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  • Union (county, New Jersey, United States)

    Union, county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S., bounded by the Passaic River to the west, Newark Bay and Arthur Kill to the east, the Rahway River to the southeast, and Green Brook to the southwest. The land rises from coastal lowlands in the east to a piedmont region in the west and is drained by

  • Union (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Union, county, central Pennsylvania, U.S., bounded by the West Branch Susquehanna River to the east and Penns Creek Mountain to the south. The mountainous ridge-and-valley terrain includes Buffalo, Paddy, and Nittany mountains and is drained by Penns, Buffalo, and White Deer creeks. Parklands

  • Union (New Jersey, United States)

    Union, township (town), Union county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S., on the Elizabeth River, 5 miles (8 km) northwest of the town of Elizabeth, New Jersey. Settled in 1749 as Connecticut Farms, Union was originally a part of Elizabeth but was incorporated as a separate community in 1808. It once

  • union (set theory)

    formal logic: Set theory: Similarly, the union of x and y, symbolized as x ∪ y, is the class the members of which are the members of x together with those of y—in this case all the dots on the cross—i.e., {z : z ? x ∨ z ? y}; the…

  • Union (South Carolina, United States)

    Union, city, seat of Union county, northern South Carolina, U.S. It lies in hilly piedmont country near the Broad River, 68 miles (109 km) northwest of Columbia. Union was first settled in 1791 as Unionville around Union Church (1765), which was used by various denominations. During the American

  • Union (county, South Carolina, United States)

    Union, county, northern South Carolina, U.S. It is bordered by the Pacolet River to the north, the Broad River to the east, and the Enoree River to the south. The southern half of it is within Sumter National Forest, including Rose Hill Plantation State Park, home of William H. Gist, the state’s

  • Union and Progress, Committee of (Turkish history)

    Associations for the Defense of Rights: …whom were members of the Committee of Union and Progress, which was dissolved in 1918). In 1919 Mustafa Kemal (later Atatürk) arrived in Anatolia as inspector general of the 3rd Army and established contacts with the groups there. Mustafa Kemal resigned his post that July and persuaded the Association for…

  • Union and Translation of the Four Gospels (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Conversion and religious beliefs: …perevod chetyrokh yevangeliy (written 1881; Union and Translation of the Four Gospels), and V chyom moya vera? (written 1884; What I Believe); he later added Tsarstvo bozhiye vnutri vas (1893; The Kingdom of God Is Within You) and many other essays and tracts. In brief, Tolstoy rejected all the sacraments,…

  • Unión Aragonesa (medieval history)

    Peter III: …nobles and some municipalities, the Unión Aragonesa, forced him to grant a privilege not only confirming the Aragonese fueros (legal rights) but diminishing some of the crown’s rights. In 1285 Philip III of France invaded Aragon to dethrone Peter but was disastrously defeated. Peter, however, soon died. His great stature…

  • Union Army (United States history)

    Remembering the American Civil War: …gathering of more than 50,000 Union and Confederate veterans at the end of June and early July 1913, the anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, in that small Pennsylvania town. They congregated in tents at the “Great Camp,” listened to speeches, and walked the battlefield together. By that time the…

  • Union Bank of Switzerland (bank, Switzerland)

    Union Bank of Switzerland, one of the largest commercial banks in Switzerland, with overseas representative offices and branches. Headquarters are in Zürich. The bank was founded in 1912 in the merger of Bank in Winterthur (established 1862) and Toggenburger Bank (1863). Since then it has absorbed

  • Union Banking Corporation (American banking corporation)

    W. Averell Harriman: …Harriman and helped establish the Union Banking Corporation (UBC), both of which were enmeshed with the financial interests of German industrialist Fritz Thyssen, who helped fund the rise of the Nazi Party. Despite the release of documents in the early 21st century that confirmed that UBC’s holdings were vested by…

  • union busting (labour)

    Henry Ford II: …chief Harry Bennett, whose strong-arm union-busting tactics had earned the company a great deal of opprobrium. He brought in a group of talented systems analysts from the U.S. Air Force who became known as the “Whiz Kids,” among them Robert S. McNamara, later to become Ford’s president. One of the…

  • Union Calédonienne (political party, New Caledonia)

