, any of a group of minor scripts originating in the Arabian Peninsula in about 1000 bc, possibly related to the writing system used in the Sinaitic inscriptions. These scripts, most of which were used only in the Arabian Peninsula, are of note because of their great age and

  • Semitic languages

    Semitic languages, languages that form a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. Members of the Semitic group are spread throughout North Africa and Southwest Asia and have played preeminent roles in the linguistic and cultural landscape of the Middle East for more than 4,000 years. In the

  • Semito-Hamitic languages

    Afro-Asiatic languages, languages of common origin found in the northern part of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and some islands and adjacent areas in Western Asia. About 250 Afro-Asiatic languages are spoken today by a total of approximately 250 million people. Numbers of speakers per language

  • semitone (musical measurement)

    microtonal music: …that differ from the standard semitones (half steps) of a tuning system or scale. In the division of the octave established by the tuning system used on the piano, equal temperament, the smallest interval (e.g., between B and C, F and F?, A? and A) is the semitone, an interval…

  • semitrailer (vehicle)

    truck: Types and definitions: …weight and load of a semitrailer, which is a truck trailer equipped with one or more axles and constructed so that the end and a substantial part of its own weight and that of its load rests upon a truck tractor. In contrast, a full trailer is constructed so that…

  • semivowel (phonetics)

    Approximant, in phonetics, a sound that is produced by bringing one articulator in the vocal tract close to another without, however, causing audible friction (see fricative). Approximants include semivowels, such as the y sound in “yes” or the w sound in

  • Semler, Dean (Australian cinematographer and director)
  • Semler, Johann Salomo (German theologian)

    Johann Salomo Semler, German Lutheran theologian who was a major figure in the development of biblical textual criticism during his tenure (1753–91) as professor of theology at the University of Halle. Semler was a disciple of the rationalist Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten, whom he succeeded on his

  • Semliki River (river, Africa)

    Semliki River, waterway connecting Lakes Edward and Albert, in the Western Rift Valley. It issues from the northwestern end of Lake Edward in Congo (Kinshasa) and meanders for 143 miles (230 km) north-northeast along the western foot of the Ruwenzori Range to Lake Albert, the latter part of its

  • Semmelweis, Ignác Fül?p (German-Hungarian physician)

    Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian physician who discovered the cause of puerperal (childbed) fever and introduced antisepsis into medical practice. Educated at the universities of Pest and Vienna, Semmelweis received his doctor’s degree from Vienna in 1844 and was appointed assistant at the obstetric

  • Semmelweis, Ignaz (German-Hungarian physician)

    Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian physician who discovered the cause of puerperal (childbed) fever and introduced antisepsis into medical practice. Educated at the universities of Pest and Vienna, Semmelweis received his doctor’s degree from Vienna in 1844 and was appointed assistant at the obstetric

  • Semmelweis, Ignaz Philipp (German-Hungarian physician)

    Ignaz Semmelweis, Hungarian physician who discovered the cause of puerperal (childbed) fever and introduced antisepsis into medical practice. Educated at the universities of Pest and Vienna, Semmelweis received his doctor’s degree from Vienna in 1844 and was appointed assistant at the obstetric

  • Semmering (pass, Austria)

    Semmering, most easterly and lowest (3,232 feet [985 metres]) of the great Alpine passes, at the boundary between Bundesl?nder (federal provinces) Steiermark (Styria) and Nieder?sterreich (Lower Austria), in east-central Austria. Situated in the watershed dividing the Mur and Leitha drainage

  • Semmes, Raphael (Confederate naval officer)

    Raphael Semmes, American Confederate naval officer whose daring raids in command of the man-of-war “Alabama” interfered with Union merchant shipping during the middle two years of the American Civil War (1861–65). Appointed a midshipman in the U.S. Navy in 1826, Semmes studied law while awaiting

  • Semmi m?vészet (novel by Esterházy)

    Hungarian literature: Writing after 1945: Esterházy’s Semmi m?vészet (2008; Not Art: A Novel) depicts a football- (soccer-) obsessed mother’s relationship with her son.

