Middle East essentially supplanted Near East in the early 20th century, although the two are now used interchangeably among English speakers. So, for all intents and purposes, Middle East and Near East refer to the same region when used today.
This hasn’t always been the case. The term Near East was coined in the 19th century when Westerners divided the “Orient” into three parts: the Near East, the Middle East, and the Far East. The Near East included the Ottoman Empire and the Balkans, while the Middle East ranged between the Persian Gulf and Southeast Asia—quite a small region compared with what we consider to be the Middle East today. (The Far East encompassed Asian countries facing the Pacific Ocean.) As Europe geared up for World War II, however, the term Middle East began to be used by the British military to refer to both regions. Middle East soon became the dominant term.
Today we consider the Middle East to span from Morocco to the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. (Some scholars use the acronym MENA—Middle East and North Africa—as they feel it more accurately describes the region of their research.) While Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria may seem to be geographical outliers, their similar sentiment, religion, and policies have led them to be considered part of this region. Other countries are often lumped in with the Middle East by current events, such as Afghanistan and Pakistan, although they may not technically belong.
One important cultural note to keep in mind: both of these terms are completely Eurocentric, meaning that the Western English-speaking historians named the region on the basis of its position relative to Europe. With recent trends in academia to de-Westernize core education, the term Middle East can seem a bit old-fashioned. Until a new name carves its way into public discourse, however, we’re stuck with Middle East to describe the region.