    New Caledonia: History: …to bring to power the Caledonian Union (Union Calédonienne) party on a ticket of full self-government in local affairs. Progress toward self-government was made in 1957 when a Territorial Assembly was created with powers to elect an executive under the presidency of a high commissioner. In the 1970s the Caledonian…

  • Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation (American corporation)

    Union Carbide Corporation, major American manufacturer of chemicals, petrochemicals, and related products. It became a subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company in 2001. The company was formed in 1917 as Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation, acquiring four earlier companies: Linde Air Products Company

  • Union Carbide Corporation (American corporation)

    Union Carbide Corporation, major American manufacturer of chemicals, petrochemicals, and related products. It became a subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company in 2001. The company was formed in 1917 as Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation, acquiring four earlier companies: Linde Air Products Company

  • Unión Centro del Democrático (political party, Spain)

    Spain: National parties: …Centre (Unión de Centro Democrático; UCD), and the major opposition party was the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Espa?ol; PSOE). The only other national parties of importance were the right-wing Popular Alliance (Alianza Popular; AP) and the Spanish Communist Party (Partido Comunista de Espa?a; PCE).

  • Union City (New Jersey, United States)

    Union City, city, Hudson county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S., just north of Hoboken. It lies near the western end of the Lincoln Tunnel, on the Palisades overlooking the Hudson River and New York City. In an area originally settled by the Dutch and later by many Germans, the city was established

  • Unión Cívica Radical (political party, Argentina)

    Radical Civic Union (UCR), major centre-left political party in Argentina. For much of the 20th century, the Radical Civic Union (UCR) was the primary opposition party to the Peronists, who are represented by the Justicialist Party. The UCR draws significant support from Argentina’s urban middle

  • Union College (college, Schenectady, New York, United States)

    Union College, private, coeducational institution of higher education located in Schenectady, New York, U.S. Comprising about 20 academic departments, it offers a curriculum in liberal arts and engineering, with an emphasis on undergraduate education. Union College cooperates with Albany Medical

  • Union Cycliste Internationale (international sports organization)

    cycling: Competition: …is governed overall by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), which is based in Switzerland, and by each country’s cycling federation. Amateur races are held for both men and women in local, regional, and national competition by age group, ranging upward in age from competitors 12 to 13 years old. In…

  • Unión de Naciones Suramericanas (South American organization)

    UNASUR, South American organization created in 2008 to propel regional integration on issues including democracy, education, energy, environment, infrastructure, and security and to eliminate social inequality and exclusion. It was inspired by and modeled after the European Union. UNASUR’s members

  • Unión del Centro Democrático (political party, Argentina)

    Argentina: Political process: …of dissident Peronists; and the Union of the Democratic Centre (Unión del Centro Democrático; UCD, or UCéDé), a traditional liberal party. The PJ has controlled the government most of the time since civilian rule was restored in the early 1980s, notably under President Carlos Menem in the 1990s. Frepaso was…

  • Unión Democrática de Liberación (political organization, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: The Somoza years: …Press”) of Managua, called the Democratic Union of Liberation (Unión Democrática de Liberación; UDEL). In December 1974 the Sandinistas staged a successful kidnapping of Somoza elites, for which ransom and the release of political prisoners were obtained. In response, the regime embarked on a two-and-a-half-year counterinsurgency effort that, in addition…

  • Union Démocratique du Centre (political party, Switzerland)

    Swiss People’s Party, conservative Swiss political party. The Swiss People’s Party (SVP) was founded in 1971 by the merger of the Farmers, Artisans, and Citizens’ Party—generally known as the Agrarian Party—with the Democratic Party. It has pursued conservative social and economic policies,

  • Union Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien (political organization, Algeria)

    Ferhat Abbas: …Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien (UDMA; Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto), which advocated cooperation with France in the formation of the Algerian state. Abbas’ moderate and conciliatory attempts failed to evoke a sympathetic response from the French colonial officials, however, and in 1956 he escaped to Cairo to join the…

  • Union Démocratique du Peuple Malien (political party, Mali)

    Mali: Constitutional framework: …enacted in 1979, made the Malian People’s Democratic Union (Union Démocratique du Peuple Malien; UDPM) the country’s sole legal party until 1991. In 1992 a third constitution was approved, providing for the separation of powers into three government branches, including a unicameral National Assembly as the legislative body. It also…

  • Union Démocratique et Socialiste de la Résistance (political party, France)

    René Pleven: …was president of the left-centre Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance (Union Démocratique et Socialiste de la Résistance; UDSR); he was twice minister of defense (1949–50, 1952–54) and twice premier (July 1950–February 1951 and August 1951–January 1952).

