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  • Sen, Mrinal (Indian filmmaker)

    Mrinal Sen, Indian filmmaker who used a range of aesthetic styles to explore the social and political realities of his homeland. After studying physics at Calcutta University, Sen worked as a journalist, a medicine salesman, and a film sound technician. His interest in both filmmaking and Marxist

  • Sen, Suchitra (Indian actress)

    Suchitra Sen, (Rama Dasgupta), Indian actress (born April 6, 1931, Pabna, British India [now in Bangladesh]—died Jan. 17, 2014, Kolkata, India), starred in more than 50 Bengali-language films as well as 7 Hindi-language Bollywood movies between the early 1950s and 1978, when she retired to a

  • Sena (people)

    Malawi: Ethnic groups and languages: Tumbuka, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, and the Lambya/Nyiha. All the African languages spoken are Bantu languages. From 1968 to 1994, Chewa was the only national language; it is now one of the numerous languages used in print and broadcast media and is

  • Sena (Mozambique)

    Sena, town, central Mozambique, on the Zambezi River. A river port and railway junction, it has an economy based on sugarcane cultivation and processing. Sena Sugar Estates Ltd., a formerly British-owned company that was granted a large land subconcession from the Zambezia Company, had estates at

  • Sena dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Sena dynasty, Indian dynasty ruling in Bengal in the 11th and 12th centuries ce. Their ancestors came from the south and established themselves as chieftains in southwestern Bengal early in the 11th century. Hemantasena, the founder of the dynasty, was originally a tributary of the Pala dynasty. In

  • Sena Gallica (Italy)

    Senigallia, town and episcopal see, Marche regione, central Italy. Senigallia lies along the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Misa River. Founded by the Senonian Gauls in the 6th century bc, it became the Roman colony of Sena Gallica in 289 bc. In the 6th century it was one of the five cities of

  • Sena Julia (Italy)

    Siena, city, central Italy, in the Toscana (Tuscany) regione. It lies about 30 miles (48 km) south of Florence. The city was important in history as a commercial and banking city until surpassed by Florence in the 13th–14th century. The site of Siena was originally an Etruscan settlement that later

  • Sena Sugar Estates Ltd. (British company)

    Sena: Sena Sugar Estates Ltd., a formerly British-owned company that was granted a large land subconcession from the Zambezia Company, had estates at Luabo and Marromeu in the Zambezi River delta and also operated a copra plantation near Chinde, a forestry concession, and a cattle ranch…

  • Sena, Jorge de (Portuguese engineer and literary critic)

    Portuguese literature: From monarchy to republic: Jorge de Sena was an engineer by profession who lived in exile in Brazil (1959–65) and the United States (1965–78). His work as a critic reflected his encyclopaedic mind and scientific training, and his poetry showed him to be the most important poet of midcentury,…

  • Sénac, Jean (Algerian poet)

    Jean Sénac, French-language poet active in the cause of national literature in Algeria. Sénac’s early poetry, as in the volume Poèmes (1954), is bitter and regretful in its treatment of his childhood but optimistic with regard to his own creative possibilities as a man as well as to those of his

  • Senado (Spanish government)

    Spain: Constitutional framework: …and an upper chamber, the Senate (Senado). As with most legislatures in parliamentary systems, more power is vested in the lower chamber. The Congress of Deputies has 350 members, who are elected to four-year terms by universal suffrage. The Senate is described in the constitution as the “chamber of territorial…

  • Senanayake Samudra (reservoir, Sri Lanka)

    Gal Oya: …and smaller rivers to create Senanayake Samudra—the largest tank (reservoir) in Sri Lanka, at Bintenne. The project has opened up 100,000 acres (40,000 hectares) of land to the cultivation of paddy, sugarcane, chilies, potatoes, and other crops throughout the eastern coast. The Gal Oya National Park (founded 1954) has an…

  • Senanayake, D. S. (prime minister of Ceylon)

    D. S. Senanayake, first prime minister of Ceylon (1947–52) when the country became independent of Great Britain. Brought up as a devout Buddhist, Senanayake remained in that faith but was educated at the Anglican St. Thomas College in Colombo. After a brief period as a clerk in the surveyor

  • Senanayake, Don Stephen (prime minister of Ceylon)

    D. S. Senanayake, first prime minister of Ceylon (1947–52) when the country became independent of Great Britain. Brought up as a devout Buddhist, Senanayake remained in that faith but was educated at the Anglican St. Thomas College in Colombo. After a brief period as a clerk in the surveyor

  • Senanayake, Dudley Shelton (prime minister of Ceylon)

    hartal: …July 1953, Prime Minister Dudley Senanayake of the United National Party drastically reduced the subsidies, causing the price of rice to triple.

