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  • sensing element (electronics)

    automation: Modern developments: Advances in sensor technology have provided a vast array of measuring devices that can be used as components in automatic feedback control systems. These devices include highly sensitive electromechanical probes, scanning laser beams, electrical field techniques, and machine vision. Some of these sensor systems require computer technology…

  • sensitive dependence on initial conditions (mathematics and mechanics)

    Edward Lorenz: …a nonlinear phenomenon known as sensitive dependence on initial conditions (see chaos theory). He constructed a weather model showing that almost any two nearby starting points, indicating the current weather, will quickly diverge trajectories and will quite frequently end up in different “lobes,” which correspond to calm or stormy weather.…

  • Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (geological instrument)

    Earth sciences: Radiometric dating: The SHRIMP (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe) enables the accurate determination of the uranium-lead age of the mineral zircon, and this has revolutionized the understanding of the isotopic age of formation of zircon-bearing igneous granitic rocks. Another technological development is the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass…

  • sensitive plant (botany)

    Sensitive plant, (Mimosa pudica), plant in the pea family (Fabaceae) that responds to touch and other stimulation by rapidly closing its leaves and drooping. Native to South and Central America, the plant is a widespread weed in tropical regions and has naturalized elsewhere in warm areas. It is

  • sensitivity (photography)

    speed: …(3) the sensitivity of the film to light.

  • sensitivity (of an instrument)

    chromatography: Detector characteristics: A second is the sensitivity, which is the change in signal intensity per unit change in the amount of solute. The third is the linear range—i.e., the range of solute amount where the signal intensity is directly proportional to the amount of solute; doubling the amount doubles the signal…

  • sensitivity (medical statistics)

    diagnosis: Laboratory tests: …diagnostic aid depends on its sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity is the measure of the percentage of individuals with the disease who have a positive test result (i.e., people with the disease who are correctly identified by the procedure), and specificity is the measure of the percentage of people without the…

  • sensitivity (electronics)

    radio technology: Concepts of selectivity and sensitivity: Receiver sensitivity is the ability of a receiver to pick up weak signals. Though a communication receiver should always have a high sensitivity, there is a maximum determined by the noise generated inside the receiver itself. Little value is gained by increasing sensitivity if noise at…

  • sensitivity analysis (industrial engineering)

    operations research: Testing the model and the solution: …to evaluate the solution by “sensitivity analysis,” a measurement of the extent to which estimates used in the solution would have to be in error before the proposed solution performs less satisfactorily than the alternative decision procedure.

  • sensitivity to initial conditions (mathematics and mechanics)

    Edward Lorenz: …a nonlinear phenomenon known as sensitive dependence on initial conditions (see chaos theory). He constructed a weather model showing that almost any two nearby starting points, indicating the current weather, will quickly diverge trajectories and will quite frequently end up in different “lobes,” which correspond to calm or stormy weather.…

  • sensitivity training

    Sensitivity training, psychological technique in which intensive group discussion and interaction are used to increase individual awareness of self and others; it is practiced in a variety of forms under such names as T-group, encounter group, human relations, and group-dynamics training. The

  • sensitivity, period of (education)

    pedagogy: Maturation and readiness theories: …Montessori claimed that “periods of sensitivity,” corresponding to certain ages, exist when a child’s interest and mental capacity are best suited to acquiring knowledge of such things as textures and colours, tidiness, and language.

  • sensitization (medicine)

    human disease: Bacterial diseases: …or (3) the induction of sensitivity within the host to antigenic properties of the bacterial organism (as in tuberculosis, after sensitization to Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

  • sensitization (physics)

    luminescence: Spontaneous and stimulated emission: …mechanism is referred to as sensitization: a calcium carbonate phosphor (rhombohedral CaCO3/Mn), for example, emits orange light under cathode-ray irradiation but is not excited by the 254-nanometre emission of mercury atoms, whereas this emission produces the same orange light with calcium carbonate (rhombohedral CaCO3) activated by manganese and lead ions.…

  • sensitometry (chemistry)

    technology of photography: Sensitometry and speed: The sensitivity or speed of a film determines how much light it needs to produce a given amount of silver on development. Sensitometry is the science of measuring this sensitivity, which is determined by giving the material a series of graduated exposures…

  • Sensō Temple (temple, Tokyo, Japan)