  • Union Démocratique pour la Défense des Intérêts Africains (political party, Republic of the Congo)

    Republic of the Congo: Congo since independence: …Socialiste Africain; MSA) and the Democratic Union for the Defense of African Interests (Union Démocratique pour la Défense des Intérêts Africains; UDDIA). The two parties pitted the north against the south, an opposition that stemmed from the privileged place occupied by the southern Kongo and Vili in the colonial era.…

  • Union des Associations Européennes de Football (sports organization)

    football: International organization: In 1954 the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) were established. Africa’s governing body, the Confédération Africaine de Football (CAF), was founded in 1957. The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) followed four years later. The Oceania Football…

  • Union des Forces du Changement (political party, Togo)

    Faure Gnassingbé: Presidency: …the main opposition group, the Union of Forces of Change (Union des Forces du Changement; UFC), disputed the outcome. In May the RPT-led government reached an agreement with the UFC that provided for their participation in the new government; the decision, however, was not universally accepted within the UFC and…

  • Union des Populations du Cameroun (political party, Cameroon)

    Cameroon: Moving toward independence: …Union (Union des Populations Camerounaises; UPC), led by Felix-Roland Moumie and Reuben Um Nyobe, demanded a thorough break with France and the establishment of a socialist economy. French officials suppressed the UPC, leading to a bitter civil war, while encouraging alternative political leaders. On January 1, 1960, independence was granted.…

  • union dues (labour)

    agency shop: …employment where union members pay union dues and other workers pay service fees to the union to cover the cost of collective bargaining. An agency shop agreement allows the employer to hire both union and nonunion workers without harming the trade union; the practice is considered to be a form…

  • Union Dues (novel by Sayles)

    John Sayles: ” Sayles’s second novel, Union Dues (1977), which follows a West Virginia miner’s search for his son against the backdrop of the tumultuous 1960s, was a finalist for a National Book Award. His short stories from the period were collected in The Anarchist’s Convention (1979).

  • Union Economique Benelux (European economic union)

    Benelux, economic union of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, with the objective of bringing about total economic integration by ensuring free circulation of persons, goods, capital, and services; by following a coordinated policy in the economic, financial, and social fields; and by

  • Union économique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (African organization)

    Burkina Faso: Finance: …States, an agency of the West African Economic and Monetary Union, which consists of eight countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, C?te d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo) that were once French colonies in Africa. Branches of the central bank in Burkina Faso are located in Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso. Among…

  • Union et Progrès National (political party, Burundi)

    Burundi: Burundi under colonial rule: …in 1955, three years later Unity for National Progress (Unité pour le Progrès National; UPRONA) was established in Burundi. In 1959 the mwami was made a constitutional monarch in Burundi.

  • Union Européenne (European organization)

    European Union (EU), international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. Originally confined to western Europe, the EU undertook a robust expansion into central and eastern Europe in the early 21st century. The EU’s members are

  • Union Evangelical Church (German religious history [1817])

    Lutheranism: Modernity: …the name Churches of the Prussian Union.

  • Union Falls (gorge, South America)

    Garganta del Diablo, (Spanish: Devil’s Gorge or Devil’s Throat) spectacular cataract on the Río Iguazú (Rio Igua?u) at the border of Argentina and Brazil. The water roars down a descent of 269 feet (82

  • Union Flag

    red, white, and blue flag in which are combined the Crosses of St. George (England), St. Andrew (Scotland), and St. Patrick (Ireland). Initially the flag was called a jack only when it was flown at the bowsprit of British naval vessels. It was commonly called the Union Jack by the late 17th

  • Union Flag (flag of Great Britain)

    flag of the United Kingdom: Thus did the “Union Flag,” or “Great Union,” continue in use until January 1, 1801, the effective date of the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland. In order to incorporate the Cross of St. Patrick (a red diagonal cross on white) while preserving the individual entities of…

  • Union for a Modern Democracy (political party, France)

    René Pleven: …formed a new party, the Union for a Modern Democracy, in 1959. In 1966 he criticized de Gaulle for withdrawing France from NATO, but he supported the Gaullist government after de Gaulle’s resignation in April 1969. He was minister of justice (1969–73) and president of the council of Brittany (1974–76).