  • Senancour, étienne Pivert de (French author)

    étienne Pivert de Senancour, French author of Obermann (1804), one of several early 19th-century novels that describe the sufferings of a sensitive and tormented hero. Rediscovered some 30 years after it first appeared, the book appealed to the taste of the Romantics and their public. Senancour’s

  • senapati (Sri Lankan political history)

    Sri Lanka: Government and society: …of royal absolutism, and the senapati, or commander in chief, was the king’s closest counselor and confidant.

  • Senarat (king of Kandy)

    Sri Lanka: Kandy and its struggle with European powers: King Senarath (Senarat) succeeded to the Kandyan throne in 1604 and continued to solicit Dutch support. In 1612 a Dutch envoy, Marcelis Boschouwer, concluded a treaty with Senarath. The king granted the Dutch extensive commercial concessions and a harbour for settlement on the east coast in…

  • Senarath (king of Kandy)

    Sri Lanka: Kandy and its struggle with European powers: King Senarath (Senarat) succeeded to the Kandyan throne in 1604 and continued to solicit Dutch support. In 1612 a Dutch envoy, Marcelis Boschouwer, concluded a treaty with Senarath. The king granted the Dutch extensive commercial concessions and a harbour for settlement on the east coast in…

  • Sénart (France)

    Sénart, community in the départements of Seine-et-Marne and Essonne, ?le-de-France région, north-central France. An agglomeration of eight villages southeast of Paris (Cesson, Combs-la-Ville, Tigery, Vert-Saint-Denis, Nandy, Mossy Cramayel, Réau, and Savigny-le-Temple), Sénart is one of the villes

  • Se?as de identidad (novel by Goytisolo)

    Juan Goytisolo: …novel Se?as de identidad (1966; Marks of Identity) is the first of a trilogy that presents a fictionalized account of Goytisolo’s life and celebrates the Moorish roots of contemporary Spain. Reivindicación del Conde don Julián (1970; Count Julian), which is considered his masterwork, experiments with transforming the Spanish language, seen…

  • Sénat (French government)

    France: Parliamentary composition and functions: In 2012 the Senate was composed of 348 senators indirectly elected for six years by a collège électoral consisting mainly of municipal councillors in each département, one of the administrative units into which France is divided. The parliament retains its dual function of legislation and control over the…

  • Senat (Czech government)

    Czech Republic: Constitutional framework: …for four-year terms) and a Senate (elected on a district basis for six-year terms).

  • Senate (French government)

    France: Parliamentary composition and functions: In 2012 the Senate was composed of 348 senators indirectly elected for six years by a collège électoral consisting mainly of municipal councillors in each département, one of the administrative units into which France is divided. The parliament retains its dual function of legislation and control over the…

  • Senate (Russian history)

    Russia: Government administration under Catherine: The Senate supervised all branches of administration, regulating the orderly flow of business. The Senate was also involved—albeit indirectly—in coordination, mainly because its procurator general, Prince Aleksandr A. Vyazemsky, held the office for a quarter of a century with the full trust of the empress. At…

  • Senate (Czech government)

    Czech Republic: Constitutional framework: …for four-year terms) and a Senate (elected on a district basis for six-year terms).

  • Senate (Italian government)

    Italy: The legislature: …Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. All members of the Chamber of Deputies (the lower house) are popularly elected via a system of proportional representation, which serves to benefit minor parties. Most members of the Senate (the higher chamber) are elected in the same manner, but the Senate also includes…

  • Senate (French government [1958– ])

    bicameral system: Bicameral systems versus unicameral systems: …of the Republic (renamed the Senate in 1958 on the foundation of the Fifth Republic) was practically impotent, the governments operated, in effect, on the unicameral principle. A unitary system of government does not imply a unicameral legislature. Modern constitutional states often retain two chambers even though bicameralism has declined.