    Tokyo-Yokohama Metropolitan Area: The premodern period: The ancient Sensō Temple (popularly called the Asakusa Kannon), east of Ueno station and near the Sumida, dates from perhaps the late 7th century (although nearly all its structures are postwar). The name Edo means something like “estuary” or “inlet.” The clan in possession of the area…

  • sensor (electronics)

    automation: Modern developments: Advances in sensor technology have provided a vast array of measuring devices that can be used as components in automatic feedback control systems. These devices include highly sensitive electromechanical probes, scanning laser beams, electrical field techniques, and machine vision. Some of these sensor systems require computer technology…

  • Sensorama (device)

    virtual reality: Early work: ” During the work on Sensorama, he also designed the Telesphere Mask, a head-mounted “stereoscopic 3-D TV display” that he patented in 1960. Although Heilig was unsuccessful in his efforts to market Sensorama, in the mid-1960s he extended the idea to a multiviewer theatre concept patented as the Experience Theater…

  • sensorimotor skill

    psychomotor learning: Age: …differences in human performance on psychomotor apparatus are associated with chronological age. Scores obtained from nearly all the devices mentioned above are sensitive to age differences. Researchers generally report a rapid increase in psychomotor proficiency from about the age of five years to the end of the second decade, followed…

  • sensorimotor stage (psychology)

    human behaviour: Piaget’s theory: …by Piaget are: (1) the sensorimotor stage from birth to 2 years, (2) the preoperational stage from 2 to 7 years, (3) the concrete-operational stage from 7 to 12 years, and (4) the stage of formal operations that characterizes the adolescent and the adult. One of Piaget’s fundamental assumptions is…

  • sensorineural deafness (hearing disorder)

    deaf-blindness: Hearing and visual impairment: A sensorineural hearing loss is caused by damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. A mixed hearing loss is diagnosed when an individual has both a conductive and a sensorineural hearing loss. Cortical deafness is caused by damage to the auditory cortex of the…

  • sensorineural hearing loss (hearing disorder)

    deaf-blindness: Hearing and visual impairment: A sensorineural hearing loss is caused by damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. A mixed hearing loss is diagnosed when an individual has both a conductive and a sensorineural hearing loss. Cortical deafness is caused by damage to the auditory cortex of the…

  • sensorineural impairment (hearing disorder)

    deaf-blindness: Hearing and visual impairment: A sensorineural hearing loss is caused by damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. A mixed hearing loss is diagnosed when an individual has both a conductive and a sensorineural hearing loss. Cortical deafness is caused by damage to the auditory cortex of the…

  • sensory cell (anatomy)

    circulatory system: Control of heartbeat and circulation: Sensory receptors in the walls of blood vessels register blood pressure. They are found in the aorta, carotid arteries, pulmonary artery, capillaries in the adrenal gland, and the tissues of the heart itself. Impulses from the receptors travel to the medulla of the brain, from…

  • sensory deprivation

    motivation: Applications in society: In many cultures, deprivation cannot be used so readily with human beings as it can be with other animals, although there are many human examples. Thus, some success has been reported in effecting desired behaviour in the classroom by depriving children of some of their recess time when…

  • sensory facilitation (physiology)

    illusion: Intersensory facilitation and rivalry: Stimulation through one sense may enhance the function of another. Seeing a boat rocked by waves may activate the sense of balance in an observer on a pier to the point at which it causes seasickness. A painting of an Arctic…

  • sensory ganglion (physiology)

    human nervous system: The peripheral nervous system: …may be classified as either sensory or motor. Sensory ganglia are oval swellings located on the dorsal roots of spinal nerves and on the roots of certain cranial nerves. The sensory neurons making up these ganglia are unipolar. Shaped much like a golf ball on a tee, they have round…

  • sensory hair (biology)

    mechanoreception: The sense of touch: …with such specialized structures as tactile hairs. The skin area served by one nerve fibre (or sensory unit) is called a receptive field, although such fields overlap considerably. Particularly sensitive, exposed body parts are sometimes called organs of touch—e.g., the tentacles of the octopus, the beak of the sandpiper, the…

  • sensory horn (anatomy)

    nerve: …the posterior gray column (dorsal horn) of the cord or ascend to nuclei in the lower part of the brain. Immediately lateral to the spinal ganglia the two roots unite into a common nerve trunk, which includes both sensory and motor fibres; the branches of this trunk distribute both…