  • Union for a Popular Movement (political party, France)

    Jacques Chirac: First term: …Presidential Majority (later renamed the Union for a Popular Movement; UMP). In the spring of the same year—despite criticism for various ethical lapses and accusations of illegal fund-raising levied against the RPR—Chirac won the first round of France’s presidential balloting over right-wing nationalist Jean-Marie Le Pen and Jospin, whose third-place…

  • Union for a Presidential Majority (political party, Djibouti)

    Djibouti: Djibouti under Guelleh: …was the creation of the Union for the Presidential Majority (Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle; UMP) coalition, which included both the RPP and FRUD and was formed in preparation for the 2003 legislative elections.

  • Union for French Democracy (political party, France)

    Jean-Pierre Raffarin: He rose through the centre-right Union for French Democracy and later became the deputy leader of the Liberal Democratic Party. After the first round of the 2002 presidential election, he was quick to support incumbent president Jacques Chirac’s new Union for the Presidential Majority (later renamed the Union for a…

  • Union for National Progress (political party, Burundi)

    Burundi: Burundi under colonial rule: …in 1955, three years later Unity for National Progress (Unité pour le Progrès National; UPRONA) was established in Burundi. In 1959 the mwami was made a constitutional monarch in Burundi.

  • Union for the Defense of the Fatherland and Freedom (Soviet military organization)

    Boris Viktorovich Savinkov: …a clandestine military organization, the Union for the Defense of the Fatherland and Freedom. This group organized an uprising in Yaroslavl (July 6–21, 1918) that was intended to coincide with an Allied invasion of Russia and to stimulate a nationwide rebellion against the Bolsheviks.

  • Union for the New Republic (political party, France)

    Rally for the Republic: …main groups, of which the Union for the New Republic (Union pour la Nouvelle République; UNR) emerged as the most important and electorally successful, gaining 26 percent of the vote in the 1958 election.

  • Union for the Presidential Majority (political party, Djibouti)

    Djibouti: Djibouti under Guelleh: …was the creation of the Union for the Presidential Majority (Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle; UMP) coalition, which included both the RPP and FRUD and was formed in preparation for the 2003 legislative elections.

  • Union for the Presidential Majority (political party, France)

    Jacques Chirac: First term: …Presidential Majority (later renamed the Union for a Popular Movement; UMP). In the spring of the same year—despite criticism for various ethical lapses and accusations of illegal fund-raising levied against the RPR—Chirac won the first round of France’s presidential balloting over right-wing nationalist Jean-Marie Le Pen and Jospin, whose third-place…

  • Union for the Progress of Chad (political party, Chad)

    Chad: Independence: …(PNA), to form a new Union for the Progress of Chad. An alleged conspiracy by Muslim elements, however, led in 1963 to the dissolution of the National Assembly, a brief state of emergency, and the arrest of the leading ministers formerly associated with the PNA. Only government candidates ran in…

  • Union for the Republic (political party, Togo)

    Faure Gnassingbé: Presidency: …formed a new party, the Union for the Republic (Union pour la République; UNIR). Many RPT members were part of the UNIR, and it replaced the RPT as the ruling party. The UNIR won a majority of National Assembly seats in the 2013 elections, and in the next year legislation…

  • Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class, The (political organization, Russia)

    Vladimir Lenin: Formation of a revolutionary party: …an organization known as the Union for the Struggle for the Liberation of the Working Class. The Union issued leaflets and proclamations on the workers’ behalf, supported workers’ strikes, and infiltrated workers’ education classes to impart to them the rudiments of Marxism. In December 1895, the leaders of the Union…

  • Union Fran?aise (French history)

    French Union, a political entity created by the constitution of 1946 of the Fourth French Republic. It replaced the French colonial empire with a semifederal entity that absorbed the colonies (overseas départements and territories) and gave former protectorates a limited local autonomy with some v

  • Unión General de Trabajadores (labour organization, Spain)

    Pablo Iglesias: He also headed the socialist-affiliated Unión General de Trabajadores (General Union of Workers), organized in 1888.