  • Senate (Egyptian government)

    Egypt: Constitutional framework: …chamber of the legislature, the Senate, was introduced through constitutional amendments that were passed in 2019 and was slated to come into effect the following year. Senators will serve five-year terms, with two-thirds elected directly and another one-third appointed by the president. The Senate will be tasked primarily with providing…

  • Senate (Australian government)

    Australia: Constitutional framework: The Senate consists of 76 members; each state has 12 senators, and there are two senators each from the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory. Senators representing the states serve six-year terms, while territorial senators serve three-year terms. Government ministers are drawn from both the House…

  • Senate (Kazakhstan government)

    Kazakhstan: Government: …bicameral legislature consisting of a Senate and an Assembly (Mazhilis). Working jointly, the two chambers have the authority to amend the constitution, approve the budget, ratify treaties, and declare war; each chamber also has exclusive powers. Legislators serve four-year terms. Two members of the Senate are elected from each oblast…

  • Senate (Paraguayan government)

    Paraguay: Constitutional framework: …Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. All its members are elected by popular vote for five-year terms (with the exception of former presidents, who are appointed senators for life, though they are not entitled to vote) on the same date that the presidential elections are held.

  • Senate (Pakistan government)

    Pakistan: Constitutional framework: The Senate has 100 members, each serving a six-year term. A portion of the senators are chosen by the provincial assemblies; others are appointed. One-third of the senators relinquish their seats every two years.

  • Senate (Roman history)

    Senate, in ancient Rome, the governing and advisory council that proved to be the most permanent element in the Roman constitution. Under the early monarchy the Senate developed as an advisory council; in 509 bc it contained 300 members, and a distinction existed within it between the heads of the

  • Senate (Spanish government)

    Spain: Constitutional framework: …and an upper chamber, the Senate (Senado). As with most legislatures in parliamentary systems, more power is vested in the lower chamber. The Congress of Deputies has 350 members, who are elected to four-year terms by universal suffrage. The Senate is described in the constitution as the “chamber of territorial…

  • Senate (Canadian government)

    Parliament of Canada: Senate: The Senate has 105 members, or senators, who are appointed and hold their seat until age 75, at which point they must retire. Its purpose is to consider and revise legislation (acting as a committee of “sober second thought”), investigate national issues, and provide…

  • Senate (Malaysian government)

    Malaysia: Constitutional framework: …federal legislature, consisting of the Senate (Dewan Negara) as the upper house and the House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) as the lower. The paramount ruler appoints a prime minister from among the members of the House of Representatives. On the advice of the prime minister, the monarch then appoints the…

  • Senate (Eswatini government)

    Eswatini: Government: The Senate has 30 members, of whom 10 are elected by the House of Assembly and 20 are appointed by the king. The general electorate consists of all citizens over the age of 18 grouped into 55 constituencies (tinkhundla). Each tinkhundla elects one member to the…

  • Senate (Gabonese government)

    Gabon: Constitutional framework: …an upper legislative house (Senate) for the first time in the history of the republic, and the first elections to the Senate (indirect by local councils) were held in early 1997. A constitutional amendment passed by a PDG-dominated Assembly in April 1997 designated that the president of the Senate…

  • Senate Park Commission (United States history)

    Daniel Burnham: Urban planner: …Park Commission, also called the McMillan Commission (for Michigan’s U.S. Sen. James McMillan, who was chairman of the Senate Committee on the District of Columbia). Burnham invited his friend McKim and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. (son of the famous landscape architect with whom Burnham had worked on the fair), to…

  • Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities (United States history)

    COINTELPRO: Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, commonly referred to as the “Church Committee,” for its chairman, Senator Frank Church of Idaho. However, millions of pages of documents remain unreleased, and many released documents are heavily censored. In its final report,…

  • Senate Square (square, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Nicholas I: Ascent to the throne: …in military formation to the Senate Square—now the Decembrist Square—in the heart of the capital. Although the rebellion had failed by nightfall, it meant that Nicholas I ascended the throne over the bodies of some of his subjects and in actual combat with the dreaded revolution.

