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  • Under the Gaslight (play by Daly)

    melodrama: …London by Night (1844), and Under the Gaslight (1867). The realistic staging and the social evils touched upon, however perfunctorily and sentimentally, anticipated the later theatre of the Naturalists.

  • Under the Greenwood Tree (novel by Hardy)

    Thomas Hardy: Early life and works: …brief and affectionately humorous idyll Under the Greenwood Tree (1872), Hardy found a voice much more distinctively his own. In this book he evoked, within the simplest of marriage plots, an episode of social change (the displacement of a group of church musicians) that was a direct reflection of events…

  • Under the Moons of Mars (serialized story by Burroughs)

    Edgar Rice Burroughs: The story “Under the Moons of Mars” appeared in serial form in the adventure magazine The All-Story in 1912 and was so successful that Burroughs turned to writing full-time. (The work was later novelized as A Princess of Mars [1917] and adapted as the film John Carter…

  • Under the Mountain Wall: A Chronicle of Two Seasons in the Stone Age (work by Matthiessen)

    Peter Matthiessen: …South American Wilderness (1961); and Under the Mountain Wall: A Chronicle of Two Seasons in the Stone Age (1962), about his experiences as a member of a scientific expedition to New Guinea. Blue Meridian: The Search for the Great White Shark (1971) sheds light on a predator about which little…

  • Under the Net (novel by Murdoch)

    Iris Murdoch: …was followed by two novels, Under the Net (1954) and The Flight from the Enchanter (1956), that were admired for their intelligence, wit, and high seriousness. These qualities, along with a rich comic sense and a gift for analyzing the tensions and complexities in sophisticated sexual relationships, continued to distinguish…

  • Under the Open Sky (work by Andersen Nex?)

    Martin Andersen Nex?: …appear in English translation as Under the Open Sky (1938). In 1945 Nex? published a two-volume sequel to Pelle, Morten hin R?de (“Morten the Red”), in which the poet Morten, Pelle’s childhood friend, is the revolutionary and Pelle is shown as having turned bourgeois, like many of the labour leaders…

  • Under the Roofs of Paris (film by Clair)

    René Clair: His Sous les toits de Paris, Le Million, and à nous la liberté! constituted homage to the art of silent film and a manifesto for a new cinema. Clair rigorously constructed comical situations using either images or sounds independently, and his skillful use of music to…

  • Under the Sea (song by Menken and Ashman)
  • Under the Sea-Wind (book by Carson)

    Rachel Carson: …basis for her first book, Under the Sea-Wind, published in 1941. It was widely praised, as were all her books, for its remarkable combination of scientific accuracy and thoroughness with an elegant and lyrical prose style. The Sea Around Us (1951) became a national best seller, won a National Book…

  • Under the Skin of the Statue of Liberty (play by Yevtushenko)

    Yevgeny Yevtushenko: Yevtushenko’s play Under the Skin of the Statue of Liberty, which was composed of selections from his earlier poems about the United States, was produced in Moscow in 1972. His first novel, published in Russian in 1982, was translated and published in English as Wild Berries in…

  • Under the Tree (work by Roberts)

    children's literature: Peaks and plateaus (1865–1940): …la Mare was the exquisite Under the Tree (1922), by the novelist Elizabeth Madox Roberts, a treasure that should never be forgotten.

  • Under the Volcano (film by Huston [1984])

    Albert Finney: …Dresser (1983), an alcoholic in Under the Volcano (1984), and a gruff attorney in Erin Brockovich (2000).

  • Under the Volcano (novel by Lowry)

    Under the Volcano, masterwork of Malcolm Lowry, published in 1947 and reissued in 1962. Set in Mexico in the late 1930s, Under the Volcano is the story of the last desperate day in the life of Geoffrey Firmin, a dispirited alcoholic and former British consul. His estranged wife, Yvonne, attempts to

  • Under the Window (work by Greenaway)

    Kate Greenaway: …produced her first successful book, Under the Window, followed by The Birthday Book (1880), Mother Goose (1881), Little Ann (1883), and other books for children, which had an enormous success and became very highly valued. “Toy-books” though they were, these little works created a revolution in book illustration; they were…