  • sensory illusion (perception)

    illusion: Sensory illusions: Many sensory illusions may be described as the aftereffects of the stimulation, or overstimulation, of the senses. Sensitivity in any of the senses may be measured as the just-perceptible intensity (threshold, or limen) of the appropriate stimulus. The smallest detectable stimulus is called…

  • sensory integration

    Anna Jean Ayres: … led to the development of sensory integration theory, which attempts to explain the role of sensations, such as touch, movement, sight, and sound, in human behaviour. Children with sensory integration problems may exhibit insecurity or fear of movement and, consequently, can have difficulty with ordinary activities such as play and…

  • sensory migraine aura (pathology)

    migraine: Migraine with aura: …of migraine aura is a sensory aura. This usually starts as tingling and numbness in the hand, which then spreads up the arm and jumps to the face. In some cases it may start in the face or elsewhere. Other sensory migraine auras may cause language disturbances, one-sided weakness, or…

  • sensory nerve fibre (anatomy)

    nerve: …divided into two categories, namely, sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). The fibres of these categories and their subdivisions constitute the functional components of the nerves. The combinations of such components vary in the individual cranial nerves; in the spinal nerves they are more uniform.

  • sensory nerve-cell (anatomy)

    circulatory system: Control of heartbeat and circulation: Sensory receptors in the walls of blood vessels register blood pressure. They are found in the aorta, carotid arteries, pulmonary artery, capillaries in the adrenal gland, and the tissues of the heart itself. Impulses from the receptors travel to the medulla of the brain, from…

  • sensory neuron (anatomy)

    circulatory system: Control of heartbeat and circulation: Sensory receptors in the walls of blood vessels register blood pressure. They are found in the aorta, carotid arteries, pulmonary artery, capillaries in the adrenal gland, and the tissues of the heart itself. Impulses from the receptors travel to the medulla of the brain, from…

  • sensory organ (anatomy)

    nervous system: Simple bilateral systems: Sensory organs also are present and include ciliated pits and grooves, auricles, the frontal organ, statocyst, and eyes. The ciliated pits and grooves contain chemical receptors, or chemoreceptors, which permit the animal to detect food. The statocyst is responsible for balance and such reactions as…

  • sensory reception

    Senses, means by which animals detect and respond to stimuli in their internal and external environments. The senses of animals are most usefully described in terms of the kind of physical energy, or modality, involved. There are four main modalities: the light senses (photoreception; i.e.,

  • sensory reception, human

    Human sensory reception, means by which humans react to changes in external and internal environments. Ancient philosophers called the human senses “the windows of the soul,” and Aristotle described at least five senses—sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Aristotle’s influence has been so

  • sensory receptor (nerve ending)

    Receptor, molecule, generally a protein, that receives signals for a cell. Small molecules, such as hormones outside the cell or second messengers inside the cell, bind tightly and specifically to their receptors. Binding is a critical element in effecting a cellular response to a signal and is

  • sensory rivalry (physiology)

    illusion: Intersensory facilitation and rivalry: Sensory rivalry, in which one stimulus inhibits the perception of another, may result from a conflict of cues if sensory information is ambiguous or discrepant, as in the tilted-room experiment discussed above, during which the visual sense conflicts with cues from the sense of equilibrium.…

  • sensory root, dorsal (anatomy)

    ganglion: The dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of afferent nerve fibres (those carrying impulses toward the central nervous system); efferent neurons (carrying motor impulses away from the central nervous system) are present in the ventral root ganglia.

  • sensory strabismus (pathology)

    strabismus: …both eyes can lead to sensory strabismus, in which the eye with the poorest vision drifts slightly over time. In children, a common contributor to acquired strabismus is farsightedness (hyperopia), which, when severe enough, can secondarily cause the eyes to cross as the child tries to focus on an object…

  • sensory system

    Senses, means by which animals detect and respond to stimuli in their internal and external environments. The senses of animals are most usefully described in terms of the kind of physical energy, or modality, involved. There are four main modalities: the light senses (photoreception; i.e.,

  • sensory tract (biology)

    human nervous system: The spinal cord: The white matter forming the ascending and descending spinal tracts is grouped in three paired funiculi, or sectors: the dorsal or posterior funiculi, lying between the dorsal horns; the lateral funiculi, lying on each side of the spinal cord between the dorsal-root entry zones and the emergence of the ventral…