  • Union Générale Tunisienne du Travail (Tunisian labour organization)

    National Dialogue Quartet: …of Tunisian civil society organizations—the Tunisian General Labour Union (Union Générale Tunisienne du Travail; UGTT), the Tunisian Order of Lawyers (Ordre National des Avocats de Tunisie), the Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts (Union Tunisienne de l’Industrie, du Commerce et de l’Artisinat; UTICA), and the Tunisian Human Rights League…

  • Union Group (territory, New Zealand)

    Tokelau, island territory of New Zealand, consisting of three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean. Tokelau lies about 300 miles (480 km) north of Samoa and 2,400 miles (3,900 km) southwest of Hawaii. Tokelau does not have a central capital; each atoll has its own administrative centre. The Tokelau

  • Union Institute Society (university, Durham, North Carolina, United States)

    Duke University, private coeducational institution of higher learning in Durham, North Carolina, U.S., affiliated with but not controlled by the United Methodist Church. In 1838 a regular program of education was initiated at a schoolhouse in Randolph county, to the west of Durham, and a year later

  • Union Internationale de la Marionnette

    puppetry: Puppetry in the contemporary world: …usually sponsored by UNIMA, the Union Internationale de la Marionnette, an international society of puppeteers. Originally founded in 1929 and reconstituted in 1957, UNIMA has members in some 65 countries and provides a common meeting ground for professional and amateur performers, critics, and enthusiasts. In the meantime traditional styles of…

  • Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne et Biathlon (international sports organization)

    biathlon: The Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne et Biathlon (founded 1948) worked for the development of both sports and instituted an annual world championship for the biathlon in 1958. The biathlon was added to the Winter Olympics program as an official men’s event in 1960. International biathlon…

  • Union Internationale de Radiophonie (international broadcasting organization)

    broadcasting: International conferences: …London in 1925 created the Union Internationale de Radiophonie. The union was based in Geneva, with a BBC representative as president and another as secretary-general, and was the first international broadcasting organization. The use of wavelengths, copyright problems, and international program exchanges inevitably were discussed, and a plan was drawn…

  • Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UN agency)

    International Telecommunication Union (ITU), specialized agency of the United Nations that was created to encourage international cooperation in all forms of telecommunication. Its activities include maintaining order in the allocation of radio frequencies, setting standards on technical and

  • Union Jack

    red, white, and blue flag in which are combined the Crosses of St. George (England), St. Andrew (Scotland), and St. Patrick (Ireland). Initially the flag was called a jack only when it was flown at the bowsprit of British naval vessels. It was commonly called the Union Jack by the late 17th

  • Union League (United States history)

    Union League, in U.S. history, any of the associations originally organized in the North to inspire loyalty to the Union cause during the American Civil War. During Reconstruction, they spread to the South to ensure Republicans of support among newly enfranchised blacks. Ohio Republicans e

  • Union libre, L’ (poem by Breton)

    British Surrealism: …Breton’s most important poems, “L’Union libre” (1931), can be said to have had a considerable influence on British Surrealist poetry in its use of kaleidoscopic analogy but also in the sexual and conjugal implications of its title. In July 1937 a number of Surrealists, including éluard, Penrose, Eileen Agar,…

  • Union Line (British company)

    Sir Donald Currie: …divided between the Castle and Union lines, until, after intense rivalry, they merged in 1900.

  • Union Marocaine du Travail, L’ (trade union)

    Morocco: Labour and taxation: …with nearly 700,000 members, is L’Union Marocaine du Travail, which is affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

  • Union Minière du Haut-Katanga (African company)

    Moise Tshombe: …by the Belgian mining monopoly Union Minière du Haut Katanga, which controlled the province’s rich copper mines. At a conference called by the Belgian government in 1960 to discuss independence for the Congo, Tshombe presented Conakat’s proposals for an independent Congo made up of a loose confederation of semiautonomous provinces.…

  • Union Movement (British political organization)

    Oswald Mosley: …and of its successor, the Union Movement, from 1948 until his death. Those groups were known for distributing anti-Semitic propaganda, conducting hostile demonstrations in the Jewish sections of East London, and wearing Nazi-style uniforms and insignia.

  • Unión Nacional de Esperanza (political party, Guatemala)

    Guatemala: Political process: …early 21st century include the National Union for Hope (Unión Nacional de Esperanza; UNE), the Patriotic Party (Partido Patriota; PP), the Grand National Alliance (Gran Alianza Nacional; GANA), and the Centre of Social Action (Centro de Acción Social; CASA), which represents the interests of indigenous people. Generally, Guatemalan voters still…

  • Unión Nacional Oposición (Nicaraguan political organization)

    Sandinista: …the 14 parties of the National Opposition Union, which formed a government while the Sandinistas relinquished power.