  • Senate, Speaker of the (Canadian government official)

    Parliament of Canada: Speakers: …the House of Commons and Speaker of the Senate are two important figures who preside over their chambers and enforce procedure and discipline in a nonpartisan manner. The Senate Speaker is appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister. The House Speaker was at one time…

  • Senato (Italian government)

    Italy: The legislature: …Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. All members of the Chamber of Deputies (the lower house) are popularly elected via a system of proportional representation, which serves to benefit minor parties. Most members of the Senate (the higher chamber) are elected in the same manner, but the Senate also includes…

  • Senatorio, Palazzo (square, Rome, Italy)

    Rome: The Capitoline: The Palazzo Senatorio (“Senate Palace”) incorporates remains of the facade of the Tabularium, a state records office constructed in 78 bce and one of the first buildings to use concrete vaulting and employ the arch with the Classical architectural orders. After a popular uprising in 1143…

  • Senators (American baseball team)

    Texas Rangers, American professional baseball team based in Arlington, Texas, that plays in the American League (AL). The Rangers began play in 1961 as the Washington (D.C.) Senators and have won two AL pennants (2010 and 2011). The Senators finished in last place or tied for last place in each of

  • Senators (American baseball team)

    Minnesota Twins, American professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, that plays in the American League (AL). The Twins originally played in Washington, D.C. (1901–60), and were known as the Senators before relocating to Minneapolis in 1961. The franchise has won three World Series

  • senatus consulta (law history)

    ancient Rome: The Senate: …termed “the Senate’s advice” (senatus consultum). These advisory decrees were directed to a magistrate or the Roman people. In most instances, they were either implemented by a magistrate or submitted by him to the people for enactment into law.

  • senatus consultum (law history)

    ancient Rome: The Senate: …termed “the Senate’s advice” (senatus consultum). These advisory decrees were directed to a magistrate or the Roman people. In most instances, they were either implemented by a magistrate or submitted by him to the people for enactment into law.

  • Senatusconsultum de Bacchanalibus (document)

    epigraphy: Ancient Rome: …epigraphic texts of significance: the Senatusconsultum de Bacchanalibus, on a bronze tablet found in 1640 in Bruttium (the “toe” of Italy) and now in Vienna, is a consular edict on Senate authority, regulating Dionysiac outbursts in Italy in 186 bce; pieces of the laws Lex Acilia Repetundarum (123 bce) and…

  • Senbad-nameh (Arabic text)

    Judaism: Jewish contributions to diffusion of folktales: So too the famous Senbād-nāmeh (“Fables of Sinbad”)—one of the sources, incidentally, of Boccaccio’s Decameron—was rendered from Arabic into Hebrew and then into Latin. The renowned romance of Barlaam and Josaphat—a Christian adaptation of tales about the Buddha—found its Jewish counterpart in a compilation titled The Prince and the…

  • Senchaku hongan nembutsu-shu (work by Honen)

    Hōnen: Life and teachings: In his main work, the Senchaku hongan nembutsu-shū (“Collection on the Choice of the Nembutsu of the Original Vow”), or Senchaku-shū, written in 1198, Hōnen classified all the teachings of Buddhism under two headings: Shōdō (Sacred Way) and Jōdo (Pure Land). According to him, the Buddha, confident of man’s inner…

  • Senchaku-shu (work by Honen)

    Hōnen: Life and teachings: In his main work, the Senchaku hongan nembutsu-shū (“Collection on the Choice of the Nembutsu of the Original Vow”), or Senchaku-shū, written in 1198, Hōnen classified all the teachings of Buddhism under two headings: Shōdō (Sacred Way) and Jōdo (Pure Land). According to him, the Buddha, confident of man’s inner…

  • Send a Woman When the Devil Fails (film by Allégret [1957])

    Alain Delon: title Send a Woman When the Devil Fails), and he had his first starring role in the romance Christine (1958), opposite Romy Schneider. Delon quickly won international attention in Plein soleil (1960; “Bright Sun”; U.S. title Purple Noon), based on Patricia Highsmith’s 1955 novel The Talented…

  • Send Me No Flowers (film by Jewison [1964])

    Norman Jewison: …of It All (1963) and Send Me No Flowers (1964). After finagling out of the Universal deal, Jewison assumed control of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s (MGM’s) The Cincinnati Kid (1965), a poker film starring Steve McQueen. He then turned to more politically charged material with The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming

  • Sendai (Miyagi prefecture, Japan)

    Sendai, city and capital, Miyagi ken (prefecture), northern Honshu, Japan. It is situated inland of the western Pacific Ocean, the central districts lying between the Nanakita and Hirose rivers. The city is bounded to the south by the Natori River, south of which is the city of Natori; to the