  • Under Two Flags (film by Lloyd [1936])

    Frank Lloyd: …films of the decade included Under Two Flags (1936), a rousing Foreign Legion yarn with Ronald Colman starring alongside Claudette Colbert, who also appeared in Lloyd’s Maid of Salem (1937), a drama about the witch trials in colonial Massachusetts. In 1937 Lloyd earned praise for the western

  • Under Western Eyes (work by Conrad)

    English literature: The Edwardians: …The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911), he detailed such imposition, and the psychological pathologies he increasingly associated with it, without sympathy. He did so as a philosophical novelist whose concern with the mocking limits of human knowledge affected not only the content of his fiction but also…

  • underboss (criminal)

    Mafia: Each don had an underboss, who functioned as a vice president or deputy director, and a consigliere, or counselor, who had considerable power and influence. Below the underboss were the caporegime, or lieutenants, who, acting as buffers between the lower echelon workers and the don himself, protected him from…

  • underclass (social differentiation)

    social class: Characteristics of the principal classes: …workers has been termed the underclass by some sociologists.

  • underclay (geology)

    cyclothem: …seam is underlain by a seat-earth (underclay). Above the coal, a limestone or a claystone (shale or mudstone) with marine shells is often found. The marine shells disappear in the succeeding shales, to be replaced occasionally by nonmarine bivalves. Before another seat-earth and coal appears, a siltstone or a sandstone…

  • underconsumption theory (economics)

    business cycle: Underconsumption theories: In an expanding economy, production tends to grow more rapidly than consumption. The disparity results from the unequal distribution of income: the rich do not consume all their income, while the poor do not have sufficient income to meet their consumption needs. This…

  • undercooling (physics)

    amorphous solid: Distinction between crystalline and amorphous solids: …textbooks erroneously describe glasses as undercooled viscous liquids, but this is actually incorrect. Along the section of route 2 labeled liquid in Figure 3, it is the portion lying between Tf and Tg that is correctly associated with the description of the material as an undercooled liquid (undercooled meaning that…

  • Undercurrent (film by Minnelli [1946])

    Vincente Minnelli: Films of the later 1940s: Meet Me in St. Louis, The Clock, and The Pirate: Undercurrent (1946) was a melodrama starring Katharine Hepburn as a New England spinster who marries a suave wealthy industrialist (Robert Taylor) only to learn that he is mentally unbalanced and jealous of his black-sheep brother (Robert Mitchum). Till the Clouds Roll By (1946) was a…

  • underdeveloped area (economics)

    marketing: Marketing intermediaries: the distribution channel: …is, shorter and simpler—in the less industrialized nations. There are notable exceptions, however. For instance, the Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board collects cacao beans in Ghana and licenses trading firms to process the commodity. Similar marketing processes are used in other West African nations. Because of the vast number of small-scale…

  • Underdogs, The (novel by Azuela)

    Mariano Azuela: …work, Los de abajo (1916; The Under Dogs), depicting the futility of the revolution, was written at the campfire during forced marches while he served as an army doctor with Pancho Villa in 1915. Forced to flee across the border to El Paso, Texas, he first published the novel as…

  • underemployment (economics)

    unemployment: Underemployment is the term used to designate the situation of those who are able to find employment only for shorter than normal periods—part-time workers, seasonal workers, or day or casual workers. The term may also describe the condition of workers whose education or training make…

  • underfit stream (hydrology)

    valley: Misfit streams: …more common case is the underfit stream, in which valley morphology indicates a larger ancient stream (see figure).

  • Underflow Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Chicago: Municipal services: …an ambitious project popularly called Deep Tunnel. It consists primarily of a vast system of large tunnels bored in the bedrock deep beneath the region that collects and stores storm water until it can be processed at treatment facilities.

  • underfriction wheel (technology)

    roller coaster: Expansion in the United States: His underfriction wheels, or upstop wheels (1919), kept coaster cars locked on their tracks, which enabled them to safely reach high speeds, bank suddenly, and turn upside down.