  • Unión Nacional Sinarquista (political party, Mexico)

    Sinarquism: …in Mexico, based on the Unión Nacional Sinarquista, a political party founded in 1937 at León, Guanajuato state, in opposition to policies established after the Revolution of 1911, especially in opposition to the anticlerical laws. It originated at the instigation of a German professor of languages in Guanajuato, Hellmuth Oskar…

  • Union Nationale (political organization, Canada)

    Canada: Quebec separatism: As leader of the Union Nationale party—a party he had helped to create—Duplessis’s first term in office ended when he lost the 1939 election after challenging Ottawa’s right to intervene in provincial jurisdictions during wartime. Reelected in 1944, Duplessis refused to cooperate with most of the new social and…

  • Union Nationale Camerounaise (political party, Cameroon)

    Cameroon: Political process: …parties; it was renamed the Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement in 1985. After significant political unrest and a number of violent clashes, a constitutional amendment in 1990 established a multiparty system. Other major political parties include the National Union for Democracy and Progress, the Cameroon Democratic Union, and the Social Democratic…

  • Union Nationale des Forces Populaires (political party, Morocco)

    Mehdi Ben Barka: …party to found the left-wing National Union of Popular Forces (UNFP). He was widely considered as a likely president for a possible Republic of Morocco. When Morocco and Algeria had a brief war in 1963, Ben Barka sided with Algeria and went into exile. He was subsequently accused of high…

  • Union of Citizens of Georgia (political party, Georgia)

    Mikheil Saakashvili: Education and early political career: …Zhvania, then chairman of the Union of Citizens of Georgia (SMK), and was elected to parliament in November 1995 on the SMK ticket. From 1995 to 1998 he served as chairman of parliament’s Committee on Legal Affairs and lobbied unsuccessfully for faster and more comprehensive reforms. In August 1998 he…

  • Union of European Football Associations (sports organization)

    football: International organization: In 1954 the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) were established. Africa’s governing body, the Confédération Africaine de Football (CAF), was founded in 1957. The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) followed four years later. The Oceania Football…

  • Union of Forces for Change (political party, Togo)

    Faure Gnassingbé: Presidency: …the main opposition group, the Union of Forces of Change (Union des Forces du Changement; UFC), disputed the outcome. In May the RPT-led government reached an agreement with the UFC that provided for their participation in the new government; the decision, however, was not universally accepted within the UFC and…

  • Union of Myanmar

    Myanmar, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia. In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese language the country has been known as Myanma (or, more precisely,

  • Union of October 17 (political party, Russia)

    Octobrist, member of a conservative-liberal Russian political party whose program of moderate constitutionalism called for the fulfillment of the emperor Nicholas II’s October Manifesto. Founded in November 1905, the party was led by the industrialist Aleksandr Ivanovich Guchkov and drew support

  • Union of South American Nations (South American organization)

    UNASUR, South American organization created in 2008 to propel regional integration on issues including democracy, education, energy, environment, infrastructure, and security and to eliminate social inequality and exclusion. It was inspired by and modeled after the European Union. UNASUR’s members

  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (historical state, Eurasia)

    Soviet Union, former northern Eurasian empire (1917/22–1991) stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean and, in its final years, consisting of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (S.S.R.’s): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belorussia (now Belarus), Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgiziya (now

  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, flag of

    national flag consisting of a red field with a crossed gold hammer and sickle in the upper hoist corner and beneath a gold-bordered red star. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.In the early days of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Bolsheviks considered the Red Banner to be sufficient as

  • Union of Soviet Writers

    Writers’ Union of the U.S.S.R., organization formed in 1932 by a decree of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that abolished existing literary organizations and absorbed all professional Soviet writers into one large union. The union supported Communist Party p

  • Union of the Two Noble and Illustrate Famelies of Lancastre and Yorke, The (work by Hall)

    Edward Hall: …which the full title is The Union of the Two Noble and Illustrate Famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (1548; 2nd ed., 1550), is very considerable for the contemporary reign of Henry VIII, and its literary quality is higher than that of most chronicles of the time.