  • Sendai (Kagoshima prefecture, Japan)

    Sendai, city, Kagoshima ken (prefecture), southwestern Kyushu, Japan, on the lower Sendai River. A communications centre since early historic times, it was a small castle town and naval port during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867). With the opening of the Kagoshima Line (railway) in the late 19th

  • Sendai Mediatheque (building, Sendai, Japan)

    Toyo Ito: …accounts, Ito’s masterpiece was the Sendai (Japan) Mediatheque (completed 2001), a multipurpose cultural centre whose design was inspired by floating seaweed. From the outside the approximately 22,000-square-metre (237,000-square-foot) transparent structure resembled a gigantic aquarium; the building’s seven floors were supported by slanting columns that looked like strands of seaweed swaying…

  • Sendai virus (infectious agent)

    Sendai virus, (genus Respirovirus), infectious agent of the genus Respirovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Discovered in Sendai, Japan, the Sendai virus is naturally found in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, and pigs and primarily affects the respiratory system. The virus is highly contagious

  • Sendak, Maurice (American artist)

    Maurice Sendak, American artist and writer best known for his illustrated children’s books. Sendak was the son of Polish immigrants and received his formal art training at the Art Students League of New York. While a student there, he drew backgrounds for All-American Comics and did window displays

  • Sendak, Maurice Bernard (American artist)

    Maurice Sendak, American artist and writer best known for his illustrated children’s books. Sendak was the son of Polish immigrants and received his formal art training at the Art Students League of New York. While a student there, he drew backgrounds for All-American Comics and did window displays

  • Sender, Ramón José (Spanish novelist)

    Ramón José Sender, Spanish novelist, essayist, and educator whose works deal with Spanish history and social issues. After studying at the University of Madrid, Sender became a lifelong Republican and was at one time imprisoned for political activities. In the early 1920s he served with the Spanish

  • Senderista (Peruvian revolutionary)

    Shining Path: …and his followers, known as Senderistas, sought to restore the “pure” ideology of Mao Zedong and adopted China’s Cultural Revolution as a model for their own revolutionary movement. The organization’s other models were Stalinist Russia and the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia. Envisioning revolution as a long

  • Sendero Luminoso (Peruvian revolutionary organization)

    Shining Path, Peruvian revolutionary organization that endorsed Maoism and employed guerrilla tactics and violent terrorism. The Shining Path was founded in 1970 in a multiple split in the Communist Party of Peru. It took its name from the maxim of the founder of Peru’s first communist party, José

  • Sendic, Raúl (Uruguayan rebel)

    Raúl Sendic, Uruguayan rebel leader, founder of the leftist Tupamaro National Liberation Front (1963), a guerrilla movement that waged a relentless battle against the police and the army from 1967 to 1972. Sendic quit law school in the late 1950s to join the Socialist Party, but when the party was

  • Sendler, Irena (Polish social worker)

    Irena Sendler, (Irena Krzyzanowska), Polish social worker (born February 15, 1910, Otwock, Russian Empire [now in Poland]—died May 12, 2008, Warsaw, Pol.), rescued some 2,500 Jewish children from the Warsaw ghetto during World War II. Trained as a social worker, Sendler became (1942) a member of

  • sendratari (drama)

    Indonesia: Theatre and dance: The sendratari, for example, is essentially an updated form of traditional dance-drama that combines elements of local theatrical genres (including puppet theatre) with movements, staging, and costumes derived from contemporary styles; in Java, the form is associated with the Prambanan Temple.

  • Senebier, Jean (Swiss botanist)

    Jean Senebier, Swiss botanist and naturalist who demonstrated that green plants consume carbon dioxide and release oxygen under the influence of light. The son of a wealthy merchant, Senebier studied theology and was ordained a minister in 1765. In 1769 he became pastor of a church in Chancy,

  • Seneca (people)

    Seneca, North American Indians of the Iroquoian linguistic group who lived in what is now western New York state and eastern Ohio. They were the largest of the original five nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy, in which they were represented by eight chiefs. In the autumn small

  • Seneca (county, New York, United States)

    Seneca, county, central New York state, U.S., lying between Cayuga Lake to the east and Seneca Lake to the west, the latter the largest and deepest of the Finger Lakes. Lowlands in the north that are forested with oak and hickory rise to a plateau region in the south that contains maple, birch, and