  • undergarment (clothing)

    vulvitis: …reactions from direct contact with underwear or commercial hygiene products. The vulva can become the site of infections by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, and vulvitis may also accompany similar infections of the vagina (vaginitis). Depletion of estrogen, as occurs in postmenopausal women, can lead to drying and thinning of the…

  • underglaze blue (pottery)

    pottery: Porcelain: …painted wares were decorated in underglaze blue with typically Baroque patterns, including the lambrequins introduced at Rouen. Motifs derived from the designs of Jean Bérain are also to be seen. Polychrome specimens, some of which were decorated in the style of Kakiemon, (see below Japan: Edo period), date from about…

  • Underground (World War II, Europe)

    Resistance, in European history, any of various secret and clandestine groups that sprang up throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II to oppose Nazi rule. The exact number of those who took part is unknown, but they included civilians who worked secretly against the occupation as well

  • Underground (film by Kusturica [1995])

    Emir Kusturica: Hollywood and a second Golden Palm: …his next movie, Podzemlje (1995; Underground), Kusturica won his second Golden Palm, joining a small group of directors who had twice won the top prize at Cannes: Alf Sj?berg, Francis Ford Coppola, and Bille August. The movie is a parable on the breakup of Yugoslavia, including a memorable scene of…

  • Underground (play by Anderson)

    Regina M. Anderson: …theatre produced her one-act play Underground, about the Underground Railroad. Both plays were written under her pseudonym. The Negro Experimental Theatre served as an inspiration to little-theatre groups around the country, and it was especially influential in the encouragement of serious black theatre and of black playwrights. Anderson also coedited…

  • underground

    Subway, underground railway system used to transport large numbers of passengers within urban and suburban areas. Subways are usually built under city streets for ease of construction, but they may take shortcuts and sometimes must pass under rivers. Outlying sections of the system usually emerge

  • underground cable (electronics)

    cable: Electric power cables: …power cable is installed in underground ducts and is extensively used in cities where lack of space or considerations of safety preclude the use of overhead lines. Unlike an aerial cable, a buried cable invariably uses commercially pure copper or aluminum (mechanical strength is not a problem underground), and the…

  • underground chamber (excavation)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Underground chambers, often associated with a complex of connecting tunnels and shafts, increasingly are being used for such things as underground hydroelectric-power plants, ore-processing plants, pumping stations, vehicle parking, storage of oil and water, water-treatment plants, warehouses, and light manufacturing; also command centres and other…

  • underground comics

    graphic novel: From comic strips to comic books: …with it a new term—comix—denoting X-rated and taboo content that responded to the counterculture movement. Although such work was clearly adult-orientated, it was also distinguished from the mainstream by its distribution and its material quality. Underground comix circulated via “head shops” (stores that sold marijuana pipes and other drug…

  • underground comix

    graphic novel: From comic strips to comic books: …with it a new term—comix—denoting X-rated and taboo content that responded to the counterculture movement. Although such work was clearly adult-orientated, it was also distinguished from the mainstream by its distribution and its material quality. Underground comix circulated via “head shops” (stores that sold marijuana pipes and other drug…

  • underground construction (technology)

    tunnels and underground excavations: excavations, horizontal underground passageway produced by excavation or occasionally by nature’s action in dissolving a soluble rock, such as limestone. A vertical opening is usually called a shaft. Tunnels have many uses: for mining ores, for transportation—including road vehicles, trains, subways, and canals—and for conducting…

  • underground dwelling (construction)

    Tunisia: Housing: …to the region are the underground dwellings found in the rural southeastern part of the country. These structures were designed for habitation in a harsh, arid environment and generally consist of a sunken central courtyard surrounded by individual family dwellings, storage areas, and workrooms, all of which are built into…

  • underground economy

    Underground economy, transaction of goods or services not reported to the government and therefore beyond the reach of tax collectors and regulators. The term may refer either to illegal activities or to ordinarily legal activities performed without the securing of required licenses and payment of

  • underground excavation (technology)

    tunnels and underground excavations: excavations, horizontal underground passageway produced by excavation or occasionally by nature’s action in dissolving a soluble rock, such as limestone. A vertical opening is usually called a shaft. Tunnels have many uses: for mining ores, for transportation—including road vehicles, trains, subways, and canals—and for conducting…