  • Sensual World, The (album by Bush)

    Kate Bush: With The Sensual World (1989) and The Red Shoes (1993), Bush continued to draw out bold emotions and alluring pop melodies from songs that were elaborately constructed and sometimes inspired by erudite sources. (The title track of the former record, for instance, is a reimagining of…

  • Sensuntepeque (El Salvador)

    Sensuntepeque, city, north-central El Salvador. Sensuntepeque is located in the hills south of the Lempa River valley at an elevation of 3,000 feet (900 metres). A major producer of indigo in colonial times, Sensuntepeque has become an agricultural centre for grain, henequen (a fibre for twine),

  • Sent for You Yesterday (novel by Wideman)

    John Edgar Wideman: …novels, Hiding Place (1981) and Sent for You Yesterday (1983), and a collection of short stories, Damballah (1981). In Brothers and Keepers (1984), his first nonfiction book, he contemplated the role of the black intellectual by studying his relationship with his brother, who was serving a life sentence in prison.

  • Sentani, Lake (lake, New Guinea)

    Oceanic art and architecture: Humboldt Bay and Lake Sentani: The area around Humboldt Bay and Lake Sentani is one of intensive stylistic interaction. A striking example of this interaction can be seen in the diffusion, in the early 19th century, of a pyramidal type of ceremonial house from the eastern coast to…

  • sentence (music)

    Period, in music, a unit of melodic organization made up of two balanced phrases in succession; the first phrase, called the antecedent, comes to a point of partial completeness; it is balanced by the consequent, a phrase of the same length that concludes with a sense of greater completeness. The

  • sentence (logic)

    metalogic: Syntax and semantics: …as forming the simple (atomic) sentences, and (3) a set of inductive clauses—inductive inasmuch as they stipulate that natural combinations of given sentences formed by such logical connectives as the disjunction “or,” which is symbolized “∨”; “not,” symbolized “~”; and “for all ,” symbolized “(?),” are again sentences. [“(?)” is…

  • sentence (grammar)

    Indian philosophy: Hermeneutics and semantics: …further Prabhakara thesis that the sentence forms the unit of meaningful discourse, that a word is never used by itself to express a single unrelated idea, and that a sentence signifies a relational complex that is not a mere juxtaposition of word meanings. Prabhakara’s theory of language learning follows these…

  • sentence (law)

    Sentence, in law, formal judgment of a convicted defendant in a criminal case setting the punishment to be meted out. In civil cases the terms decision, award, and judgment are used. Various types of sentences can be given. In cumulative sentences a defendant convicted on several counts receives a

  • sentence bargaining (law)

    plea bargaining: Types of plea bargains: Sentence bargaining involves assurances of lighter or alternative sentences in return for a defendant’s pleading guilty. One of the most visible forms of sentence bargaining occurs when defendants plead guilty to murder in order to avoid the death penalty. Sentence bargains also occur in less-serious…

  • Sentence, The (work by Kafka)

    Franz Kafka: Works: Thus, in The Judgment a son unquestioningly commits suicide at the behest of his aged father. In The Metamorphosis the son, Gregor Samsa, wakes up to find himself transformed into a monstrous and repulsive insect; he slowly dies, not only because of his family’s shame and its…

  • sentence-completion test (psychology)

    personality assessment: Sentence-completion techniques: The sentence-comple-tion technique may be considered a logical extension of word-association methods. In administering a sentence-completion test, the evaluator presents the subject with a series of partial sentences that he is asked to finish in his own words (e.g., “I feel upset when…

  • Sentences (work by Lombard)

    St. Albertus Magnus: …two years on Peter Lombard’s Sentences, the theological textbook of the medieval universities. In 1245 he was graduated master in the theological faculty and obtained the Dominican chair “for foreigners.”