  • Semnai Theai (Greco-Roman mythology)

    Furies, in Greco-Roman mythology, the chthonic goddesses of vengeance. They were probably personified curses, but possibly they were originally conceived of as ghosts of the murdered. According to the Greek poet Hesiod, they were the daughters of Gaea (Earth) and sprang from the blood of her

  • Semnān (Iran)

    Semnān, chief city and county (shahrestān) in Semnān ostān (province), northern Iran; it lies 3,734 feet (1,138 metres) above sea level on a large plain at the southern foot of the Elburz Mountains. In the city are an ornamented minaret (12th century) and several large places of worship. Semnān is

  • Semnān (province, Iran)

    Semnān, ostān (province), northern Iran, bounded by the ostāns of Ra?avī Khorāsān and South Khorāsān on the east, E?fahān on the south, Qom and Tehrān on the west, and Māzandarān and North Khorāsān on the north. The northern half of the region is an extension of the Elburz Mountains pierced by

  • Semnānī language

    Iranian languages: Dialects: Semnānī, spoken east of Tehrān, forms a transitional stage between the central dialects and the Caspian dialects. The latter are divided into two groups, Gīlakī and Māzandarānī (Tabarī). Also closely related is Tālishī, spoken on the west coast of the Caspian Sea on both sides…

  • Semnones (people)

    Germanic peoples: …Brandenburg, Saxony, and Thuringia; the Semnones, living around the Havel and the Spree rivers, were a Suebic people, as were the Langobardi (Lombards), who lived northwest of the Semnones. Among the seven peoples who worshiped the goddess Nerthus were the Angli (Angles), centred on the peninsula of Angeln in eastern…

  • Semnopithecus entellus (primate)

    langur: The gray, or Hanuman, langur (S. entellus) of the Indian subcontinent is almost black when newborn and gray, tan, or brown as an adult. Regarded as sacred in Hinduism, it spends a good deal of time on the ground and roams at will in villages and temples of…

  • Semnopithecus schistaceus (primate)

    langur: …in the male of the Himalayan langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus). Leaf monkeys have long fur, and many species have characteristic caps or crests of long hair. Colour varies among species but is commonly gray, red, brown, or black, and adults usually have black faces. The colour of the young, born singly…

  • Semois River (river, Europe)

    Bouillon: …southeastern Belgium, lying on the Semois River in the Ardennes. It was long known for the ducal title connected with it.

  • semolina

    Semolina, the purified middlings of hard wheat used in making pasta; also, the coarse middlings used for breakfast cereals, puddings, and polenta. See

  • semology (study of meaning)

    Semantics, the philosophical and scientific study of meaning in natural and artificial languages. The term is one of a group of English words formed from the various derivatives of the Greek verb sēmainō (“to mean” or “to signify”). The noun semantics and the adjective semantic are derived from

  • Semon, Waldo (American chemist)

    Waldo Semon, American chemist known principally for his discovery of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). He obtained a doctorate from the University of Washington and subsequently worked for the B.F. Goodrich Company in Akron, Ohio. PVC had been prepared as early as 1872, but commercial

  • Semon, Waldo Lonsbury (American chemist)

    Waldo Semon, American chemist known principally for his discovery of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). He obtained a doctorate from the University of Washington and subsequently worked for the B.F. Goodrich Company in Akron, Ohio. PVC had been prepared as early as 1872, but commercial

  • Semotilus atromaculatus (fish)

    chub: …creek and hornyhead chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus and Nocomis, sometimes Hybopsis, biguttata). The creek chub is found in quiet streams in eastern and central North America. Bluish above and silvery below, with a dark spot at the base of the dorsal fin, it grows to about 30 cm (1 foot).…

  • Sempach, Battle of (Swiss history)

    Battle of Sempach, (July 9, 1386), decisive victory won by the Swiss Confederation in its struggle with the Austrian Habsburgs. At Meiersholz, near Sempach, Swiss confederate forces from Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, and Lucern met an Austrian army led by the Habsburg duke Leopold III of Tirol and his

  • Semper Fidelis (work by Sousa)

    John Philip Sousa: They include the famous “Semper Fidelis” (1888), which became the official march of the U.S. Marine Corps, “The Washington Post” (1889), “The Liberty Bell” (1893), and “The Stars and Stripes Forever” (1897).