  • underground film

    Underground film, motion picture made and distributed outside the commercial film industry, usually as an artistic expression of its maker, who often acts as its producer, director, writer, photographer, and editor. Underground films usually display greater freedom in form, technique, and content

  • underground housing (construction)

    Tunisia: Housing: …to the region are the underground dwellings found in the rural southeastern part of the country. These structures were designed for habitation in a harsh, arid environment and generally consist of a sunken central courtyard surrounded by individual family dwellings, storage areas, and workrooms, all of which are built into…

  • underground mining

    mining: Underground mining: When any ore body lies a considerable distance below the surface, the amount of waste that has to be removed in order to uncover the ore through surface mining becomes prohibitive, and underground techniques must be considered. Counting against underground mining are the…

  • Underground Railroad (United States history)

    Underground Railroad, in the United States, a system existing in the Northern states before the Civil War by which escaped slaves from the South were secretly helped by sympathetic Northerners, in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Acts, to reach places of safety in the North or in Canada. Though

  • underground railway

    Subway, underground railway system used to transport large numbers of passengers within urban and suburban areas. Subways are usually built under city streets for ease of construction, but they may take shortcuts and sometimes must pass under rivers. Outlying sections of the system usually emerge

  • underhair (fur)

    fur: …elements: a dense undercoat, called ground hair, and longer hairs, extending beyond that layer, called guard hair. The principal function of ground hair is to maintain the animal’s body temperature; that of guard hair is to protect the underlying fur and skin and to shed rain or snow. Pelts that…

  • underhand cut-and-fill mining

    mining: Cut-and-fill mining: In underhand cut-and-fill mining, work progresses from the top downward. In this latter case cement must be added to the fill to form a strong roof under which to work.

  • Underhill, Evelyn (British writer)

    Evelyn Underhill, English mystical poet and author of such works as Mysticism (1911), The Mystic Way (1913), and Worship (1936), which helped establish mystical theology as a respectable discipline among contemporary intellectuals. Underhill was a lifelong Anglican, but she was also attracted by

  • Underland Chronicles (novels by Collins)

    Suzanne Collins: …what became known as the Underland Chronicles soon followed. Despite the series’ intended audience, Collins—influenced by the lessons her father had taught her as a military historian and a Vietnam War veteran—straightforwardly introduced to its narrative such grim “adult” issues as genocide and biological warfare.

  • undernutrition (pathology)

    nutritional disease: Nutrient deficiencies: …significant nutrition-related disease is chronic undernutrition, which plagues more than 925 million people worldwide. Undernutrition is a condition in which there is insufficient food to meet energy needs; its main characteristics include weight loss, failure to thrive, and wasting of body fat and muscle. Low birth weight in infants, inadequate…

  • Underpants, The (work by Sternheim)

    Carl Sternheim: …first play, Die Hose (The Underpants), was published and performed in 1911 under the title Der Riese (“The Giant”) because the Berlin police had forbidden the original title on the grounds of gross immorality. It has as its main character Theobald Maske. He and others of the Maske family…

  • underproduction (hormones)

    human endocrine system: Endocrine hypofunction and receptor defects: …in hormone production, known as hypofunction, is required to maintain homeostasis. One example of hypofunction is decreased production of thyroid hormones during starvation and illness. Because the thyroid hormones control energy expenditure, there is survival value in slowing the body’s metabolism when food intake is low. Thus, there is a…

  • undersaturated rock (geology)

    felsic and mafic rocks: rocks as oversaturated, saturated, or undersaturated with respect to silica. Felsic rocks are commonly oversaturated and contain free quartz (SiO2), intermediate rocks contain little or no quartz or feldspathoids (undersaturated minerals), and mafic rocks may contain abundant feldspathoids. This broad grouping on the basis of mineralogy related to silica content…

  • undersea cable (communications)

    Undersea cable, assembly of conductors enclosed by an insulating sheath and laid on the ocean floor for the transmission of messages. Undersea cables for transmitting telegraph signals antedated the invention of the telephone; the first undersea telegraph cable was laid in 1850 between England a

  • undersea exploration

    Undersea exploration, the investigation and description of the ocean waters and the seafloor and of the Earth beneath. Included in the scope of undersea exploration are the physical and chemical properties of seawater, all manner of life in the sea, and the geological and geophysical features of

  • undersea transportation

    Undersea exploration, the investigation and description of the ocean waters and the seafloor and of the Earth beneath. Included in the scope of undersea exploration are the physical and chemical properties of seawater, all manner of life in the sea, and the geological and geophysical features of

  • undershot waterwheel (engineering)

    waterwheel: …with the wheel: first, the undershot wheel; second, the breast wheel; and third, the overshot wheel. These waterwheels generally used the energy of moving streams, but tidal mills also appeared in the 11th century.