  • Union Oil Company of California (American company)

    Unocal Corporation, former American petroleum corporation founded in 1890 with the union of three wildcatter companies—the Hardison & Stewart Oil Company, the Sespe Oil Company, and the Torrey Canyon Oil Company. Originally centred in Santa Paula, California, it became headquartered in Los Angeles

  • Union or Death (secret Serbian society)

    Black Hand, secret Serbian society of the early 20th century that used terrorist methods to promote the liberation of Serbs outside Serbia from Habsburg or Ottoman rule and was instrumental in planning the assassination of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand (1914), precipitating the outbreak of

  • Union Pacific Railroad Company (American railway)

    Union Pacific Railroad Company, company that extended the American railway system to the Pacific Coast; it was incorporated by an act of the U.S. Congress on July 1, 1862. The original rail line was built westward 1,006 miles (1,619 km) from Omaha, Nebraska, to meet the Central Pacific, which was

  • Union Pacific System (American railway)

    Union Pacific Railroad Company, company that extended the American railway system to the Pacific Coast; it was incorporated by an act of the U.S. Congress on July 1, 1862. The original rail line was built westward 1,006 miles (1,619 km) from Omaha, Nebraska, to meet the Central Pacific, which was

  • Union Party (political party, Puerto Rico)

    Puerto Rico: Political developments: …Party favoured statehood, whereas the Union Party worked for greater autonomy. The Nationalist Party arose in the 1920s and argued for immediate independence. Meanwhile, the pro-U.S. Socialist Party, led by the highly respected labour leader Santiago Iglesias, remained focused on the plight of Puerto Rico’s labouring classes, but its program…

  • Union Party (political party, United States)

    War Democrat: …with Republicans in forming the Union Party, which renominated Lincoln for president and selected War Democrat Andrew Johnson of Tennessee as Lincoln’s running mate.

  • Unión Patriótica (political party, Colombia)

    FARC: …PCC, established a political party, Patriotic Union (Unión Patriótica; UP), in a cease-fire agreement with the government. The UP participated in elections beginning in 1986 and won a large portion of the votes. In subsequent years, however, thousands of UP members, including three of the party’s presidential candidates, were killed…

  • Union Populaire Algérienne (Algerian history)

    Ferhat Abbas: …in 1938, he organized the Union Populaire Algérienne, which proposed equal rights for French and Algerians while preserving the Algerian culture and language. Nevertheless, at the outbreak of World War II, Abbas enlisted in the medical corps of the French Army.

  • Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle (political party, Djibouti)

    Djibouti: Djibouti under Guelleh: …was the creation of the Union for the Presidential Majority (Union pour la Majorité Présidentielle; UMP) coalition, which included both the RPP and FRUD and was formed in preparation for the 2003 legislative elections.

  • Union pour la Nouvelle République (political party, France)

    Rally for the Republic: …main groups, of which the Union for the New Republic (Union pour la Nouvelle République; UNR) emerged as the most important and electorally successful, gaining 26 percent of the vote in the 1958 election.

  • Union pour la République (political party, Togo)

    Faure Gnassingbé: Presidency: …formed a new party, the Union for the Republic (Union pour la République; UNIR). Many RPT members were part of the UNIR, and it replaced the RPT as the ruling party. The UNIR won a majority of National Assembly seats in the 2013 elections, and in the next year legislation…

  • Union Prayer Book (Jewish prayer book)

    Isaac Mayer Wise: …superseded in 1894 by the Union Prayer Book, which came into being, in large part, because Wise had emphasized so often and so forcefully the need for a standard text. A believer in the universal mission of Judaism, he was a firm opponent of the establishment of a Jewish state…

  • union shop (labour)

    Union shop, arrangement requiring workers to join a particular union and pay dues within a specified period of time after beginning employment—usually 30 to 90 days. Such an arrangement guarantees that workers will pay for the benefits of union representation. A union shop is less restrictive than

  • Unión Sindical Obrera (Spanish labour organization)

    Spain: Labour and taxation: …the Workers’ Syndical Union (Unión Sindical Obrera; USO), which has a strong Roman Catholic orientation; the Independent Syndicate of Civil Servants (Confederación Sindical Independiente de Funcionarios); the Basque Workers’ Solidarity (Euzko Langilleen Alkartasuna–Solidaridad de Trabajadores Vascos; ELA-STV), which is independent but has ties to the Basque Nationalist Party; and…

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