  • Semper Gallery (art gallery, Dresden, Germany)

    Dresden: The contemporary city: …north of the Zwinger, the Semper Gallery (1846) was destroyed in 1945 but was reopened in 1960, with renovations continuing into the 1990s. The gallery houses important Renaissance and Baroque paintings by Italian, Dutch, and Flemish masters, including Raphael’s Sistine Madonna (1513). The Japanese Palace, formerly housing a manuscript and…

  • Semper, Gottfried (German architect and writer)

    Gottfried Semper, architect and writer on art who was among the principal practitioners of the Neo-Renaissance style in Germany and Austria. Semper studied in Munich and Paris and from 1826 to 1830 travelled in Italy and Greece, studying classical architecture. He practiced architecture in Dresden

  • Sempervivum (plant)

    Houseleek, (genus Sempervivum), genus of about 30 species of low-growing succulent plants in the stonecrop family (Crassulaceae), native to Europe, Morocco, and western Asia. The name houseleek refers to the growth of some species on thatched roofs in Europe; live-forever indicates their hardiness

  • Sempervivum arachnoideum (plant)

    houseleek: Major species: Cobweb houseleek (S. arachnoideum), with leaf tips connected by weblike strands, has also yielded many desirable varieties. Job’s beard (S. heuffelii) is a perennial with a rosette of leaves that range from gray to purple-green. Teneriffe houseleek (S. ciliosum) is noted for its attractive wooly…

  • Sempervivum tectorum (plant)

    echeveria: Many are popularly called hen-and-chicks because of the way new plantlets, or offsets, develop in a cluster around the parent plant. The usually broad fleshy leaves have waxy, velvety, or powdery surfaces and are often iridescent and sometimes red-edged when in bright sunlight. Echeverias are popular with collectors of…

  • Sempill of Beltrees, Sir James (Scottish poet)

    Sir James Sempill, Scottish poet remembered for his satirical poem A picktooth for the Pope, or the packman’s paternoster (1630?), an antipapal dialogue between a peddler and a priest written in rhyming couplets. Born into a family of Scottish poets, he was reared with the young King James VI. He

  • Sempill, Robert (Scottish poet)

    Robert Sempill, Scottish poet who first used the metre that became the standard form for the Scottish humorous elegy. The son of the poet Sir James Sempill of Beltrees, he was educated at the University of Glasgow. He wrote the elegy “The Life and Death of Habbie Simson, the Piper of Kilbarchan”

  • Sempione strizza l’occhio al Frejus, Il (work by Vittorini)

    Elio Vittorini: …strizza l’occhio al frejus (1947; The Twilight of the Elephant); and another allegory, Le donne di Messina (1949; Women on the Road). Vittorini’s critical writings are collected in Diario in pubblico (1957; “Public Diary”) and the posthumously published Le due tensione: appunti per una ideologia della letteratura (1967; “The Two…

  • Sempione, Arch of (arch, Milan, Italy)

    Western architecture: Italy: …in Milan (1801–14), and the Arch of Sempione in Milan (1806–38), a Roman triumphal arch similar to the contemporary Parisian Arc du Carrousel. Luigi Canina’s Greek propylea, or gateway, at the entrance to the Villa Borghese (1827–29); Carlo Barabino’s Doric Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa (1826–28); and Giuseppe Japelli’s meat market…

  • Semple, Ellen Churchill (American geographer)

    Ellen Churchill Semple, American geographer known for promoting the view that the physical environment determines human history and culture, an idea that provoked much controversy until superseded by later antideterministic approaches. Semple earned B.A. (1882) and M.A. (1891) degrees from Vassar

  • Semple, Jesse B. (fictional character)

    Langston Hughes: Semple, familiarly called Simple, who appeared in Hughes’s columns in the Chicago Defender and the New York Post and later in book form and on the stage. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, edited by Arnold Rampersad and David Roessel, appeared in 1994. Some of his political exchanges…

  • Semple, Lorenzo, Jr. (American playwright and screenwriter)

    Lorenzo Semple, Jr., (Lorenzo Semple III), American playwright and screenwriter (born March 27, 1923, New Rochelle, N.Y.—died March 28, 2014, Los Angeles, Calif.), conceived the campy dialogue and graphic elements (Pow!, Zap!, and Wham!, among the descriptors that popped up during the frequent

  • Sempringham Order (Roman Catholic order)

    Saint Gilbert of Sempringham: …or Sempringham Order), commonly called Gilbertines, the only medieval religious order of English origin.