  • underskirt (clothing)

    Petticoat, in modern usage, an underskirt worn by women. The petycote (probably derived from the Old French petite cote, “little coat”) appeared in literature in the 15th century in reference to a kind of padded waistcoat, or undercoat, worn for warmth over the shirt by men. The petticoat

  • Unders?gelse om det gamle Nordiske eller Islandske Sprogs Oprindelse (work by Rask)

    Rasmus Rask: …eller Islandske Sprogs Oprindelse (1818; Investigation of the Origin of the Old Norse or Icelandic Language). It was primarily an examination and comparison of the Scandinavian languages with Latin and Greek. Rask was the first to indicate that the Celtic languages, which include Breton, Welsh, and Irish, belong to the…

  • understanding (philosophy and psychology)

    pedagogy: Mental-discipline theories: Understanding had to precede learning, and, according to the Jesuits, the teacher’s first task was careful preparation of the material to be taught (the prelection). But even with that greater awareness of the learner’s needs, the concept of mental discipline still underlay the whole process…

  • Understanding and Cooperation, Treaty of (Europe [1934])

    Baltic Entente: …the three nations signed the Treaty of Understanding and Cooperation at Geneva.

  • Understanding Media: The Extension of Man (work by McLuhan)

    literature: Modern popular literature: Marshall McLuhan in his book Understanding Media (1964) became famous for erecting a whole structure of aesthetic, sociological, and philosophical theory upon this fact. But it remains to be seen whether the new, fluent materials of communication are going to make so very many changes in civilization, let alone in…

  • Understanding, Inc. (American organization)

    new religious movement: Scientific NRMs: UFO groups and Scientology: …the 1950s, groups such as Understanding, Inc., founded by Daniel Fry (who claimed to be a contactee), argued that UFOs carried beings who had come to Earth to promote world peace and personal development. The Amalgamated Flying Saucer Clubs of America, led by Gabriel Green, and the Aetherius Society, organized…

  • understatement (figure of speech)

    rhetoric: Elements of rhetoric: …hyperbole (overstatement or exaggeration) or understatement, and metonymy (substituting one word for another which it suggests or to which it is in some way related—as part to whole, sometimes known as synecdoche). To the latter category belonged such figures as allegory, parallelism (constructing sentences or phrases that resemble one another…

  • understock (horticulture)

    horticulture: Grafting: …the root is called the stock; the added piece is called the scion. When more than two parts are involved, the middle piece is called the interstock. When the scion consists of a single bud, the process is called budding. Grafting and budding are the most widely used of the…

  • understory (plant group)

    primate: Forest and savanna: …rainforests are broadly distinguishable: an understory, a middle story, and an upper story. The understory, consisting of shrubs and saplings, is often “closed,” the crowns of the constituent trees overlapping one another to form a dense continuous horizontal layer. The middle story is characterized by trees that are in lateral…

  • Undertones of War (work by Blunden)

    Edmund Charles Blunden: His Undertones of War (1928; new ed. 1956), which established his international reputation, is one of the most moving books about World War I, all the more compelling for its restraint. The war interrupted his studies at Oxford, but he returned in 1919, moving the following…

  • Undertow (work by Havrevold)

    children's literature: Norway: …available in English translation as Undertow in 1968, and who also wrote successfully for girls; Leif Hamre, specializing in air force adventures; the prolific, widely translated Aimée Sommerfelt, whose works range from “puberty novels” to faraway stories set in Mexico City and northern India; Thorbj?rn Egner, who is the author…

  • undertow (hydrodynamics)

    Undertow, a strong seaward bottom current returning the water of broken waves back out to sea. There is in fact no such current in a gross sense, for the overall flow of surface water toward the shore in a surf zone is very small. The water actually thrown up on the shore by breaking waves does

  • Undervejs til mig selv (work by Pontoppidan)

    Henrik Pontoppidan: …collected and abridged version, entitled Undervejs til mig selv (1943; “On the Way to Myself”).