  • Seneca (Roman philosopher and statesman [4 BCE – 65 CE])

    Seneca, Roman philosopher, statesman, orator, and tragedian. He was Rome’s leading intellectual figure in the mid-1st century ce and was virtual ruler with his friends of the Roman world between 54 and 62, during the first phase of the emperor Nero’s reign. Seneca was the second son of a wealthy

  • Seneca Falls (New York, United States)

    Seneca Falls, village and town (township), Seneca county, west-central New York, U.S. The village lies in the Finger Lakes district on the Seneca River (connecting Seneca and Cayuga lakes), once the site of 50-foot (15-m) falls. Hydroelectric power is generated locally, and there are important

  • Seneca Falls Convention (United States history)

    Seneca Falls Convention, assembly held on July 19–20, 1848, at Seneca Falls, New York, that launched the woman suffrage movement in the United States. Seneca Falls was the home of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who, along with Lucretia Mott, conceived and directed the convention. The two feminist leaders

  • Seneca Lake (lake, New York, United States)

    Finger Lakes: Seneca Lake is the largest (67 square miles [174 square km]) and deepest.

  • Seneca the Elder (Roman author)

    Lucius Annaeus Seneca, author of a Latin work on declamation, a form of rhetorical exercise. Only about half of his book, Oratorum sententiae divisiones colores (“Sentences, Divisions, and Colors of the Orators and Rhetoricians”) survives; a 4th-century epitome preserves some of the rest, including

  • Seneca the Younger (Roman philosopher and statesman [4 BCE – 65 CE])

    Seneca, Roman philosopher, statesman, orator, and tragedian. He was Rome’s leading intellectual figure in the mid-1st century ce and was virtual ruler with his friends of the Roman world between 54 and 62, during the first phase of the emperor Nero’s reign. Seneca was the second son of a wealthy

  • Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (Roman author)

    Lucius Annaeus Seneca, author of a Latin work on declamation, a form of rhetorical exercise. Only about half of his book, Oratorum sententiae divisiones colores (“Sentences, Divisions, and Colors of the Orators and Rhetoricians”) survives; a 4th-century epitome preserves some of the rest, including

  • Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (Roman philosopher and statesman [4 BCE – 65 CE])

    Seneca, Roman philosopher, statesman, orator, and tragedian. He was Rome’s leading intellectual figure in the mid-1st century ce and was virtual ruler with his friends of the Roman world between 54 and 62, during the first phase of the emperor Nero’s reign. Seneca was the second son of a wealthy

  • Senecan tragedy (drama)

    Senecan tragedy, body of nine closet dramas (i.e., plays intended to be read rather than performed), written in blank verse by the Roman Stoic philosopher Seneca in the 1st century ad. Rediscovered by Italian humanists in the mid-16th century, they became the models for the revival of tragedy on

  • sénéchal (French feudal official)

    Seneschal, in medieval and early modern France, a steward or principal administrator in a royal or noble household. As time went on, the office declined in importance and was often equivalent to that of a bailiff (q.v.); the office and title persisted until the French Revolution. In Merovingian

  • Senecio (plant)

    Groundsel, any of about 1,200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs, shrubs, trees, and climbers constituting the genus Senecio of the family Asteraceae, distributed throughout the world. Some species are cultivated as border plants or houseplants, and many species contain alkaloids that

  • Senecio aureus (plant)

    groundsel: cineraria); and golden ragwort (S. aureus) are cultivated as border plants. German ivy (S. mikanoides) and florist’s cineraria (S. cruentus) are popular houseplants. Some botanists now prefer to divide this large and diverse genus into a number of segregated genera.

  • Senecio cineraria (plant)

    cineraria: …types: the garden species, especially dusty miller (S. cineraria); and the greenhouse varieties of S. cruentus, commonly referred to simply as cinerarias.

  • Senecio cruentus (plant)

    groundsel: mikanoides) and florist’s cineraria (S. cruentus) are popular houseplants. Some botanists now prefer to divide this large and diverse genus into a number of segregated genera.