  • Semprún, Jorge (Spanish writer, activist, and government official)

    Jorge Semprún, Spanish writer, activist, and government official (born Dec. 10, 1923, Madrid, Spain—died June 7, 2011, Paris, France), embarked on a remarkable literary career after having survived 16 months (1943–45) in the Nazi concentration camp Buchenwald and laboured for the Spanish Communist

  • sems (Buddhism)

    Indian philosophy: God, self, and body: …distinguished from the mind (chitta): the mind is viewed as an object, an aggregate. This argument is used to prove the existence of a self other than the mind. The mental state is not self-intimating; it is known in introspection. It cannot know both itself and its object. It…

  • Semseddin Ahmet ibn Süleyman ibn Kemal Paa (Turkish historian)

    Kemalpa?azade, historian, poet, and scholar who is considered one of the greatest Ottoman historians. Born into an illustrious military family, as a young man he served in the army of ?brahim Pa?a, vezir (minister) to Sultan Bayezid II. He later studied under several famous religious scholars and

  • ?emseddin Yaman Candar (Candar ruler)

    Candar Dynasty: …dynasty took its name from ?emseddin Yaman Candar, who served in the army of the Seljuq sultan Mas?ūd II (reigned 1283–98) and was awarded the Eflani region, west of Kastamonu, in return for his services. Candar’s son Süleyman captured Kastamonu and Sinop and in 1314 accepted the suzerainty of the…

  • semuren (Chinese social class)

    Kublai Khan: Social and administrative policy: …formed the second group, the semuren, persons with special status. That class furnished the higher officialdom. In addition, its members, with their worldwide contacts and their privileged status, formed a new breed of merchants and speculators. Like the Mongols, they were exempt from taxation and enjoyed preferential use of the…

  • semyana (marriage)

    Amhara: …kidan (also called serat or semanya [“eighty”]) is marriage by civil contract. It is by far the most common form, though a great percentage of such unions end in divorce. Qurban marriages are performed in church and are regarded as sacred; they cannot be dissolved, even after the death of…

  • Semyon Kotko (opera by Prokofiev)

    Sergey Prokofiev: Soviet period: …drama of folk life his Semyon Kotko, depicting events of the civil war in the Ukraine (1939). The basis of the brilliantly modernized opéra bouffe Betrothal in a Monastery (composed in 1940, produced in 1946) was the play The Duenna, by the 18th-century British dramatist Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Testing his…

  • Semyonov, Nikolay Nikolayevich (Russian chemist)

    Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov, Soviet physical chemist who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Sir Cyril Hinshelwood for research in chemical kinetics. He was the second Soviet citizen (after the émigré writer Ivan Bunin) to receive a Nobel Prize. Semyonov was educated in St. Petersburg,

  • Semyonova, Marina Timofeyevna (Russian ballerina and teacher)

    Marina Timofeyevna Semyonova, Russian ballerina and teacher (born May 30 [June 12, New Style], 1908, St. Petersburg, Russia—died June 9, 2010, Moscow, Russia), was credited with having renewed classical ballet in the Soviet Union through her radical reinterpretations and expressionism just when

  • Semyonovsky Guards (military unit)

    Peter I: Youth and accession: …in 1687, the Preobrazhensky and Semyonovsky Guards regiments were formed—to become the nucleus of a new Russian Army.

  • Semyorka (missile and launch vehicle)

    R-7, Soviet/Russian missile and launch vehicle. Under the direction of the rocket pioneer Sergey Korolyov, the Soviet Union during the 1950s developed an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) that was capable of delivering a heavy nuclear warhead to American targets. That ICBM, called the R-7

  • Sen Noci Svatojanské (film by Trnka)

    Ji?í Trnka: …Schweik), Sen Noci Svatojanské (1959; A Midsummer Night’s Dream), considered by some critics to be his masterpiece, and Ruka (1964; The Hand). Trnka redesigned puppets especially for the camera: their range of movement was limited, their heads were enlarged, and their facial expressions were limited chiefly to the area around…

  • Sen Rikyū (Japanese tea master)

    Sen Rikyū, Japanese tea master who perfected the tea ceremony and raised it to the level of an art. Sen Rikyū redefined the tea ceremony in all its aspects: the rules of procedure, the utensils, the teahouse architecture (of which he designed several styles), and even the tea-garden landscaping. He

  • Sen Sōeki (Japanese tea master)

    Sen Rikyū, Japanese tea master who perfected the tea ceremony and raised it to the level of an art. Sen Rikyū redefined the tea ceremony in all its aspects: the rules of procedure, the utensils, the teahouse architecture (of which he designed several styles), and even the tea-garden landscaping. He

  • Sen to Chihiro no kamikakushi (film by Miyazaki)

    Miyazaki Hayao: …to Chihiro no kamikakushi (2001; Spirited Away) captured the top prize at the 2002 Berlin International Film Festival, won best Asian film at the Hong Kong Film Awards, and was named best animated feature at the 2003 Academy Awards. In his native Japan it won best picture at the 2002…

  • Sen, Amartya (Indian economist)

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