  • undervote (voting and elections)

    Bush v. Gore: …the same office) and “undervotes” (ballots that recorded no vote for a given office). Also at issue was the so-called butterfly ballot design used in Palm Beach county, which caused confusion among some Gore voters—prompting them to inadvertently cast their votes for third-party candidate Pat Buchanan, who received some…

  • underwater archaeology

    archaeology: Underwater archaeology: Underwater archaeology is a branch of reconnaissance and excavation that has been developed only during the 20th century. It involves the same techniques of observation, discovery, and recording that are the basis of archaeology on land, but adapted to the special conditions of…

  • underwater bulb (ship part)

    ship: Design of the hull: …of their efforts is the underwater bulb often attached to the bows of ships. The purpose of the bulb is to produce a wave that will tend to cancel the ordinary bow wave.

  • underwater demolition team (United States military unit)

    Navy SEAL: History: …combat demolition units (NCDUs) and underwater demolition teams (UDTs) whose “frogmen” were trained to destroy obstacles on enemy-held beaches prior to amphibious landings in Europe and the Pacific. Other special units of that war were scouts and raiders, who were assigned to reconnoitre coastal areas and guide landing craft to…

  • underwater diving

    Underwater diving, swimming done underwater either with a minimum of equipment, as in skin diving (free diving), or with a scuba (abbreviation of self-contained underwater-breathing apparatus) or an Aqua-Lung. Competitive underwater diving sports include spearfishing and underwater hockey,

  • underwater exercise

    hydrotherapy: Underwater exercise is used to strengthen weak muscles, restore joint motion following injury, clean and heal burned flesh, aid muscle function following cerebrovascular accident damage, and as a treatment for deformity and pain in arthritis and related ailments.

  • underwater exploration

    Undersea exploration, the investigation and description of the ocean waters and the seafloor and of the Earth beneath. Included in the scope of undersea exploration are the physical and chemical properties of seawater, all manner of life in the sea, and the geological and geophysical features of

  • underwater mine (weapon)

    Submarine mine, underwater weapon designed to explode when a target presents itself. See

  • underwater photography

    technology of photography: Underwater photography: Underwater photography requires either special watertight cameras or pressure-resistant housings for normal cameras. In both cases camera functions are controlled through pressure-tight glands. A flat glass or plastic window is usually in front of the camera lens. The red and yellow absorption of…

  • underwater swimming

    Underwater diving, swimming done underwater either with a minimum of equipment, as in skin diving (free diving), or with a scuba (abbreviation of self-contained underwater-breathing apparatus) or an Aqua-Lung. Competitive underwater diving sports include spearfishing and underwater hockey,

  • underwater transportation

    Undersea exploration, the investigation and description of the ocean waters and the seafloor and of the Earth beneath. Included in the scope of undersea exploration are the physical and chemical properties of seawater, all manner of life in the sea, and the geological and geophysical features of

  • underwater weapon

    tactical weapons system: Surface-to-surface systems: Underwater weapons, intended to disable submarines or surface vessels, are considered surface-to-surface systems. They include various homing or guided torpedoes using sonar tracking systems. Germany makes a wire-guided torpedo. Sweden’s antisubmarine weapons system uses a missile that is preprogrammed for its course on the basis…

  • Underwater! (film by Sturges [1955])

    John Sturges: Bad, Magnificent, and Great: Underwater! (1955), however, was far less memorable; the deep-sea drama starred Jane Russell, Richard Egan, and Gilbert Roland. Slightly better was The Scarlet Coat (1955), a Revolutionary War drama about Benedict Arnold; Cornel Wilde played a colonial spy. Sturges returned to the Wild West

  • underway bottom sampler (tool)

    undersea exploration: Exploration of the seafloor and the Earth’s crust: The underway bottom sampler, or scoopfish, is designed to sample rapidly without stopping the ship. It is lowered to depths less than 200 metres from a ship moving at speeds no more than 28 kilometres per hour. The sampler weighs five kilograms and can capture samples…