  • Sentencia de Guadalupe (Spanish history)

    Spain: Aragon and Catalonia: …problem by a compromise, the Sentencia de Guadalupe, which effectively abolished serfdom and the more-oppressive feudal obligations of the peasants in return for monetary payments to the lords. Otherwise, the political and legal privileges of the rural nobility and the urban aristocracy were left intact. Effectively, therefore, Ferdinand made no…

  • Sentencia-Estatuto (work by Sarmiento)

    converso: Pedro Sarmiento, wrote the anti-Semitic Sentencia-Estatuto, which prohibited conversos from holding public or ecclesiastical offices and from testifying against Spanish Christians in courts of law. That statute was followed by the 16th-century laws of purity of blood (limpieza de sangre) which further strengthened the laws against anyone of Jewish ancestry…

  • sentencing (law)

    Sentence, in law, formal judgment of a convicted defendant in a criminal case setting the punishment to be meted out. In civil cases the terms decision, award, and judgment are used. Various types of sentences can be given. In cumulative sentences a defendant convicted on several counts receives a

  • sentential calculus (logic)

    Propositional calculus, in logic, symbolic system of treating compound and complex propositions and their logical relationships. As opposed to the predicate calculus, the propositional calculus employs simple, unanalyzed propositions rather than terms or noun expressions as its atomic units; and, a

  • sentential connective (logic)

    Connective, in logic, a word or group of words that joins two or more propositions together to form a connective proposition. Commonly used connectives include “but,” “and,” “or,” “if . . . then,” and “if and only if.” The various types of logical connectives include conjunction (“and”),

  • Sententiarum libri IV (work by Lombard)

    St. Albertus Magnus: …two years on Peter Lombard’s Sentences, the theological textbook of the medieval universities. In 1245 he was graduated master in the theological faculty and obtained the Dominican chair “for foreigners.”

  • Sententiarum libri tres (work by Isidore of Sevilla)

    St. Isidore of Sevilla: …biographies of 86 biblical persons; Sententiarum libri tres (“Three Books of Sentences”), a handbook of morals and theology in the form of collected sentences; De officiis ecclesiasticis (“On Church Duties”), a liturgical work dealing with offices and clerical members; and Synonima (“Synonyms”), a spiritual meditation.

  • sentiero dei nidi di ragno, Il (work by Calvino)

    Italo Calvino: …dei nidi di ragno (1947; The Path to the Nest of Spiders), which views the Resistance through the experiences of an adolescent as helpless in the midst of events as the adults around him; and the collection of stories entitled Ultimo viene il corvo (1949; Adam, One Afternoon, and Other…

  • Sentiment des citoyens, Le (work by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Achievements at Ferney: He directed Le Sentiment des citoyens (1764) against Rousseau. In this anonymous pamphlet, which supposedly expressed the opinion of the Genevese, Voltaire, who was well informed, revealed to the public that Rousseau had abandoned his children. As author he used all kinds of pseudonyms: Rabbi Akib, Pastor…

  • Sentimental Bloke, The (film)

    Australia: Film: …of the silent era was The Sentimental Bloke (1919), a tale of a working-class fellow in search of romance that embraced the slang and culture of Sydney. Film production from 1930 to 1950 was limited mostly to documentaries developed under the guidance of the Commonwealth Film Unit. After World War…

  • sentimental comedy (narrative genre)

    Sentimental comedy, a dramatic genre of the 18th century, denoting plays in which middle-class protagonists triumphantly overcome a series of moral trials. Such comedy aimed at producing tears rather than laughter. Sentimental comedies reflected contemporary philosophical conceptions of humans as

  • Sentimental Education, A (novel by Flaubert)

    A Sentimental Education, novel by Gustave Flaubert, published in French in 1869 as L’éducation sentimentale: histoire d’un jeune homme. The story of the protagonist, Frédéric Moreau, and his beloved, Madame Arnoux, is based on Flaubert’s youthful infatuation with an older married woman. Frédéric’s

  • Sentimental Journey (recording by Brown)

    Doris Day: …popular recordings, among them “Sentimental Journey.” Day went solo in 1947 and achieved great success as a recording artist. Her singing was distinguished by crystal clear tone and the ability to convey great emotion without histrionics.

  • Sentimental Journey (album by Starr)

    Ringo Starr: …his first two solo albums, Sentimental Journey, consisting of standards from the 1930s and ’40s, and Beaucoups of Blues, a collection of country music, were both released in 1970. He also had several hit singles during the 1970s, notably “It Don’t Come Easy” (1971), “Back Off Bugaloo” (1972), and “Photograph”…

  • Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, A (work by Sterne)

    A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy, comic novel by Laurence Sterne, published in two volumes in 1768. The book, a combination of autobiography, fiction, and travel writing, chronicles the journey through France of a charming and sensitive young man named Yorick and his servant La Fleur.