  • Senecio jacobaea (plant)

    groundsel: Ragwort, or tansy ragwort (S. jacobaea); cineraria, or dusty miller (S. cineraria); and golden ragwort (S. aureus) are cultivated as border plants. German ivy (S. mikanoides) and florist’s cineraria (S. cruentus) are popular houseplants. Some botanists now prefer to divide this large and diverse

  • Senecio macroglossus (plant)

    waxplant: Major species: …and are sometimes known as wax vines. Porcelain flower (Hoya carnosa) has several cultivated varieties with white to rosy-pink flowers; one such variety, the Hindu rope vine, has twisted distorted leaves that may be variegated cream, yellow, and pink. The miniature waxplant (H. lanceolata bella) is more compact and has…

  • Senecio mikanoides (plant)

    groundsel: German ivy (S. mikanoides) and florist’s cineraria (S. cruentus) are popular houseplants. Some botanists now prefer to divide this large and diverse genus into a number of segregated genera.

  • Senefelder, Alois (German lithographer)

    Alois Senefelder, German inventor of lithography. The son of an actor at the Theatre Royal in Prague, Senefelder was unable to continue his studies at the University of Ingolstadt after his father’s death and thus tried to support himself as a performer and author, but without success. He learned

  • Senefelder, Aloys (German lithographer)

    Alois Senefelder, German inventor of lithography. The son of an actor at the Theatre Royal in Prague, Senefelder was unable to continue his studies at the University of Ingolstadt after his father’s death and thus tried to support himself as a performer and author, but without success. He learned

  • Senefelder, Johann Nepomuk Franz Alois (German lithographer)

    Alois Senefelder, German inventor of lithography. The son of an actor at the Theatre Royal in Prague, Senefelder was unable to continue his studies at the University of Ingolstadt after his father’s death and thus tried to support himself as a performer and author, but without success. He learned

  • Senegal

    Senegal, country in western Africa. Located at the westernmost point of the continent and served by multiple air and maritime travel routes, Senegal is known as the “Gateway to Africa.” The country lies at an ecological boundary where semiarid grassland, oceanfront, and tropical rainforest

  • Senegal bichir (fish)

    bichir: At least one species, the Senegal or gray bichir (P. senegalus), is capable of using its pectoral fins to propel itself across land for short distances—an adaptation that may have evolved to help the species move between temporary ponds that were drying up or hunt terrestrial insects.

  • senegal coucal (bird)

    coucal: The senegal coucal (C. senegalensis), 40 cm (16 inches) long, is brown above with black crown and white underparts. It is found in tropical Africa, as is a similar species, C. superciliosus, the white-browed coucal.

  • senegal dove (bird)

    Laughing dove, (Streptopelia senegalensis), bird of the pigeon family, Columbidae (order Columbiformes), a native of African and southwest Asian scrublands that has been successfully introduced into Australia. The reddish-brown bird has blue markings on its wings, a white edge on its long tail,

  • Sénégal River (river, Africa)

    Sénégal River, river of western Africa, with a length of 1,020 miles (1,641 km). Its drainage basin encompasses some 174,000 square miles (450,000 square km). Two of the river’s three headstreams rise in the Fouta Djallon highlands in Guinea, after which it flows to the northwest and then to the

  • Sénégal Valley (valley, Africa)

    Sénégal River: Climate: The Sénégal valley proper receives 10 to 30 inches (250 to 760 mm) of precipitation annually, from late May to mid-October, with mean maximum temperatures of about 100 °F (low 40s C) in April, and mean minimum temperatures in the low 60s F (high 10s C)…

  • Senegal Wolof language

    Wolof language: …two main variants of Wolof: Senegal Wolof, which is the standard form of the language, and Gambian Wolof, which is spoken along with Senegal Wolof by more than 160,000 people in The Gambia. Wolof is a national language of Senegal, where it is spoken by approximately 4.6 million people as…

  • Senegal, flag of

    vertically striped green-yellow-red national flag with a central green star. It has a width-to-length ratio of approximately 2 to 3.Senegal was one of the oldest French colonies in Africa, and it was a place where leading intellectuals such as Léopold Senghor hoped to combine both European and

  • Senegal, history of

    Senegal: History: This discussion focuses on the history of Senegal since European contact. For a more complete treatment of the country in its regional context, see western Africa, history of.

  • Senegal-Mauritanian Basin (region, Africa)

    Senegal: Relief: …the depression known as the Senegal-Mauritanian Basin. Elevations of more than about 330 feet (100 metres) are found only on the Cape Verde Peninsula and in the southeast of the country. The country as a whole falls into three structural divisions: the Cape Verde headland, which forms the western extremity…

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