  • underwear (clothing)

    vulvitis: …reactions from direct contact with underwear or commercial hygiene products. The vulva can become the site of infections by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, and vulvitis may also accompany similar infections of the vagina (vaginitis). Depletion of estrogen, as occurs in postmenopausal women, can lead to drying and thinning of the…

  • underwing moth (insect)

    lepidopteran: Protection against danger: When moths such as the underwing moths (Catocala) are disturbed, they move the cryptic forewings to expose bright patches of colour on the upper surface of the hind wings. When butterflies such as the morphos, hairstreaks, and anglewings are disturbed, they take flight, exposing brightly coloured upper wing surfaces. Regardless…

  • Underwood, Carrie (American singer)

    Carrie Underwood, American country music performer who parlayed her victory in the television singing competition American Idol into a successful recording career. Underwood grew up in Oklahoma, on her family’s farm in Checotah. She started singing at a young age, initially at church and later in

  • Underwood, Carrie Marie (American singer)

    Carrie Underwood, American country music performer who parlayed her victory in the television singing competition American Idol into a successful recording career. Underwood grew up in Oklahoma, on her family’s farm in Checotah. She started singing at a young age, initially at church and later in

  • Underwood, Francis Henry (American writer)

    Francis Henry Underwood, American author and lawyer who became a founder of The Atlantic Monthly in order to further the antislavery cause. Following a year at Amherst (Mass.) College, Underwood went to Kentucky where he studied law. There his strong aversion to slavery was heightened by close

  • Underwood, Miles (Canadian author)

    John Glassco, Canadian author whose poetry, short stories, novels, memoirs, and translations are notable for their versatility and sophistication. Glassco abandoned his studies at McGill University, Montreal, to join the expatriate community in Paris, an experience he chronicled in the celebrated

  • Underwood, Oscar W. (American politician)

    Oscar W. Underwood, U.S. congressman from Alabama (1895–1927) who drafted the Underwood Tariff Act of 1913. After studying law at the University of Virginia he was admitted to the bar in 1884. Underwood settled in Birmingham, Ala., and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1895–96;

  • Underwood, Oscar Wilder (American politician)

    Oscar W. Underwood, U.S. congressman from Alabama (1895–1927) who drafted the Underwood Tariff Act of 1913. After studying law at the University of Virginia he was admitted to the bar in 1884. Underwood settled in Birmingham, Ala., and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1895–96;

  • Underwood, William (American scientist)

    canning: Prescott and William Underwood of the United States set canning on a scientific basis by describing specific time-temperature heating requirements for sterilizing canned foods.

  • Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act (United States [1913])

    Oscar W. Underwood: …Alabama (1895–1927) who drafted the Underwood Tariff Act of 1913.

  • underwool (fur)

    fur: …elements: a dense undercoat, called ground hair, and longer hairs, extending beyond that layer, called guard hair. The principal function of ground hair is to maintain the animal’s body temperature; that of guard hair is to protect the underlying fur and skin and to shed rain or snow. Pelts that…

  • Underworld (film by Sternberg [1927])

    Josef von Sternberg: Films of the late 1920s: …Sternberg’s first film at Paramount, Underworld (1927), was a seminal gangster drama that made the many others that followed possible. George Bancroft starred as the remorseless mobster “Bull” Weed; Evelyn Brent played his moll Feathers; and Clive Brook played his lieutenant Rolls Royce, who also loves Feathers. In The Last…

  • underworld (religion)

    heaven: Ancient Mesopotamia: …in the middle, and the underworld below. The high gods reign in the heavens as an assembly or council. Earth is the realm of mortal humans, whose purpose is to serve the gods by providing them with sacred dwellings, food, and tribute; it is also populated by minor gods and…

  • Underworld (novel by DeLillo)

    American literature: Multicultural writing: …family portraits; and Don DeLillo’s Underworld (1997), a brooding, resonant, oblique account of the Cold War era as seen through the eyes of both fictional characters and historical figures. All three novels testify to a belated convergence of Social Realism and Pynchonesque invention. Pynchon himself returned to form with sprawling,…

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