  • Sentimental Journeys (essays by Didion)

    Joan Didion: …the essays constituting the volume After Henry (1992; also published as Sentimental Journeys).

  • sentimental novel (literature)

    Sentimental novel, broadly, any novel that exploits the reader’s capacity for tenderness, compassion, or sympathy to a disproportionate degree by presenting a beclouded or unrealistic view of its subject. In a restricted sense the term refers to a widespread European novelistic development of the 1

  • Sentimento del tempo (work by Ungaretti)

    Giuseppe Ungaretti: Further change is evident in Sentimento del tempo (1933; “The Feeling of Time”), which, containing poems written between 1919 and 1932, used more obscure language and difficult symbolism.

  • Sentiments, Declaration of (1848)

    Declaration of Sentiments, document, outlining the rights that American women should be entitled to as citizens, that emerged from the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in July 1848. Three days before the convention, feminists Lucretia Mott, Martha C. Wright, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Mary Ann

  • sentinel species (biology and environment)

    metabolomics: Metabolomics in agriculture and environmental monitoring: Sentinel species, which readily accumulate pollutants and therefore serve as indicators of ecosystem health, have been evaluated for different environments, including terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats. Examples of sentinel species in each of those environments include earthworms, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and water fleas, and…

  • Sentinel, The (film by Winner [1977])

    John Carradine: …included The Shootist (1976) and The Sentinel (1977). He was also the patriarch of an acting family; four of his five sons—David, Robert, Keith, and Bruce—acted in films and on television.

  • Sentinel, The (film by Johnson [2006])

    Michael Douglas: Later films: …of an assassination attempt in The Sentinel (2006), and in King of California (2007) he portrayed a patient recently released from a mental hospital who is looking for gold underneath a discount store.

  • Sentinelle, La (newssheet by Louvet)

    Jean-Baptiste Louvet: …committee, launched a poster newssheet, La Sentinelle, in March 1792, to combat the court’s policy. The newssheet was soon subsidized by the Ministry of the Interior, then under J.-M. Roland, and its success helped Louvet’s election to the Convention as deputy for Loiret.

  • Sentleger, Sir Anthony (English lord deputy of Ireland)

    Sir Anthony Saint Leger, English lord deputy of Ireland from 1540 to 1548, 1550 to 1551, and 1553 to 1556. Considered by many historians to be the most able 16th-century English viceroy of Ireland, he maintained peace in that country by upholding the feudal privileges of the powerful native

  • sento (Japanese bath)

    furo: …a public bathhouse, called a sento, is common throughout Japan. It has its counterparts in youth hostels, hotels, dormitories, and inns. An attendant sells tickets at the entrance. Having paid, the bather enters the public dressing room for the appropriate sex. Clothing goes into lockers or into plastic or rattan…

  • Sentoraru Rigu (Japanese baseball)

    Central League, one of the two associations of professional baseball teams in Japan (the other being the Pacific League). Both the Central League and the Pacific League were founded in 1950. The Central League comprises six teams, each of which is owned and sponsored by a major corporation. The

  • Sentry Hill (hill, Saint Martin, Caribbean Sea)

    Netherlands Antilles: Relief: …1,119 feet (341 metres) at Sentry Hill in the Dutch part of Saint Martin, 1,198 feet (365 metres) at The Quill, an extinct volcano on Sint Eustatius, with a large forested crater, and 2,910 feet (887 metres) at Mount Scenery, an extinct volcano on Saba that is the islands’ highest…

  • Senufo (people)

    Senufo, a group of closely related peoples of northern C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) and southeastern Mali. They speak at least four distinct languages (Palaka, Dyimini, and Senari in C?te d’Ivoire and Suppire in Mali), which belong to the Gur branch of the Niger-Congo language family. Within each

  • Senufo languages

    Gur languages: …two groups: Central Gur and Senufo. Central Gur itself breaks down into two major subgroups, termed Oti-Volta (with some 25 languages in Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Burkina Faso) and Grusi (with a further 20 languages, some to the west and others to the east of the Oti-Volta group). The largest…

  • Senzaishū (collection by Fujiwara Sadaie)

    Fujiwara Shunzei: …poems) and compiler of the Senzaishū (“Collection of a Thousand Years”), the seventh Imperial anthology of classical Japanese poetry.

  • Senzangakona (Zulu chief)

    Shaka: Early life and accession: Shaka was the son of Senzangakona, chieftain of the Zulu, and Nandi, an orphaned princess of the neighbouring Langeni clan. Because his parents belonged to the same clan, their marriage violated Zulu custom, and the stigma of this extended to the child. The couple separated when Shaka was six, and…

  • Seo, Cathedral of La (cathedral, Zaragoza, Spain)

    Zaragoza: The older is the Cathedral of La Seo, or Cathedral of Salvador, chiefly a Gothic building (1119–1520) but showing some traces of the earlier Romanesque church built on the site of the first mosque erected in Spain. The Nuestra Se?ora del Pilar Cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin of the…

  • Seo, La (cathedral, Valencia, Spain)

    Valencia: …important church is the cathedral, La Seo, situated in the ancient city centre. Begun in the 13th century (completed 1482), it represents several styles—its three doorways are respectively Romanesque, Baroque, and Gothic—and it possesses many works of art, including two large religious paintings by Goya. On Thursdays at noon the…

  • Seoane, Luis (Spanish painter)

    Galicia: Geography: …Nobel Prize for Literature; painter Luis Seoane (1910–79), who promoted Galician culture while in exile in Argentina; and Urbano Lugrís (1902–73), a Surrealist painter who used the sea as a constant feature in his work.

  • Seokgul-am (cave temple, South Korea)

    S?kkuram, Buddhist artificial-cave temple on the crest of Mount T’oham, near the Pulguk Temple, Ky?ngju, South Korea. Built in the 8th century, S?kkuram is a domed circular structure of granite blocks. A square anteroom houses eight guardian figures in relief. On an elevated lotus pedestal a large

  • Seon (Buddhism)

    Zen, important school of East Asian Buddhism that constitutes the mainstream monastic form of Mahayana Buddhism in China, Korea, and Vietnam and accounts for approximately 20 percent of the Buddhist temples in Japan. The word derives from the Sanskrit dhyana, meaning “meditation.” Central to Zen

  • Seongnam (South Korea)

    S?ngnam, city, Ky?nggi (Gyeonggi) do (province), northwestern South Korea, about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Seoul. Given the status of a municipality in 1973, it developed rapidly as a satellite city of Seoul, absorbing some of the capital’s population and light industries. During the late 20th

  • Seoni (India)

    Seoni, city, southeastern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is situated on an upland plateau just south of the Satpura Range. Seoni was founded in 1774. The city is now an important road and rail junction and is the chief commercial centre of the east-central Satpura Range area. Cloth

  • Seorabeol (South Korea)

    Ky?ngju, city, North Ky?ngsang (Gyeongsang) do (province), southeastern South Korea. It is 17 miles (28 km) inland from the coast of the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and 34 miles (55 km) east of the provincial capital, Taegu (Daegu). It was the capital of the Silla kingdom (57 bce–935 ce), and its

  • Seoul (national capital, South Korea)

    Seoul, city and capital of South Korea (the Republic of Korea). It is located on the Han River (Han-gang) in the northwestern part of the country, with the city centre some 37 miles (60 km) inland from the Yellow Sea (west). Seoul is the cultural, economic, and political centre of South Korea.

  • Seoul 1988 Olympic Games

    Seoul 1988 Olympic Games, athletic festival held in Seoul that took place September 17–October 2, 1988. The Seoul Games were the 21st occurrence of the modern Olympic Games. After boycotts had marred the previous two Olympiads, political problems threatened to return to centre stage at the 1988

  • Seoul Metropolitan Council (government body, Seoul, South Korea)

    Seoul: Government: …the executive branch, and the Seoul Metropolitan Council, the legislative body. The administrative structure contains three tiers: si (city), gu (district), and dong (neighbourhood; literally, “village”). The mayor of the metropolitan government and the mayors of the gu are elected to four-year terms. Serving under the mayors at both levels…

  • Seoul virus

    hantavirus: …result from infection with the Seoul virus, which is carried by the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). Seoul virus infections typically occur in Asia, though the virus has also been detected elsewhere, including in Brazil and in the United States.

  • sep (unit of weight)

    measurement system: The Egyptians: … and 10 debens equaling 1 sep. Over the long duration of Egyptian history, the weight of the kite varied from period to period, ranging all the way from 4.5 to 29.9 grams (0.16 to 1.05 ounces). Approximately 3,500 different weights have been recovered from ancient Egypt, some in basic geometric…

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